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In this presentation, we will understand the concept of motivation, theories of motivation and applied motivation practices.
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  1. 1. Chapter4 Motivation Objectives:• Understand what is Motivation• Understand some of the early theories of motivation• Understand the contemporary theories fo motivation• Understand motivation practices in application
  2. 2. Chapter4 Motivation Structure:• 4.1 What is Motivation?• 4.2 Early theories of Motivation• 4.3 Applied Motivation Practices• 4.4 Summary
  3. 3. Chapter4 Motivation4.1 What is Motivation?• Motivation is a process which begins with a physiological, psychological need or deficiency which triggers behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive• An individuals performance depends more on how much he/she is motivated, rather than on his abilities alone.• An unmet need creates a tension, which stimulates drives within the individual. This drive generates a search to find and attain certain goals which when reached would result in satisfaction of the unmet need.
  4. 4. Chapter4 Motivation4.2 Early Theories of Motivation1. Hierarchy of Needs Theory Also known as Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, it identifies a hierarchy of five needs which an individual goes through: a) Physiological – hunger, thirst, shelter, bodily needs. b) Safety – security, physical, emotional, financial, etc. c) Social – affection, sense of belonging, friendship, etc. d) Esteem – internal factors like self respect, autonomy, achievement, and external factors like status, recognition, attention, etc. e) Self Actualization – drive to become what one deeply desires to become, achieving one’s potential, self- fulfillment.
  5. 5. Chapter4 Motivation2. Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor proposed two distinct views on human beings: Theory X -Employees inherently dislike work and hence would avoid it. They need to be coerced, controlled through rewards/punishment to do work. They place security above other factors. Theory Y – Employees view work as natural as rest and play. They are self-directed and have self control and commitment. They accept, even seek responsibility. They are creative and have the capacity to stretch.
  6. 6. Chapter4 Motivation3. Motivation-Hygiene Theory Fredrick Herzberg, a psychologist, raised two questions when studying human beings:a) What do people seek from their jobs?b) Could they describe in detail, situations in which they feel exceptionally good or bad about their jobs? The findings of the study revealed that the replies/reasons given by them when they felt good were significantly different from the ones given when they felt bad. When they felt good, they attributed it to themselves or intrinsic conditions When they felt bad, they attributed to the outside conditions, or extrinsic conditions
  7. 7. Chapter4 Motivation• It was interesting to know that the opposite of satisfaction was not dissatisfaction.• Removing or minimizing dissatisfaction did not necessarily make the jobs satisfying.• Herzberg proposed the presence of a dual continuum: The opposite of “satisfaction” is “no satisfaction” and the opposite of “dissatisfaction” is “no dissatisfaction”• He propose two factors: Hygiene factor and Motivation factor.
  8. 8. Chapter4 Motivation• Hygiene factor is that whose presence is essential as a basis for motivation. The presence of Hygiene factor does not motivate, but the absence “quite” demotivates. For example: decent working conditions• Motivation factor is that whose is essential as the core of motivation. In spite of presence of hygiene factor, motivation factor need to be introduced. For example: a decent working conditions does not demotivate. It needs to be added up with factors such as monetary or non- monetary means to make satisfaction happen.• Hygiene, forms the background before Motivation is introduced.
  9. 9. Chapter4 Motivation• Contemporary Theories of Motivation1. Three-Needs Theory David McClelland proposed three major relevant motives or needs at the workplace: i) The need for Achievement – n-Ach: the drive to achieve and excel and succeed. ii) The need for Power – n-Pow: the drive or need to control other and situations. iii) The need for Affiliation – n-Affl: the need to belong and be a part of a group.
  10. 10. Chapter4 Motivation2. Goal-Setting Theory• When goals are set clearly, it has been observed to be a source of motivation.• With goal clarity emerges a comfort zone within the individual leading to motivation.• In other words, many people seem unaware or not sure of their goals. When they are directed to a goal with clarity, they get motivated.• This is particularly seen to be the case at the operational level of working in organizations. By helping them set their own goals, they are seen to feel higher motivation than before.
  11. 11. Chapter4 Motivation3. Reinforcement Theory• Behaviors that are needed for a certain goal achievement are encouraged and those are not needed or detrimental for the goal achievement are discouraged.• Positive Reinforcement – encouraging behaviors that are needed. This is done through Rewards.• Negative Reinforcement – discouraging unwanted behaviors from occurring. This is done through Punishment.• This theory is also called as Reward-Punishment Theory of Motivation.• It is applied throughout our workplace at all levels.
  12. 12. Chapter4 Motivation4. Equity Theory• Proposed by Stacy Adams, this theory is based on the fact that people compare each other either blatantly or latently.• The comparison is more pronounced at the workplace since work gives people an identity and importance socially.• Employees naturally compare the work they do and the rewards they get with the work done by others and the rewards others get.• This comparison usually results in a feeling of inequity or inequality, resulting in “bad emotions” which could rob the employees of motivation.• Adams proposed that the inequity should be removed and converted into equity, or a feeling of wellness or feel-good.
  13. 13. Chapter4 Motivation5. Expectancy Theory• This theory, proposed by Victor Vroom, is based on how the strength of a tendency to get motivated is dependent upon expectations and outcomes.• It includes three variables: Attractiveness, Performance-reward linkages, Effort-Performance linkages.• When a task is perceived attractive, the individual feels it is worth it to put in efforts to perform. This is known as first-level outcome.• When the performance leads to expected results and rewards, he puts in more efforts, leading to better performance and better results. This is known as second level outcome.• Motivation is said to occur highest when all three factors are at their peak: attractiveness, performance-reward linkage, effort-performance linkage.
  14. 14. Chapter4 Motivation4.3 Applied Motivation Practices• There are two types of motivational practices adopted by organizations: a) Non-monetary motivation: awards, letters of appreciation, etc. b) Monetary motivation: membership and seniority-based rewards, job-status based rewards, competency-based rewards, etc.
  15. 15. Chapter4 Motivation Performance-based Rewards• Membership and seniority rewards are common and constitute rewards which are like entitlements for work done by virtue of seniority and long period of employment.• While this is common and is considered as a ”reward’ for loyalty and seniority, it is observed that over a period of time, efficiency comes down.• Organizations, in their drive to stay competitive want their employees to earn every bit only through performance. It follows the dictum: You perform, you earn. You perform more, you earn more.• Performance –based rewards are thus, based not on seniority, but on competence-driven performance.
  16. 16. Chapter4 Motivation Other forms of Monetary motivation• Individual rewards.• Merit pay.• Team rewards.• Organizational rewards.• Profit-sharing
  17. 17. Chapter4 Motivation Job Design as a form of Motivation• The job itself serves as a motivation is structured creatively.• Job Design is based on the fact that employees are subject to boredom at work, leading to loss of interest and loss of motivation and in turn productivity.• By making or designing jobs more interesting to break monotony, without sacrificing the content and end-outcome, jobs are restructured through Job Design.
  18. 18. Chapter4 Motivation Types of Job Design Three types of Job Design are commonly resorted to in organizations:a) Job Rotation: moving employees from one job to another jobb) Job Enlargement: combining more tasks into the job to make it more involved and meaningfulc) Job Enrichment: adding some ‘delight’ element which the job holder cherishes and makes him feel good, like allowing him to take more responsibilities, empowering him to take decisions. This type of motivation is self- growth oriented and is seen to retain employees.
  19. 19. Chapter4 Motivation4.4 Summary• We studied what is Motivation.• The historical background to Motivation Theories was studied• Early and contemporary theories of Motivation were discussed.• Motivation in application comprising non-monetary and monetary was discussed.• Job Design as a means of Motivation was also studied.
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