3. What is an Accident
An accident is any undesired,
unplanned event that results
in Personal Injury or in
4. What are the main causes of
5. Unsafe Conditions
Wet and slippery
6. Unsafe Acts
Failure to use PPE
Use wrong tools
7. Safe Practices
properly and as
Use PPE when
Use right tools
8. Occupational Health & SafetyOccupational Health & Safety
1. Risk Assessment
2. Job Hazard Analysis (JHA)
3. Safety And Health Auditing
4. Safety Inspections &
9. Risk Assessment
Risk assessment is the process of identifying and
evaluating a hazard to determine the level of
action required to reduce a risk to an acceptable
It is nothing more than a careful examination of
what in the workplace could cause harm to
people, so that we can weigh-up whether the
department has taken enough precautions or are
required to take additional precautions, to
prevent harm occurring.
10. What is a Hazard?
A Hazard is anything
that has the potential
to cause harm, e.g.
working up a ladder.
Using a crane, forklift
12. What is a Risk?
The Risk is the likelihood that the hazard will cause
harm and the severity of the consequence.
If you are cleaning the oven with corrosive cleaner
without using gloves or apron there is a great risk of
If you wear all protective clothing and gloves and
adhere to all safety precautions the risk is low.
If you change the chemical to a safer type and adhere to
all precautions the risk will be even lower.
14. Risk Assessment In Practice
Five Steps to Risk Assessment:
1. Look for the hazards.
2. Decide who might be harmed and how
3. Evaluate the risks and decide whether the
existing precautions are adequate or
whether more should be done.
4. Record your findings.
5. Review your assessment and revise it if
15. 1. Hazard Identification
Walk around the workplace and look afresh at what
could reasonably be expected to cause harm.
Previous Accident Reports.
Knowledge of Employees
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
Manufacturers Instruction Books
Ask, “What If ….?”
The following are examples of plant,
equipment or activities that are
usually associated with a hazard:
Work at heights, and access to/from it (roof
work, ladders, scaffolds).
Work below ground level and in confined
spaces (tanks, ducts, trenches)
Manual handling of loads.
Work with electricity (portable tools, extension
Hazardous chemical substances.
Display screen equipment.
Ionizing, non - ionizing and laser radiation
Pressure vessels / vacuum works
Flammable liquid and gases
Machinery and plant (machinery requiring guarding).
Portable power tools.
Vehicles (forklift, cranes)
Disposal of special wastes.
19. List of Hazards
maintained floors or
Fume (from welding)
Dust (from grinding)
Ejection of material
20. 2- Who Might Be Harmed and How
Generally it will be staff occupying the
Attention must be paid to:
21. 3- Assessment of the Risk
For the hazards listed, do the
precautions already taken:
1. Meet the standards set by the legal
2. Comply with a recognized industry
3. Represent good practice?
4. Reduce risk as far as reasonably
Likelihood: The chance of an event (which
may cause injury or harm to person)
Very Likely: Could happen Frequently
Likely: Could happen occasionally
Unlikely: Could happen, but only rarely.
Highly Unlikely: Could happen but
probably never will.
When evaluating the likelihood of an accident,
a factor that will modify the likelihood
category, is exposure.
Is a measure of how often or how long a
person is actually exposed to a hazard, some
Very Rare: Once per year or less.
Rare: A few time per year.
Unusual: Once per month.
Occasional: Once per week
Consequence is a measure of the expected
severity should an accident occur.
1. Fatal: Death
2. Major Injuries: Normally irreversible injury or
damage to health requiring extended time off
3. Minor Injuries: Typically a reversible injury or
damage to health needing several days away
from work to recover.
4. Negligible Injuries: Would require first aid and
may need the reminder of the work period or
shift off before being able to return to work.
Involves assessment of risk rating, for
example: HIGH, MEDIUM, or LOW.
When making a risk assessment all the
aspects of likelihood and consequences
should be taken into consideration.
The interrelated parameters of likelihood and
consequences can easily be presented on the
simple matrix shown on the next slide.
27. Basic Risk Assessment
Very Likely Likely Unlikely Highly
Fatality High High High Medium
High High Medium Medium
High Medium Medium Low
Medium Medium Low Low
31. 4- Recording of Assessment
Formal written record.
Any suitable form.
Where the risk is considered to be low, either
from experience or from the calculation of risk
rating, this must be stated in the form and no
further action is then required.
If the risk is deemed to be medium or high, the
further action needed to control that risk must be
clearly stated on the risk assessment form.
32. Risk Control
When a risk assessment has identified a
hazard as having unacceptable risks we have
to put in place control measures to eliminate
the risk or reduce the risk to an acceptable
34. HIERARCHY OF CONTROL
4. Engineering Control
5. Administrative Control
6. Provide Personal Safety Devices.
35. 1. Elimination
The most satisfactory method of dealing with
a hazard is to eliminate it.
Transporting an explosive called Anfo
(ammonium nitrate + diesel oil).
Both are safe in isolation but when mixed
they become unstable.
The dangers of long distance transport can
be eliminated by not mixing them until they
are on site.
37. 3- Isolation
Separate or isolate the hazard from people
A guard is placed over a piece of moving
A fence with gate around machines.
38. 4- Engineering Control
Fixing local ventilation system to remove
Fixing dust collector with proper filters.
Fixing proper shock absorber to reduce noise.
Ilumination / A/C
42. 5- Administration Control
Modification of the likelihood of an accident
Reducing the number of people exposed to
the danger and providing training to those
people who are exposed to the hazard.
Training of electricians (licensed).
Danger signs, written safety systems of work.
45. 5- Monitoring and Review
To review the assessment periodically.
The introduction of new machines,
substances or people into the work place may
introduce new risks or change the category of
an existing risk from low to medium or high.
Only when there is a significant change.