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Altitude & Performance [YLM 2015]

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Presentation on the 'Live High - Train High' strategy

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Altitude & Performance [YLM 2015]

  1. 1. ALTITUDE TRAINING & PERFORMANCE THE ‘LIVE HIGH – TRAIN HIGH’ STRATEGY Yann LE MEUR @YLMSportScience
  2. 2. 8 COMMON QUESTIONS ON ALTITUDE TRAINING ❶ Does it work? ❷ How high is enough? ❸ How high is too much? ❹ Which training camp duration for optimal performance response? ❺ How to adjust the training load? ❻ How to manage recovery? ❼ When should I plan an altitude training camp? ❽ Any potential health issues?
  3. 3. DOES IT WORK?
  4. 4. YES NO
  5. 5. Will H. ASK WILL!
  6. 6. META-ANALYSIS
  7. 7. META-ANALYSIS
  8. 8. AND THE ANSWER IS…
  9. 9. Unclear effect of ‘Live High – Train High’ in both trained and elite athletes = some of them demonstrate improved performance after altitude training camps, while others do not… Bonetti & Hopkins Sports Med 2009 … NOT SO SURE!
  10. 10. BUT WAIT…
  11. 11. Bonetti & Hopkins Sports Med 2009 …IT WORKS IF KEY PARAMETERS ARE WELL CONTROLLED!
  12. 12. Bonetti & Hopkins Sports Med 2009 BUT KEEP IN MIND THAT THERE IS A LARGE INTER-INDIVIDUAL VARIABILITY
  13. 13. Bonetti & Hopkins Sports Med 2009 Will H.
  14. 14. IS IT CONFIRMED BY OTHER SPECIALISTS?
  15. 15. THE AUSTRALIAN EXPERIENCE
  16. 16. WHICH ALTITUDE RANGE TO MAXIMIZE THE PERFORMANCE REPONSE?
  17. 17. WHICH ALTITUDE RANGE TO MAXIMIZE THE PERFORMANCE REPONSE?
  18. 18. CONCLUSION #1 2800m 1800m 2500m 2000m Young swimmers & 1st experience
  19. 19. Garvican et al. SJMSS 2012 After 10 days Passo dello Stelvio, Italie (2760m) Canberra (600m) WHICH DURATION FOR AN ALTITUDE TRAINING CAMP?
  20. 20. - One week is not enough to observe ↑ Hbmass, - ↑Hbmass is generally reported after ~2 weeks, - Greater ↑Hbmass is observed after 3 weeks at altitude, - Large inter-individual differences are reported. Wachsmuth et al. EJAP 2013 WHICH DURATION FOR AN ALTITUDE TRAINING CAMP?
  21. 21. 2 ½ weeks 4 weeks Conclusion of the research project on altitude training sponsorised by the IOC in 2003 3 weeks 2 to 4 weeksGarvican & Martin, 2013 WHICH DURATION FOR AN ALTITUDE TRAINING CAMP?
  22. 22. WHICH DURATION FOR AN ALTITUDE TRAINING CAMP?
  23. 23. CONCLUSION #2 ≥ 2 WEEKS
  24. 24. WHEN SHOULD YOU COME BACK TO SEA LEVEL? Chapman et al. JAP 2014b
  25. 25. CONCLUSION #3 ~2000 – 2500m ≥ 2 weeks altitude training camp Peak perf 2-3weeks after return to sea level
  26. 26. Robach & Lundby SJMSS 2012 …AND DURING THE WINTER SEASON? ↗ Hbmass and ↗VO2max observed in athletes with initial moderate Hbmass
  27. 27. Wachsmuth et al. EJAP 2013 18 days, 11 swimmers …AND DURING THE WINTER SEASON?
  28. 28. « Altough the performance benefits of altitude training are often discussed, it is important to recognise that on the individual level, altitude training can also have a neutral or in some cases a detrimental effect on performance. By avoiding some common mistakes, coaches and athletes may be able to increase the chance of maximising positive adaptations. » Garvican & Martin, 2012
  29. 29. THE AIS FIVE « I »’S
  30. 30. ❶ILLNESS & ❷INJURY ↗ Infection risks at altitude & poor hematological observed in ill athletes during altitude training camps.  Maintain carbohydrates intake, including during training sessions,  Ensure a good health status when you start an altitude training camp,  Consume probiotics,  Adjust training load to avoid the development of an overreaching state,  Wear warm clothes when the altitude takes place in winter, Ensure a good sleep hygiene.
  31. 31. TRAINING SCHEDULE: SOME RECOMMENDATIONS ↘ ↘ ↘ ↘ ↘ Sleep or swim ? Sargeant et al. 2014 - Study of the Australian Institute of Sport, - 7 elite swimmers, - 2-weeks intense training camp, - 2008 (Olympic year), - Nocturnal actimetry.
  32. 32. KEY TIPS TO PROMOTE GOOD SLEEP ❶ Avoid early morning schedule, ❷ Set intense training before 6pm, ❸ Ensure ideal sleeping environment (quiet, cool, and dark) when they are exposed to high training load, ❹ Napping for short periods during the day may also represent a recommended recovery strategy for athletes to compensate the potential decline in actual sleep time associated with development of overreaching, ❺ Create a relaxing bedtime routine (turn of your TV, no smartphone).
  33. 33. Garvican & Martin 2012 ❸ IRON ❶ Insufficient stores & inadequate iron intake may ↘ adaptations to altitude, ❷ A serum profile should be performed a month before the altitude camp, ❸ AIS recommendations: iron supplementation provided when ferritin concentration < 150 ng/mL, ❹ Begin supplementation 2 weeks before the camp, especially if your ferritin concentration is < 30 ng/mL, ❺ 100mg of elemental iron per day taken with a Vitamin C source, such as orange juice.
  34. 34. ❹INTAKE  Low energy diets do not support adaptations to altitude training,  In addition to the stress imposed by restricted energy intake, training at altitude in a carbohydrate depleted state may impose further stress for the immune system & ↗ infection risks,  Low energy diet associated with poor Hbmass response to altitude,  Protein intake during each meal is required to facilitate training adaptations & maintain muscle mass,  Promote hydration and energy drinks during training sessions. Garvican & Martin 2012
  35. 35. ❺ INTENSITY « A great altitude camp builds on to a great training camp » Garvican & Martin, 2012 - ↘ Training intensity within the 1st week to limit fatigue accumulation, especially within the 3-5 first days (time needed for sleep to ↗ & plasma volume to stabilize), - Manage athletes overexcited for training with new training partners and within a new environment, - Best results tend to come to those that « ease » into training volume & intensity, - In general, training volume tends to be much better tolerated at altitude than training intensity, « In essence, a key rule of thumb when training at altitude indicates that it is always nice for an athlete to leave an altitude training session knowing he/she can do more! »
  36. 36. * Different from Pre, p < 0.05 TRAINING LOAD & SLEEP & INFECTIONS + 6 to 8 times more infection episodes in the overreached group!
  37. 37. TAKE HOME MESSAGES
  38. 38. @YLMSportScience THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION

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