RECOVERY STRATEGIES 
FOR TRAINING AND MATCHES IN FOOTBALL 
Yann LE MEUR 
November 6th & 7th, 2014 
Sevilla, Spain 
@YLMSpo...
TRAINING LOAD 
… 
❶ DEVELOPMENT PHASE 
THE CLASSICAL APPROACH OF RECOVERY 
TIME
… 
TIME 
THE CLASSICAL APPROACH OF RECOVERY 
TRAINING LOAD 
❷ TAPERING PHASE
… 
THE CLASSICAL APPROACH OF RECOVERY 
TRAINING LOAD 
TIME 
❸ COMPETITIVE PHASE
 TO SPEED UP THE FATIGUE CLEARANCE BEFORE, DURING & AFTER A COMPETITION 
 TO REDUCE THE RISKS OF TRAINING MALADAPTATIONS...
PERIODISATION OF RECOVERY STRATEGIES 
BUILDING PHASE 
TAPER 
COMPETITION 
Sleep 
 
 
 
Diet 
 
 
 
Hydration 
 
 
...
THE REALITY OF FOOTBALL
WHAT DOES A FOOTBALL MATCH INVOLVE? 
To optimize post match recovery strategies, you need first to determine the origins o...
ARE THE PLAYERS REALLY EXPERIENCING FATIGUE? 
Mohr et al. JSS 2003
ARE THE PLAYERS REALLY EXPERIENCING FATIGUE? 
Parameters 
Performance Level 
Outcome 
References 
Running & Sprinting dist...
PLAYERS DEMONSTRATE FATIGUE AT THE END OF A MATCH. YES, BUT WHY?
POTENTIAL ORIGINS OF FATIGUE: 
MUSCLE DAMAGES & SORENESS 
❶ Promote muscle protein synthesis 
& Reduce muscle soreness 
Kr...
POTENTIAL ORIGINS OF FATIGUE: 
GLYCOGEN STORES DEPLETION 
❷ Promote glycogen resynthesis 
Krustrup et al. 2011
POTENTIAL ORIGINS OF FATIGUE: 
DEHYDRATION 
• 20 high-profile soccer players were studied during match play at 31.1°C. 
• ...
POTENTIAL ORIGINS OF FATIGUE: 
MENTAL FATIGUE 
❹ Facilitate mental recovery 
• 10 semi-professional soccer players complet...
SUMMARY #1 
Nédelec et al. 2012
MOST COMMON QUESTIONS ON RECOVERY IN FOOTBALL 
❶ What should I do after a match? 
❷ Is it really necessary to speed up pos...
SO LET’S TALK ABOUT RECOVERY STRATEGIES NOW!
❶ PROMOTE MUSCLE REGENERATION
REPAIR: THE IMPORTANCE OF PROTEIN INTAKE 
AMINO ACIDS 
Cell 
Blood 
AMINO ACIDS 
Proteins 
Oxydation 
Synthesis 
Degradati...
Time (h) 
Meal 
Meal 
Rate of MPS & MPB 
Muscle Protein Synthesis (MPS) 
Muscle Protein Breakdown (MPB) 
Meal 
? 
? 
A 
B ...
Moore et al. APNM 2014 
REPAIR: THE IMPORTANCE OF PROTEIN INTAKE
Levenhagen et al. AJPEM 2001 
REPAIR: THE TIMING OF PROTEIN INTAKE 
NO TIME TO WASTE!
REPAIR: MANUAL OF MUSCLE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS 
Recovery plan
REPAIR: THE SOURCE OF PROTEINS 
Stimulating mTor activation post-exercise is key to facilitate muscle recovery
REPAIR: THE SOURCE OF PROTEINS 
Dietaryproteins with a full complement of essential amino acids and high leucine contents ...
REPAIR: THE SOURCE OF PROTEINS 
Chart by Leigh Breen 
Dietaryproteins with a full complement of essential amino acids and ...
20 40 
0 
50 
100 
150 
Ingested protein dose (g) 
% Change in MPS from basal 
Whey 
Casein 
Soy 
MUSCLE 
REPAIR: THE QUAN...
REPAIR: THE PATTERN OF PROTEINS INGESTION 
Areta et al. J Physiol 2013 
Repeat meal feedings of 20 g of protein every 3–4 ...
MILK AS A RECOVERY DRINK 
Milk is an effective drink to support muscle recovery
Leeder et al. BJSM 2011 REDUCE MUSCLE DAMAGES 
Cold water immersion may also help to reduce muscle damages post exercise
Figure from Ihsan et al. ECSS 2013 
REDUCE MUSCLE DAMAGES
❶bis REDUCING MUSCLE SORENESS
Leeder et al. BJSM 2011 REDUCE MUSCLE DAMAGES 
Cold water immersion reduce muscle soreness (analgesic effect)
A POTENTIAL PLACEBO EFFECT?
A POTENTIAL PLACEBO EFFECT? 
4x30s max 
15min 10°C 
15min in magic bath (34.7°C, placebo) 
15min at 34.7°C (control)
A POTENTIAL PLACEBO EFFECT? 
The magic bath 
« To eliminate any potential bias, participants in the placebo condition were...
Cold Water Immersion 
Thermoneutral water immersion placebo 
Thermoneutral water 
immersion control 
MVCpeak (N/m) 
250.6 ...
0 indicating ‘‘not effective at all’’ and 5 indicating ‘‘extremely effective” 
A POTENTIAL PLACEBO EFFECT? 
The commonly h...
BUT …
BUT … 
Halson et al. MSSE 2014 
(Yamane et al. EJAP 2006) 
Ihsan et al. ECSS 2013 
Fröhlich et al. JSCR 2014 
Raastad et a...
Mac Rae et al. 2011 
Parameters 
 
Ø 
 
Perf 
Force 
0 
9 
0 
Jump & Sprint 
1 
5 
0 
Endurance 
1 
1 
0 
DOMS 
12 
3 
1...
 Pay attention to the therapist education 
Moraska MSSE 2007 
 One of the most employed recovery technique in the field;...
❷ REHYDRATE
REHYDRATION: KEY TIPS TO REMEMBER 
- Start immediately at exercise cessation, 
- No aggressive rehydration strategies need...
MILK AS A RECOVERY DRINK
Cryovest®, France 
To reduce sweat loss by increasing heat conduction 
FACILITATE POST-EXERCISE THERMOLYSIS
Cryovest®, France 
To reduce sweat loss by increasing heat conduction 
FACILITATE POST-EXERCISE THERMOLYSIS
❸ RESTORE GLYCOGEN STORES
RESTORE: NEED FOR AN AGGRESSIVE STRATEGY? 
Krustrup et al. EJAP 2011 
-7 professional soccer players, 
- Biopsies pre, pos...
RESTORE: NEED FOR AN AGGRESSIVE STRATEGY? 
-7 professional soccer players (CON) vs. 10 with High CHO & Pro diet during 2 d...
RESTORE: NEED FOR AN AGGRESSIVE STRATEGY? 
0 
2 
4 
6 
8 
10 
12 
14 
16 
18 
0-24h 
24-48h 
Glycogen resynthesis (mmol/kg...
RESTORE: THE TIMING OF CHO INTAKE 
 Delaying the ingestion of CHO post match will result in a reduced rate of muscle glyc...
RESTORE: THE TYPE OF CHO 
0 
40 
80 
120 
160 
End of exercise 
24 h after 
Low glycaemic index 
High glycaemic index 
* 
...
❹ DISSIPATE MENTAL STRESS
SLEEP 
Sleep restriction is generally associated with: ↘ Cognitive Performance ↘ Alertness ↗ Reaction Time ↘ Memory ↘ Deci...
KEY TIPS TO PROMOTE SLEEP 
❶ Ensure ideal sleeping environment (quiet, cool, and dark), 
❷ Create a relaxing bedtime routi...
POST MATCH RECOVERY PROTOCOL 
Hydration 
Milk chocolate 
End of the match 
Cold bath 10min at 12°C 
Meal: Soup, pasta, mea...
= 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
Flight back home POST MATCH RECOVERY PROTOCOL 
Milk chocolate
REPAIR: THE PATTERN OF PROTEINS INGESTION 
Areta et al. J Physiol 2013 
Repeat meal feedings of 20 g of 
protein every 3–4...
25g Pro 
Sleep 
25g Pro 
Maximal Protein Synthesis Rate 
Anabolism 
Catabolism 
Time (h) REPAIR: PAY ATTENTION TO THE POST...
- 16 healthy young males, 
- Single bout of resistance-type exercise in the evening (8:00 pm), 
- 20g PRO + 60g CHO post e...
SUMMARY #2
AND WHAT ABOUT THE THIRD HALF ?
SEE YOU THERE!
Barnes et al. EJAP 2011 
10 healthy males performed 300 maximal eccentric contractions of the quadriceps muscles of one le...
OK GUYS, I KNOW THAT WE ARE IN SEVILLA!
Parr et al. PloS One 2014 
 Effects of alcohol on muscle recovery 
8×5 reps leg extension, 80% 1RM followed by continuous...
Desbrow et al. IJNSEM 2014 
 Effects of alcohol on the hydration status THE THIRD HALF: A REAL ISSUE FOR RECOVERY?
Feige et al. ECSR 2006 THE THIRD HALF: A REAL ISSUE FOR RECOVERY? 
 Effects of alcohol on sleep 
Normal social drinking 
...
25g 
Sleep 
10g 
Maximal Protein Synthesis Rate 
Anabolism 
Catabolism 
Temps (h) 
+ BREAKFAST: KEEP STIMULATE MUSCLE REGE...
AND MUSCLE GLYCOGEN RESYNTHESIS 
Gunnarsson et al. SJMSS 2013 
7 professional soccer players (CON) vs. 10 with High CHO & ...
Sprint 2m 
Sprint 20m 
* 
* 
* ENCOURAGE NAPPING 
- 10 healthy males, 
- either napped or sat quietly from 13:00 to 13:30 ...
ADJUST TRAINING LOAD 
2 
2 
1.5 
3 
2 
10.5 
Adjust training load and resting periods according to perceived fatigue & mus...
POTENTIAL INFLUENCES OF PHYSICAL QUALITIES ON RECOVERY 
 21 male youth rugby league players 
 Yo-Yo intermittent recover...
POTENTIAL INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL QUALITIES ON RECOVERY 
Differences in match demands between players based on Yo-Yo, back s...
POTENTIAL INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL QUALITIES ON RECOVERY 
 Effects of physical qualities on CMJ peak power 
Ø
POTENTIAL INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL QUALITIES ON RECOVERY 
 Effects of physical qualities on blood creatine kinase concentrat...
IMPROVE FITNESS TO FACILITATE POST-MATCH RECOVERY SUMMARY #3
0 
50 
100 
150 
200 
250 
Sedentary subjects 
Trained subjects 
Muscle glycogen (mmol/kg) 
15 min 
6 h 
48 h 
* 
* 
* 
PO...
TRAINING COMPETITION 
RECOVERY POTENTIAL INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL QUALITIES ON RECOVERY
INJURY PREVENTION 
x5 
x6 
1 match / week 
2 matches / week
INJURY PREVENTION 
McCall et al. BJSM 2014
INJURY PREVENTION 
Coutts et al. ECSS 2014 
24 h Match 1 24 h 48 h 72 h 96 h 120 h 144 h Match 2 
Recover 
y 
Technical 
+...
PAIN 
Creatine Kinase 
Pain 
Fatigue 
Recovery INJURY PREVENTION 
Same message! 
0 
100 
Coutts et al. ECSS 2014
INJURY PREVENTION 
CK and perceptual measures follow similar time course of change following competitive AF matches regar...
MY ADVICE
95 OVERREACHING
96 
ETIOLOGY OF OVERREACHING: A COMPLEX PROBLEM 
Sleep disturbances 
Depleted energy stores 
Muscles damages 
Mood disturb...
Matos et al. MSSE 2011 MOST COMMON PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS
ENERGY STORES DEPLETION 
Achten et al. JAP 2004
PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH SLEEP DISTURBANCES 
Achten et al. JAP 2004 
Adjust energy intake during overload periods
SHOULD I ALWAYS TRAIN « HIGH CHO » STORES? 
Stimulated by glycogen depletion 
Baar and McGree EJSS 2008 
The « TRAIN LOW, ...
SHOULD I ALWAYS TRAIN « HIGH CHO » STORES? 
 3 groups of recreationally active men performed 6 wk of high-intensity inter...
SHOULD I ALWAYS TRAIN « HIGH CHO » STORES? 
 Potential interest during when only 1 match per week is played 
 More resea...
Matos et al. MSSE 2011 MOST COMMON PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS
OVERREACHING & SLEEP 
Overloading 
3 weeks 
TRAINING LOAD (% habitual load) 
Daily actimetry recording during time in bed ...
Baseline Overload1 Overload2 Overload3 Taper1 Taper2 
-40 
-20 
0 
20 
40 
 Actual sleep time (vs. Pre, min) 
CTL 
AF 
F-...
PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH SLEEP DISTURBANCES 
Hausswirth et al. MSSE 2014 
Phase 
Baseline 
Overload 
Taper 
TOTAL 
Week nu...
PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH SLEEP DISTURBANCES 
An imbalance between training loads and recovery has been shown as a major co...
PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH SLEEP DISTURBANCES 
Milewski MD et al. 2014 
Online surveys were completed by 112 adolescent athl...
KEY TIPS TO PROMOTE SLEEP 
❶ Avoid early morning schedule, 
❷ Set intense training before 6pm, 
❸ Ensure ideal sleeping en...
EFFECT OF CRYOTHERAPY ON SLEEP 
Al Haddad et al. IJSPP 2012 
 Over two different weeks, eight highly trained swimmers per...
 Basketball preparation tournaments for the European championship 2013 with men and women French team, 
 One week in a t...
EFFECT OF CRYOTHERAPY ON SLEEP 
Overload #2 2 weeks 
100% 
50% 
Overload #1 
2 weeks 
Control Period 2 weeks 
125% 
Traini...
LIMIT ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION!
DO NEVER UNDERESTIMATE THE ROLE OF PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESSORS 
Overreaching is not only about training load and physiology!
OVERREACHING & PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESSORS 
Matos et al. MSSE 2011
Matos et al. MSSE 2011 OVERREACHING & PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESSORS
HOW TO PREVENT INJURIES & OVERREACHING 
 53 elite soccer players between 15-18 years of age participated in this study. 
...
HOW TO PREVENT INJURIES & OVERREACHING 
Brink et al. SJMSS 2012
SUMMARY #4
A SHORT BREAK CAN HELP! 
8-10 sessions in 2 weeks: 
- 4 short aerobic sessions (~20 min, e.g., 30s-30s) 
- 4-6 sessions of...
Changes (90% confidence intervals) in body composition and wellness scores (upper panel) and physiological and performance...
15/15 HIT: high-intensity training, HBG: standardized handball game, TD: total distance, HI: high speed running (>17 km.h-...
Keep in mind that recovery is mainly about education. Find the best way to convince your players!
@YLMSportScience 
THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION 
Yann LE MEUR 
(page)
Fatigue & Recovery in Soccer [MasterdeFutbol 2014]
Fatigue & Recovery in Soccer [MasterdeFutbol 2014]
Fatigue & Recovery in Soccer [MasterdeFutbol 2014]
Fatigue & Recovery in Soccer [MasterdeFutbol 2014]
Fatigue & Recovery in Soccer [MasterdeFutbol 2014]
Fatigue & Recovery in Soccer [MasterdeFutbol 2014]
Fatigue & Recovery in Soccer [MasterdeFutbol 2014]
Fatigue & Recovery in Soccer [MasterdeFutbol 2014]
Fatigue & Recovery in Soccer [MasterdeFutbol 2014]
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Find here my last talk on Fatigue & Recovery in Football
For @MasterdeFutbol
Sevilla, Spain
Nov 2014

Publié dans : Sports

Fatigue & Recovery in Soccer [MasterdeFutbol 2014]

  1. 1. RECOVERY STRATEGIES FOR TRAINING AND MATCHES IN FOOTBALL Yann LE MEUR November 6th & 7th, 2014 Sevilla, Spain @YLMSportScience
  2. 2. TRAINING LOAD … ❶ DEVELOPMENT PHASE THE CLASSICAL APPROACH OF RECOVERY TIME
  3. 3. … TIME THE CLASSICAL APPROACH OF RECOVERY TRAINING LOAD ❷ TAPERING PHASE
  4. 4. … THE CLASSICAL APPROACH OF RECOVERY TRAINING LOAD TIME ❸ COMPETITIVE PHASE
  5. 5.  TO SPEED UP THE FATIGUE CLEARANCE BEFORE, DURING & AFTER A COMPETITION  TO REDUCE THE RISKS OF TRAINING MALADAPTATIONS (INJURY & OVERREACHING) THE DIFFERENT ROLES OF RECOVERY
  6. 6. PERIODISATION OF RECOVERY STRATEGIES BUILDING PHASE TAPER COMPETITION Sleep    Diet    Hydration    Cold water immersion / WBC Only in case of intense fatigue   Active recovery   In the case of repeated high intensity efforts EMS No No  Compression garments    Massage ?   Cooling vest No No 
  7. 7. THE REALITY OF FOOTBALL
  8. 8. WHAT DOES A FOOTBALL MATCH INVOLVE? To optimize post match recovery strategies, you need first to determine the origins of fatigue
  9. 9. ARE THE PLAYERS REALLY EXPERIENCING FATIGUE? Mohr et al. JSS 2003
  10. 10. ARE THE PLAYERS REALLY EXPERIENCING FATIGUE? Parameters Performance Level Outcome References Running & Sprinting distances in the last 15-min period of the game 1er League UK ♂ Elite ♀ Elite ♀ Professional ♂ High-Profile ♂ ↘ 25-50% Bradley 2009 Krustrup 2005 Krustrup 2010 Mohr 2003 Mohr 2010 Sprint & Jump Performance Elite ♀ Elite ♀ Elite ♀ Professional ♂ High-Profile ♂ ↘ 2-8% Andersson 2008 Krustrup 2005 Krustrup 2010 Mohr 2003 Mohr 2010 Yo-Yo Intermittent Performance Elite ♀ ↘ 50-60% Krustrup 2010 Isometric MVC Elite ♀ Elite ♂ Young elite ♂ ↘ 7-10% Andersson 2008 Krustrup 2011 Thorlund 2009
  11. 11. PLAYERS DEMONSTRATE FATIGUE AT THE END OF A MATCH. YES, BUT WHY?
  12. 12. POTENTIAL ORIGINS OF FATIGUE: MUSCLE DAMAGES & SORENESS ❶ Promote muscle protein synthesis & Reduce muscle soreness Krustrup et al. EJAP 2011
  13. 13. POTENTIAL ORIGINS OF FATIGUE: GLYCOGEN STORES DEPLETION ❷ Promote glycogen resynthesis Krustrup et al. 2011
  14. 14. POTENTIAL ORIGINS OF FATIGUE: DEHYDRATION • 20 high-profile soccer players were studied during match play at 31.1°C. • A large correlation was observed between the net fluid loss during the game and the fatigue index in the post- match sprint test (r=0.73). ❸ Promote rehydration
  15. 15. POTENTIAL ORIGINS OF FATIGUE: MENTAL FATIGUE ❹ Facilitate mental recovery • 10 semi-professional soccer players completed a 90-minute laboratory-based treadmill protocol replicating the activity profile of soccer match-play. • 2 separate trials were performed in randomised order, with and without the added stressor of a continuous grid-based vigilance task.
  16. 16. SUMMARY #1 Nédelec et al. 2012
  17. 17. MOST COMMON QUESTIONS ON RECOVERY IN FOOTBALL ❶ What should I do after a match? ❷ Is it really necessary to speed up post match recovery? ❸ What should priviligiate the day after? ❹ What are the basics regarding nutrition and hydration? ❺ How can I promote sleep after a match? ❻Can recovery strategies prevent non contact injuries? ❼How can recovery limit the development of persistent fatigue?
  18. 18. SO LET’S TALK ABOUT RECOVERY STRATEGIES NOW!
  19. 19. ❶ PROMOTE MUSCLE REGENERATION
  20. 20. REPAIR: THE IMPORTANCE OF PROTEIN INTAKE AMINO ACIDS Cell Blood AMINO ACIDS Proteins Oxydation Synthesis Degradation
  21. 21. Time (h) Meal Meal Rate of MPS & MPB Muscle Protein Synthesis (MPS) Muscle Protein Breakdown (MPB) Meal ? ? A B REPAIR: THE IMPORTANCE OF PROTEIN INTAKE Figure by Leigh Breen
  22. 22. Moore et al. APNM 2014 REPAIR: THE IMPORTANCE OF PROTEIN INTAKE
  23. 23. Levenhagen et al. AJPEM 2001 REPAIR: THE TIMING OF PROTEIN INTAKE NO TIME TO WASTE!
  24. 24. REPAIR: MANUAL OF MUSCLE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS Recovery plan
  25. 25. REPAIR: THE SOURCE OF PROTEINS Stimulating mTor activation post-exercise is key to facilitate muscle recovery
  26. 26. REPAIR: THE SOURCE OF PROTEINS Dietaryproteins with a full complement of essential amino acids and high leucine contents are more likely to be efficacious mTor (and muscle synthesis activation) Leucine
  27. 27. REPAIR: THE SOURCE OF PROTEINS Chart by Leigh Breen Dietaryproteins with a full complement of essential amino acids and high leucine contents that are rapidly digested are more likely to be efficacious
  28. 28. 20 40 0 50 100 150 Ingested protein dose (g) % Change in MPS from basal Whey Casein Soy MUSCLE REPAIR: THE QUANTITY OF PROTEINS 20-25g of proteins seems to be optimal to maximize muscle protein synthesis
  29. 29. REPAIR: THE PATTERN OF PROTEINS INGESTION Areta et al. J Physiol 2013 Repeat meal feedings of 20 g of protein every 3–4 h to maximize post-exercise recovery
  30. 30. MILK AS A RECOVERY DRINK Milk is an effective drink to support muscle recovery
  31. 31. Leeder et al. BJSM 2011 REDUCE MUSCLE DAMAGES Cold water immersion may also help to reduce muscle damages post exercise
  32. 32. Figure from Ihsan et al. ECSS 2013 REDUCE MUSCLE DAMAGES
  33. 33. ❶bis REDUCING MUSCLE SORENESS
  34. 34. Leeder et al. BJSM 2011 REDUCE MUSCLE DAMAGES Cold water immersion reduce muscle soreness (analgesic effect)
  35. 35. A POTENTIAL PLACEBO EFFECT?
  36. 36. A POTENTIAL PLACEBO EFFECT? 4x30s max 15min 10°C 15min in magic bath (34.7°C, placebo) 15min at 34.7°C (control)
  37. 37. A POTENTIAL PLACEBO EFFECT? The magic bath « To eliminate any potential bias, participants in the placebo condition were led to believe that a thermoneutral water immersion (with the addition of the skin cleanser) was beneficial in recovery from high intensity exercise, which we considered to be more effective than convincing participants that Cold Water Immersion was detrimental.”
  38. 38. Cold Water Immersion Thermoneutral water immersion placebo Thermoneutral water immersion control MVCpeak (N/m) 250.6 ± 48.7 234.4 ± 63.7 240.4 ± 85.2 MVCavg (N/m) 219.6 ± 43.3 207.0 ± 56.9 211.6 ± 71.9 A POTENTIAL PLACEBO EFFECT?
  39. 39. 0 indicating ‘‘not effective at all’’ and 5 indicating ‘‘extremely effective” A POTENTIAL PLACEBO EFFECT? The commonly hypothesized physiological benefits surrounding cold water immersion are at least partly placebo related
  40. 40. BUT …
  41. 41. BUT … Halson et al. MSSE 2014 (Yamane et al. EJAP 2006) Ihsan et al. ECSS 2013 Fröhlich et al. JSCR 2014 Raastad et al. unpublished data Use cold water immersion when you have to speed up recovery but not everyday
  42. 42. Mac Rae et al. 2011 Parameters  Ø  Perf Force 0 9 0 Jump & Sprint 1 5 0 Endurance 1 1 0 DOMS 12 3 1 [La-] 1 3 0 Markers of muscle damages 3 7 0 Leg circumference 0 2 0 REDUCE MUSCLE SORENESS: COMPRESSION GARMENTS
  43. 43.  Pay attention to the therapist education Moraska MSSE 2007  One of the most employed recovery technique in the field;  But effect on performance are often unclear;  Generally associated with positive perceived effects by athletes  But difficult to investigate by sports scientists due to the heterogeneity of employed protocols REDUCE MUSCLE SORENESS: MASSAGE
  44. 44. ❷ REHYDRATE
  45. 45. REHYDRATION: KEY TIPS TO REMEMBER - Start immediately at exercise cessation, - No aggressive rehydration strategies needed after a match (sufficient recovery period before the next one), - Fluids should be consumed over time rather than being ingested in large boluses to maximize fluid retention (split intakes to ~200mL every 15min), - Encourage spontaneous rehydration with slightly flavored cool water, -1 g.L-1 of Na+, - Co-absorption of CHO has shown its efficacy (glucose active transport is associated with sodium absorption), - Limit caffeine consumption, which increases urinary excretion of electrolytes, - Check your hydration status with urines color.
  46. 46. MILK AS A RECOVERY DRINK
  47. 47. Cryovest®, France To reduce sweat loss by increasing heat conduction FACILITATE POST-EXERCISE THERMOLYSIS
  48. 48. Cryovest®, France To reduce sweat loss by increasing heat conduction FACILITATE POST-EXERCISE THERMOLYSIS
  49. 49. ❸ RESTORE GLYCOGEN STORES
  50. 50. RESTORE: NEED FOR AN AGGRESSIVE STRATEGY? Krustrup et al. EJAP 2011 -7 professional soccer players, - Biopsies pre, post +24h, +48h & +72h post match. - Controlled High CHO diet (9.5g/kg/day) Yes, if your team is playing 2 matches within the week or if you need to undertake a significant training load between matches
  51. 51. RESTORE: NEED FOR AN AGGRESSIVE STRATEGY? -7 professional soccer players (CON) vs. 10 with High CHO & Pro diet during 2 days CON EXP CHO (g) 378 ± 57 785 ± 25 FAT (g) 120 ± 17 232 ± 8 PRO (g) 91 ± 16 40 ± 1 But keep in mind that muscle glycogen resynthesis is impaired after a soccer game Gunnarsson et al. SJMSS 2013
  52. 52. RESTORE: NEED FOR AN AGGRESSIVE STRATEGY? 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 0-24h 24-48h Glycogen resynthesis (mmol/kg dw/h) Cycling Soccer Gunnarsson et al. SJMSS 2013 Kiens & Richter AJP 1998 This phenomenon may be related to muscle damages. ►Key role of eccentric training to reduce muscle damages!
  53. 53. RESTORE: THE TIMING OF CHO INTAKE  Delaying the ingestion of CHO post match will result in a reduced rate of muscle glycogen storage;  Immediate recovery after exercise (0-4h): 1.0 to 1.2 g CHO/kg/h should be consumed at frequent intervals Ivy et al. JAP 1988
  54. 54. RESTORE: THE TYPE OF CHO 0 40 80 120 160 End of exercise 24 h after Low glycaemic index High glycaemic index * Muscle glycogen (mmol/kg)  Consumption of CHO foods with a moderate to high GI is recommended;  No difference reported between liquid and solid CHO sources.
  55. 55. ❹ DISSIPATE MENTAL STRESS
  56. 56. SLEEP Sleep restriction is generally associated with: ↘ Cognitive Performance ↘ Alertness ↗ Reaction Time ↘ Memory ↘ Decision Making ↗ Sleepiness ↘ Overall Mood States
  57. 57. KEY TIPS TO PROMOTE SLEEP ❶ Ensure ideal sleeping environment (quiet, cool, and dark), ❷ Create a relaxing bedtime routine (turn of your TV, no smartphone), ❸ Keep your room dark and cool, ❹ Take a warm shower to facilitate sleep onset.
  58. 58. POST MATCH RECOVERY PROTOCOL Hydration Milk chocolate End of the match Cold bath 10min at 12°C Meal: Soup, pasta, meat/salmon, cake Sleep!
  59. 59. = + + + + Flight back home POST MATCH RECOVERY PROTOCOL Milk chocolate
  60. 60. REPAIR: THE PATTERN OF PROTEINS INGESTION Areta et al. J Physiol 2013 Repeat meal feedings of 20 g of protein every 3–4 h to maximize post-exercise recovery
  61. 61. 25g Pro Sleep 25g Pro Maximal Protein Synthesis Rate Anabolism Catabolism Time (h) REPAIR: PAY ATTENTION TO THE POST MATCH NIGHT Figure by Leigh Breen
  62. 62. - 16 healthy young males, - Single bout of resistance-type exercise in the evening (8:00 pm), - 20g PRO + 60g CHO post exercice (9:00 pm), -30 min before sleep (2330 h), subjects ingested a beverage with (PRO) or without (PLA) 40 g of casein protein. PROTEIN INGESTION BEFORE SLEEP Casein ingested immediately before sleep is effective to stimulate muscle protein synthesis during postexercise overnight recovery Res et al. MSSE 2012
  63. 63. SUMMARY #2
  64. 64. AND WHAT ABOUT THE THIRD HALF ?
  65. 65. SEE YOU THERE!
  66. 66. Barnes et al. EJAP 2011 10 healthy males performed 300 maximal eccentric contractions of the quadriceps muscles of one leg on an isokinetic dynamometer. 0.5 g of alcohol per kg bodyweight (as vodka and orange juice) or an isocaloric, isovolumetric non- alcoholic beverage. 80kg: 40g of alcohol = 50mL of alcohol ~ one glass of vodka orange THE THIRD HALF: A REAL PROBLEM?  Effects of alcohol on muscle recovery Consumption of a low dose of alcohol after damaging exercise appears to have no effect on the loss of force associated with strenuous eccentric exercise
  67. 67. OK GUYS, I KNOW THAT WE ARE IN SEVILLA!
  68. 68. Parr et al. PloS One 2014  Effects of alcohol on muscle recovery 8×5 reps leg extension, 80% 1RM followed by continuous (30 min moderate intensity) and high intensity interval (10×30 s, 110% PPO) cycling.  500 mL of whey protein (25 g; PRO)  Alcohol (1.5 g·kg body mass⁻¹) co- ingested with protein (ALC-PRO)  or an energy-matched quantity of carbohydrate also with alcohol (25 g maltodextrin; ALC-CHO). 80kg: 120g of alcohol = 150mL of alcohol ~ 3 glasses of vodka orange THE THIRD HALF: A REAL ISSUE FOR RECOVERY?
  69. 69. Desbrow et al. IJNSEM 2014  Effects of alcohol on the hydration status THE THIRD HALF: A REAL ISSUE FOR RECOVERY?
  70. 70. Feige et al. ECSR 2006 THE THIRD HALF: A REAL ISSUE FOR RECOVERY?  Effects of alcohol on sleep Normal social drinking Alcohol abuse Short-term moderate alcohol consumption did not significantly alter objective or subjective parameters of sleep Influences sleep in the first half of the night, resembling the effects of a short-acting hypnotic drug, including a suppression of phasic aspects of REM sleep. Presence of withdrawal effects (increased light sleep) during the latter part of these nights
  71. 71. 25g Sleep 10g Maximal Protein Synthesis Rate Anabolism Catabolism Temps (h) + BREAKFAST: KEEP STIMULATE MUSCLE REGENERATION Pay attention to your breakfast the day after the match! Proteins needed!
  72. 72. AND MUSCLE GLYCOGEN RESYNTHESIS Gunnarsson et al. SJMSS 2013 7 professional soccer players (CON) vs. 10 with High CHO & Pro diet during 2 days CON EXP CHO (g) 378 ± 57 785 ± 25 FAT (g) 120 ± 17 232 ± 8 PRO (g) 91 ± 16 40 ± 1
  73. 73. Sprint 2m Sprint 20m * * * ENCOURAGE NAPPING - 10 healthy males, - either napped or sat quietly from 13:00 to 13:30 h after a night of shortened sleep (sleep 23:00-03:00 h only).
  74. 74. ADJUST TRAINING LOAD 2 2 1.5 3 2 10.5 Adjust training load and resting periods according to perceived fatigue & muscle soreness
  75. 75. POTENTIAL INFLUENCES OF PHYSICAL QUALITIES ON RECOVERY  21 male youth rugby league players  Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (level 1), 3 RM back squat & bench press assessed prior to 2 competitive fixtures  CMJ & blood creatine kinase(CK) assessed before and after match-play  Players were into high- and low-groups based on physical qualities
  76. 76. POTENTIAL INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL QUALITIES ON RECOVERY Differences in match demands between players based on Yo-Yo, back squat, and bench press performance. Yo-Yo Back Squat High Low ES p High Low ES p Absolute Demands Playing Time (min) 54 ± 22 49 ± 20 0.27 0.273 57 ± 20 44 ± 19 0.65 0.055 Distance (m) 5391 ± 1350 4898 ± 1658 0.33 0.233 5587 ± 1033* 4531 ± 1754 0.73 0.040 LSA (m) 4927 ± 1212 4564 ± 1601 0.26 0.284 5158 ±1038 4231 ± 1660 0.67 0.059 HSR (m) 332 ± 126* 230 ± 104 0.88 0.028 323 ± 102* 216 ± 116 0.99 0.011 VHSR (m) 53 ± 48* 20 ± 17 0.91 0.023 46 ± 40 24 ± 36 0.57 0.089 Contact Efforts (#) 23 ± 9 26 ± 12 0.26 0.283 29 ± 10* 20 ± 9 0.99 0.032 RHIE Bouts (#) 3 ± 2 3 ± 3 0.03 0.438 4 ± 3* 2 ± 1 0.89 0.020 Relative Demands Distance (m·min-1) 93 ± 9 93 ± 11 0.06 0.447 91 ± 7 95 ± 13 0.33 0.214 LSA (m·min-1) 85 ± 8 86 ± 10 0.08 0.429 84 ± 5 88 ± 11 0.48 0.107 HSR (m·min-1) 6 ± 2* 4 ± 1 0.87 0.030 5 ± 2 5 ± 2 0.41 0.148 VHSR (m·min-1) 0.9 ± 1.0 0.5 ± 0.6 0.56 0.103 0.8 ± 0.9 0.6 ± 0.8 0.26 0.275 Contact Efforts (n/min) 0.4 ± 0.2 0.5 ± 0.2 0.45 0.161 0.5 ± 0.2 0.4 ± 0.2 0.35 0.316 RHIE Bout Frequency 1 every 33 min 1 every 31 min 0.09 0.399 1 every 31 min 1 every 34 min 0.13 0.385 Players with well-developed high-intensity running ability and lower body strength demonstrated greater internal and external match loads… BUT
  77. 77. POTENTIAL INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL QUALITIES ON RECOVERY  Effects of physical qualities on CMJ peak power Ø
  78. 78. POTENTIAL INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL QUALITIES ON RECOVERY  Effects of physical qualities on blood creatine kinase concentration
  79. 79. IMPROVE FITNESS TO FACILITATE POST-MATCH RECOVERY SUMMARY #3
  80. 80. 0 50 100 150 200 250 Sedentary subjects Trained subjects Muscle glycogen (mmol/kg) 15 min 6 h 48 h * * * POTENTIAL INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL QUALITIES ON RECOVERY Greiwe et al., 1999  6 participants performed high- intensity stationary cycling 3 days/wk and continuous running 3 days/wk for 10 wk.  Muscle glycogen concentration was measured after a glycogen-depleting exercise bout before and after endurance training.
  81. 81. TRAINING COMPETITION RECOVERY POTENTIAL INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL QUALITIES ON RECOVERY
  82. 82. INJURY PREVENTION x5 x6 1 match / week 2 matches / week
  83. 83. INJURY PREVENTION McCall et al. BJSM 2014
  84. 84. INJURY PREVENTION Coutts et al. ECSS 2014 24 h Match 1 24 h 48 h 72 h 96 h 120 h 144 h Match 2 Recover y Technical + Resistance Technical + Resistance Highly Familiarised Countermovement Jumps Wellbeing diary Capillarised blood sample 1. 7 days between all games 2. All home games (no travel) 3. Same training periodisation N = 132 data sets PART A: Time course of recovery MATCH Skills Identify smaller group of markers
  85. 85. PAIN Creatine Kinase Pain Fatigue Recovery INJURY PREVENTION Same message! 0 100 Coutts et al. ECSS 2014
  86. 86. INJURY PREVENTION CK and perceptual measures follow similar time course of change following competitive AF matches regardless of level of competition (McLean et al., 2010). There is a moderate-to-strong relationships between the various perceptual measures and muscle damage markers (Impellizzeri et al., 2009). Coutts et al. ECSS 2014 PAIN 0 100
  87. 87. MY ADVICE
  88. 88. 95 OVERREACHING
  89. 89. 96 ETIOLOGY OF OVERREACHING: A COMPLEX PROBLEM Sleep disturbances Depleted energy stores Muscles damages Mood disturbances Hormonal disturbances Mental fatigue Investigate the potential origins of overreaching
  90. 90. Matos et al. MSSE 2011 MOST COMMON PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS
  91. 91. ENERGY STORES DEPLETION Achten et al. JAP 2004
  92. 92. PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH SLEEP DISTURBANCES Achten et al. JAP 2004 Adjust energy intake during overload periods
  93. 93. SHOULD I ALWAYS TRAIN « HIGH CHO » STORES? Stimulated by glycogen depletion Baar and McGree EJSS 2008 The « TRAIN LOW, COMPETE HIGH » strategy: - 2 training sessions in close succession without opportunity for refuelling (Hansen et al. 2005; Yeo et al. 2008), - Training in a fasted state with only water intake (Cox et al. 2010)
  94. 94. SHOULD I ALWAYS TRAIN « HIGH CHO » STORES?  3 groups of recreationally active men performed 6 wk of high-intensity intermittent running occurring four times per week.  Group 1 (Low Glu) and 2 (Low Pla) trained twice per day, 2 days/wk, and consumed a 6.4% glucose or placebo solution, respectively, immediately before every second training session and at regular intervals throughout exercise.  Group 3 (Norm) trained once per day, 4 days/wk, and consumed no beverage throughout training.  ↗ performance during a Yo-Yo intermittent test & ↗ VO2max in the three groups, but no significant difference between them.
  95. 95. SHOULD I ALWAYS TRAIN « HIGH CHO » STORES?  Potential interest during when only 1 match per week is played  More research needed on this topic, especially in the context of team sports This strategy is likely to increase activity of oxidative enzymes (and aerobic performance?) Training Low is more stressful for the athlete and may increase the risk of accumulated fatigue
  96. 96. Matos et al. MSSE 2011 MOST COMMON PHYSICAL SYMPTOMS
  97. 97. OVERREACHING & SLEEP Overloading 3 weeks TRAINING LOAD (% habitual load) Daily actimetry recording during time in bed & Health monitoring 100% 50% Baseline 1 week Taper 2 weeks 3 weeks Pre Mid Post 100% 50% Baseline 1 week Taper 2 weeks Pre Mid (overreaching diagnosis ) Post 130% Control group (n = 9) Overload group (n = 18) Hausswirth et al. MSSE 2014
  98. 98. Baseline Overload1 Overload2 Overload3 Taper1 Taper2 -40 -20 0 20 40  Actual sleep time (vs. Pre, min) CTL AF F-OR ** Baseline Overload1 Overload2 Overload3 Taper1 Taper2 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 * **  Sleep efficiency (vs. Pre, %) CTL AF F-OR ** Hausswirth et al. MSSE 2014 - Sleep disturbances in functionally overreached athletes, - Concomitant increase in upper respiratory tracy infections symptoms, - Promote sleep hygiene, avoid early morning training, napping. * different from Baseline, p < 0.05 OVERREACHING & SLEEP
  99. 99. PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH SLEEP DISTURBANCES Hausswirth et al. MSSE 2014 Phase Baseline Overload Taper TOTAL Week number I II III IV V VI VII VIII CTL 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 AF 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 2 F-OR 0 1 0 4 0 1 2 0 8 Health monitoring
  100. 100. PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH SLEEP DISTURBANCES An imbalance between training loads and recovery has been shown as a major contributor to illness
  101. 101. PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH SLEEP DISTURBANCES Milewski MD et al. 2014 Online surveys were completed by 112 adolescent athletes (70% completion rate), including 54 male and 58 female athletes with a mean age of 15 years. The students' responses were then correlated with data obtained from a retrospective review of injury records maintained by the school's athletic department. Multivariate analysis showed that hours of sleep per night and the grade in school were the best independent predictors of injury. Athletes who slept on average <8 hours per night were 1.7 times more likely to have had an injury compared with athletes who slept for ≥8 hours.
  102. 102. KEY TIPS TO PROMOTE SLEEP ❶ Avoid early morning schedule, ❷ Set intense training before 6pm, ❸ Ensure ideal sleeping environment (quiet, cool, and dark) when they are exposed to high training load, ❹ Napping for short periods during the day may also represent a recommended recovery strategy for athletes to compensate the potential decline in actual sleep time associated with development of overreaching, ❺ Create a relaxing bedtime routine (turn of your TV, no smartphone)
  103. 103. EFFECT OF CRYOTHERAPY ON SLEEP Al Haddad et al. IJSPP 2012  Over two different weeks, eight highly trained swimmers performed their usual training load (5 d/wk, approx. 21 h/wk).  Last training session of each training day was immediately followed by 5 min of seated recovery, in randomized order, with CWI (15°C) or without (CON).  Each morning before the first training session (6:30 AM) during the two experimental weeks, subjective ratings of well-being (eg, quality of sleep)
  104. 104.  Basketball preparation tournaments for the European championship 2013 with men and women French team,  One week in a training camp followed by three international matches in three days (one per day),  3-min exposure between −110°C & -150°C in the morning or/and in the evening after a training or match session.  An improvement in the sleep quality was observed in the night following WBC (3.7±0.7 vs 3.2±0.9, P<.05) compared with what was observed the night without previous WBC. EFFECT OF CRYOTHERAPY ON SLEEP
  105. 105. EFFECT OF CRYOTHERAPY ON SLEEP Overload #2 2 weeks 100% 50% Overload #1 2 weeks Control Period 2 weeks 125% Training Load (% habitual load) Wash out 1week Parameters WBC effect Actual Sleep Time ↑, Moderate (98%) Sleep Onset Latency ↓, Small (66%) Sleep Efficiency ↑, Small (59%) Bed Time ↓, Small (66%) Time in Bed ↑, Moderate (97%) Schaal et al. MSSE 2015 Whole-body cryotherapy may limit sleep disturbances during overload periods
  106. 106. LIMIT ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION!
  107. 107. DO NEVER UNDERESTIMATE THE ROLE OF PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESSORS Overreaching is not only about training load and physiology!
  108. 108. OVERREACHING & PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESSORS Matos et al. MSSE 2011
  109. 109. Matos et al. MSSE 2011 OVERREACHING & PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESSORS
  110. 110. HOW TO PREVENT INJURIES & OVERREACHING  53 elite soccer players between 15-18 years of age participated in this study.  Training and match duration and session RPE for two competitive seasons by means of daily training logs. Recovery Stress Questionnaire for athletes (RESTQ-Sport) administered monthly to assess the psychosocial stress– recovery state of players.  Injury and illness data collected using the standardised Fédération Internationale de Football Association registration system. Brink et al. BJSM 2010
  111. 111. HOW TO PREVENT INJURIES & OVERREACHING Brink et al. SJMSS 2012
  112. 112. SUMMARY #4
  113. 113. A SHORT BREAK CAN HELP! 8-10 sessions in 2 weeks: - 4 short aerobic sessions (~20 min, e.g., 30s-30s) - 4-6 sessions of strengt training according to the player needs. 3-4x de 4-8 reps, 75-90% 1-RM. Buchheit et al. IJSPP 2014
  114. 114. Changes (90% confidence intervals) in body composition and wellness scores (upper panel) and physiological and performance (lower panel) measures after the Christmas break. BM: body mass, FFM: fat-free mass, 7 Skinfolds: sum of the 7 skinfolds, as measured 1 week or 1 month (+ 1 mo) after the break. A SHORT BREAK CAN HELP!
  115. 115. 15/15 HIT: high-intensity training, HBG: standardized handball game, TD: total distance, HI: high speed running (>17 km.h-1), Acc: acceleration distance (>3 m.s-2), Vmax: maximal velocity reached during the HBG, IMTP: isometric mid- tight pull, CMJ: counter movement jump. Change *:possibly substantial,**:likely substantial, ***:very likely substantial, ****:almost certainly substantial. A SHORT BREAK CAN HELP! Players returned from a 2-week break during pre-season well recovered, with preserved to improved levels of strength and cardiorespiratory fitness, despite small increases in skinfold thickness.
  116. 116. Keep in mind that recovery is mainly about education. Find the best way to convince your players!
  117. 117. @YLMSportScience THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION Yann LE MEUR (page)

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