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Ethical issues

Ethical issues in data collection in research methodology

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Ethical issues

  1. 1. Ethical Issues in Data Collection Umm-e-Rooman Yaqoob
  2. 2. Ethics • Ethics is the branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, andrecommending concepts of right andwrong conduct. The term ethics is derived from the Ancient Greek word ‘ethikos’ (habit, “custom”). The branch of philosophy axiology comprises the sub-branches of Ethics andaesthetics, each concerned with concepts of value.
  3. 3. Ethicsbasicallyrefers to two things:- • First, ethics refers to well-foundedstandardsof right and wrong thatprescribe whathumans oughtto do, usuallyin terms of rights, obligations,benefits to society, fairness, or specificvirtues. • Secondly, ethics refers to the study and development of one's ethicalstandards.As mentionedabove, feelings, laws, and socialnorms can deviate from what is ethical.
  4. 4. Major areas of study The three major areas of study withinethics are: • Meta-ethics, concerningthe theoretical meaningand reference of moral propositions, and how theirtruth values (if any) can be determined. • Normative ethics, concerningthe practical means of determining a moral course of action. • Applied ethics, concerningwhata person is obligated to do in a specific situation or a particular domain of action.
  5. 5. Ethical Decision Making in Research • Althoughcodes, policies, andprincipals are very important and useful, like any set of rules, they do not cover every situation, they often conflict, andthey require considerable interpretation. It is therefore important for researchers to learn howto interpret, assess, and apply various research rules and how to make decisionsand toact in various situations. The vast majority of decisions involvethe straightforward application of ethical rules.
  6. 6. Basic Principles of Ethical Practice 1. InformedConsent 2. No Pressure on Individuals to Participate 3. Respect Individual Autonomy 4. Avoid CausingHarm 5. MaintainPrivacy and Confidentiality 6. Take Particular Care in Research with Vulnerable Groups
  7. 7. Ethical Standards - ResearchersShould... • avoid any risk of considerably harming people, the environment, or property unnecessarily. • not use deception on people participating, as was the case with the ethics of the Stanley Milgram Experiment • obtain informed consent from allinvolved in the study. • preserve privacy and confidentiality whenever possible. • take special precautions when involving populations or animals which may not be considered to understand fully the purpose of the study. • not offer big rewards or enforce binding contracts for the study.
  8. 8. • not plagiarizethe work of others • not skew their conclusions based on funding. • not commit science fraud, falsifyresearch or otherwise conduct scientific misconduct • not use the position as a peer reviewer to give sham peer reviews to punish or damage fellow scientists. • Basically,research must follow allregulations given, and also anticipate possible ethical problems in their research. • Competition is an important factor in research, and may be both a good thing and a bad thing. • Whistleblowing is one mechanism to help discover misconduct in research.
  9. 9. Thank You