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Umm-e-Rooman Yaqoob
LEXICOLOGY
UMM-E-ROOMAN
YAQOOB
Definition
•Lexicology (from Greek lexis “word” and logos
“learning”)is the part of linguistics dealing with the
vocabular...
Types of lexicology
General Lexicology is
concerned with the
general study of words
and vocabulary
irrespective of the
spe...
CONNECTIONS
WITH OTHER
BRANCHES
Grammar
•Lexicology is linked with Grammar because the
word is used in speech as a grammatical unit, in
certain grammatica...
Phonetics
Also lexicology has connections with Phonetics. If we
change the stress, we change the meaning of the
word and e...
And the last connection is with Social Linguistics
(Cultural Studies): language is a part of the culture,
it’s a reflectio...
SARA GEORGE
Types of word meaning
Conceptual
Meaning
Associative
Meaning
Stylistic meaning
Collocative meaning
Affective meaning
Conno...
 Grammatical meaning is an expression in speech
of relationships between words based on
contrasting features of arrangeme...
Associative meaning
• Connotative meaning.
In contrast to denotative meaning, connotative meaning refers to
the overtones ...
MEHAK RASOOL
Free-word groups and
Phraseological units.
The free word-groups are only relatively free
as collectability of their member...
Distinctive features of
free-word groups and phraseological units
Free word-groups Phraseological units
 are formed in th...
 components may
have any of the
forms of their pattern.
 components often
have just one form of
all the forms of their
p...
SAMIA SHABBIR
Semantics is the study of meanings of
words, phrases and sentences.
Semantics is a subfield of linguistics that
is traditi...
Semantic classification of
phraseological units
• Semantic classification of phraseological units is
based on the motivati...
2. Phraseological unities:
Phraseological unities are
expressions the meaning of which can be deduced from
the meanings of...
KINZA QAISARANI
Word formation
•Word formation is the creation of a
new word.
•It is a branch of science of the language,
which studies th...
Types of word
formation:
There are 2 ways of word formation: productive
and non-productive ways.
•Productive ways: include...
Productive way
Affixation
• It consists of adding an affix to the stem of a
definite part of speech. The main function of
...
Prefixation
• A prefix is an affixation process that includes
adding a morpheme at the beginning of the word.
Suffixation
...
Compounding
•It refers to the joining of two separate words to
produce a single word. The two words don’t lose
their indiv...
FAIZA ANWAR
KAMAL
Conversion
• This is the change of the function of the word. For
example when a noun comes to be used as a verb.
Bag – to ...
Abbreviation
•Word groups can be shortened.
•Examples:
professor-prof.
Fantasy-fancy.
•Abbreviation can be graphical (a.m....
Non-productive way.
Blending
• New words are formed from a word group or
two synonyms by clipping the end of the first
com...
Backformation
• Backformation or Negative derivation is a concept
that complex word exists first, the non-affixed
form is ...
Conclusion
•Lexicology is that branch of
linguistics which is associated
with each and every aspect of
English learning an...
Thank You

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Lexicology

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Lexicology as a branch of Linguistics

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Lexicology

  1. 1. Umm-e-Rooman Yaqoob LEXICOLOGY
  2. 2. UMM-E-ROOMAN YAQOOB
  3. 3. Definition •Lexicology (from Greek lexis “word” and logos “learning”)is the part of linguistics dealing with the vocabulary of the language and the properties of words as the main units of language. •Lexicology as a branch of linguistics has its own aims and methods of scientific research, its basic task being a study and systematic description of vocabulary in respect to its origin, development and current use. •Lexicology is concerned with words, variable word- groups, phraseological units, and with morphemes which make up words.
  4. 4. Types of lexicology General Lexicology is concerned with the general study of words and vocabulary irrespective of the specific features of any particular language. Special Lexicology is concerned with the study and description of vocabulary and vocabulary units of a given language. special descriptive lexicology (synchronic lexicology) – deals with the vocabulary and vocabulary units of a particular language at a certain time special historical lexicology (diachronic lexicology) – deals with the changes and the development of vocabulary in the course of time.
  5. 5. CONNECTIONS WITH OTHER BRANCHES
  6. 6. Grammar •Lexicology is linked with Grammar because the word is used in speech as a grammatical unit, in certain grammatical forms and functions. •Grammar studies means of expressing grammatical relations between words in speech and patterns after which words are combined into word-groups and sentences.
  7. 7. Phonetics Also lexicology has connections with Phonetics. If we change the stress, we change the meaning of the word and even part of the speech: rEcord – recOrd, cOment – comEnt; blackboard – black board, blackbird – black bird. Stylistics One of the problems of lexicology is stylistic characteristics. Stylistics studies different stylistic styles. The reflection of the style is in the text. E.g. bookish style we often can find in classical fiction or textbooks; collocations – in speech.
  8. 8. And the last connection is with Social Linguistics (Cultural Studies): language is a part of the culture, it’s a reflection of the mentality of people. There are some specific word combinations and associations in every language. E.g. professions: kindness is associated with social workers. Cultural Studies
  9. 9. SARA GEORGE
  10. 10. Types of word meaning Conceptual Meaning Associative Meaning Stylistic meaning Collocative meaning Affective meaning Connotative meaning Grammatical Meaning Lexical Meaning
  11. 11.  Grammatical meaning is an expression in speech of relationships between words based on contrasting features of arrangement in which they occur.  Lexical meaning is the realization of concept or emotion by means of a definite language system. The lexical meaning of every word depends upon the part of speech to which the word belongs. Lexical meaning is further divided into: • Conceptual meaning Conceptual meaning forms the basis for communication as the same word has the same conceptual meaning to all the speakers of the same language. • Associate meaning is the secondary meaning supplemented to the conceptual meaning.
  12. 12. Associative meaning • Connotative meaning. In contrast to denotative meaning, connotative meaning refers to the overtones or associations which a word suggests or implies. • Stylistic meaning. Words may have stylistic features, which make them appropriate for different contexts. This stylistic difference is especially true of synonyms. • Affective meaning. Affective meaning indicates the speaker’s attitude towards the person or thing in question. • Collocative meaning. Collocative meaning consists of the associations a word acquires in its collocation. In other words, it is that part of the word meaning suggested by the words before or after the word in discussion.
  13. 13. MEHAK RASOOL
  14. 14. Free-word groups and Phraseological units. The free word-groups are only relatively free as collectability of their member-words is fundamentally delimited by their lexical and syntactic valency. Phraseological units are comparatively stable and semantically inseparable.
  15. 15. Distinctive features of free-word groups and phraseological units Free word-groups Phraseological units  are formed in the process of speech according to the standards of the language;  exist in the language side-by-side with separate words;  are constructed in the process of communication by joining together words into a phrase;  are reproduced in speech as ready- made units;
  16. 16.  components may have any of the forms of their pattern.  components often have just one form of all the forms of their pattern.  substitution is possible;  no substitution is possible;  each of its components preserves its denotational meaning;  the denotational meaning belongs to the word group as a single semantically inseparable unit;
  17. 17. SAMIA SHABBIR
  18. 18. Semantics is the study of meanings of words, phrases and sentences. Semantics is a subfield of linguistics that is traditionally defined as the study of meaning of (parts of) words, phrases, sentences, and texts. Semantics
  19. 19. Semantic classification of phraseological units • Semantic classification of phraseological units is based on the motivation of the unit. It is divided further into three categories. 1. Phraseological fusions: Phraseological fusions are units whose meaning cannot be deduced from the meanings of their component parts. The meaning of PFs is unmotivated at the present stage of language development.
  20. 20. 2. Phraseological unities: Phraseological unities are expressions the meaning of which can be deduced from the meanings of their components; the meaning of the whole is based on the transferred meanings of the components, e.g. to show one’s teeth (to be unfriendly), They are motivated expressions. 3. Phraseological collocations: Phraseological collocations are not only motivated but contain one component used in its direct meaning, while the other is used metaphorically, e.g. to meet requirements, to attain success.
  21. 21. KINZA QAISARANI
  22. 22. Word formation •Word formation is the creation of a new word. •It is a branch of science of the language, which studies the patterns on which a language forms new lexical items (new unities, new words) •It’s a process of forming words by combining root and affixal morphemes.
  23. 23. Types of word formation: There are 2 ways of word formation: productive and non-productive ways. •Productive ways: includes affixation, word composition, conversion, abbreviation. •Non-productive way: includes sound interchange, stress interchange, sound imitation, blending, back formation.
  24. 24. Productive way Affixation • It consists of adding an affix to the stem of a definite part of speech. The main function of affixation is to form one part of speech from another. • The secondary function is to change the lexical meaning of the same part of speech. • Affixation is divided into suffixation and prefixation.
  25. 25. Prefixation • A prefix is an affixation process that includes adding a morpheme at the beginning of the word. Suffixation •It is a formation of new words by adding suffixes to the stem. •There are 5 groups of suffixation: - Noun-forming –er, -dom, -ism - Adjective-forming –able, -less, -ous - Verb-forming -ize, -ify, -en - Adverb-forming –ly, -ward, -wise - Numeral-forming –teen, -ty, -fold
  26. 26. Compounding •It refers to the joining of two separate words to produce a single word. The two words don’t lose their individual sounds. •Bookcase •Fingerprint •Sunburn •Doorknob •Basketball
  27. 27. FAIZA ANWAR KAMAL
  28. 28. Conversion • This is the change of the function of the word. For example when a noun comes to be used as a verb. Bag – to bag Back – to back Bottle – to bottle Clipping • Clipping a synonym of reduction. In this process a word that has more than one syllable is reduced to a shorter form • Brassiere (bra) • Fanatic (fan) • Situation Comedy (sitcom)
  29. 29. Abbreviation •Word groups can be shortened. •Examples: professor-prof. Fantasy-fancy. •Abbreviation can be graphical (a.m.- in the morning, i.e.- that is) and Initial (J.V.- joint venture, BBC, UK, UNESCO) •Abbreviation of words consists in clipping a part of a word.
  30. 30. Non-productive way. Blending • New words are formed from a word group or two synonyms by clipping the end of the first component and the beginning of the second component • medical + care = Medicare • Spanish + English = Spanglish • Modulator + demodulator = Modem
  31. 31. Backformation • Backformation or Negative derivation is a concept that complex word exists first, the non-affixed form is derived later, e.g. –baby-sitter to baby-sit –editor to edit Stress interchange • is one of the ways of word building, based on a shift of stress 'conduct – to con'duct 'present – to pre'sent 'frequent - to fre'quent
  32. 32. Conclusion •Lexicology is that branch of linguistics which is associated with each and every aspect of English learning and language knowledge.
  33. 33. Thank You 

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