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Solid waste management

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Different steps for managing the solid waste and the health impacts of improper solid waste management.

Publié dans : Environnement
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Solid waste management

  1. 1. Solid Waste Management - from source to resource - MPHP 303 Environmental Health Sciences prepared by Yara Assi
  2. 2. Words of Wisdom “It is horrifying that we have to fight our own government to save the environment.” Ansel Adams Yara Assi – Solid Waste Management – Fall 2016
  3. 3. Introduction Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is “any garbage or refuse, sludge […] and other discarded material, resulting from industrial, commercial, mining and agricultural operations, or from community activities.” (EPA, 2016) Yara Assi – Solid Waste Management – Fall 2016
  4. 4. Introduction “It is almost impossible to think of a process that does not create some waste” (Tammemagi, H. Y., 1999) With the realization of the limited natural resources, and the impact of current population growth and urbanization, the amount of waste is increasing while land spaces are decreasing. What to do with all the waste? Yara Assi – Solid Waste Management – Fall 2016
  5. 5. MSW Management Chain Stages of MSW management • Waste Generation Stage 1 • Reduction • Reuse • Prepare for recycling Stage 2 • Storage • Collection • Transfer and Transport Stage 3 Stage 4 • Treatment and Disposal Retrieved from Urban Sanitation and Solid Waste Management Yara Assi – Solid Waste Management – Fall 2016
  6. 6. Metal MSW Management Chain Step 1: Waste Generation Types of MSW (Hoornweg, D. Thomas, L. 1999) Plastic Organic Paper Glass Yara Assi – Solid Waste Management – Fall 2016
  7. 7. MSW Management Chain Step 1: Waste Generation Sources of MSW in the community (Hoornweg, D. Thomas, L. 1999) Industrial Construction Manufacturing Agriculture Municipal Srv. Residential Commercial Institutional Yara Assi – Solid Waste Management – Fall 2016
  8. 8. MSW Management Chain Stages of MSW management (retrieved from Urban Sanitation and Solid Waste Management): • Waste Generation Stage 1 • Reduction • Reuse • Prepare for recycling Stage 2 • Storage • Collection • Transfer and Transport Stage 3 Stage 4 • Treatment and Disposal Retrieved from Urban Sanitation and Solid Waste Management Yara Assi – Solid Waste Management – Fall 2016
  9. 9. MSW Management Chain Step 2: Reduction, Reuse, Prepare for recycling Zero Waste Campaign: - Initiated in Cappanori – Italy, 2007 - Adopted in Lebanon in 2012 - The work on a draft Law in collaboration with the Ministry of Environment - Up until 2014: - Decree 8735 of 1974:  solid waste management is a municipal responsibility, - Decree 9093 of 2002:  incentive for municipalities to host a waste management facility. Where is the coalition now? Yara Assi – Solid Waste Management – Fall 2016
  10. 10. MSW Management Chain Stages of MSW management (retrieved from Urban Sanitation and Solid Waste Management): • Waste Generation Stage 1 • Reduction • Reuse • Prepare for recycling Stage 2 • Storage • Collection • Transfer and Transport Stage 3 Stage 4 • Treatment and Disposal Retrieved from Urban Sanitation and Solid Waste Management Yara Assi – Solid Waste Management – Fall 2016
  11. 11. MSW Management Chain Step 3: Storage, Collection, Transfer and Transport Collection in Lebanon takes two forms: - the street collection system  street containers - the curbside collection system  ‘door to door’ Note: other forms of collection exist for individual houses and not residential buildings Retrieved from AUB, Guide to Municipal Solid Waste Management, 2016 Yara Assi – Solid Waste Management – Fall 2016
  12. 12. MSW Management Chain Step 3: Storage, Collection, Transfer and Transport In a cross-sectional study (Del Cimmuto, A, et al. 2014): Intervention group: door to door + sorting containers + leaflets on sorting MSW Control group: street collection + sorting bins – awareness Results suggested that the presence of material specific containers and the socio- economic/education level is irrelevant. It’s the awareness and simplification! Yara Assi – Solid Waste Management – Fall 2016
  13. 13. MSW Management Chain Stages of MSW management (retrieved from Urban Sanitation and Solid Waste Management): • Waste Generation Stage 1 • Reduction • Reuse • Prepare for recycling Stage 2 • Storage • Collection • Transfer and Transport Stage 3 Stage 4 • Treatment and Disposal Retrieved from Urban Sanitation and Solid Waste Management Yara Assi – Solid Waste Management – Fall 2016
  14. 14. MSW Management Chain Step 4: Treatment and Disposal The major methods of MSW disposal are: 1- Landfilling (48%) 2- Dumping (29%) 3- Composting (15%) 4- Recycling (8%) 5- Incineration (NA) Retrieved from Country report on the solid waste management in LEBANON, 2014 Yara Assi – Solid Waste Management – Fall 2016
  15. 15. MSW Management Chain Step 4: Treatment and Disposal Landfilling: - Daily collection of MSW - Collected MSW are placed in ground pits - MSW is covered with soil to avoid animals digging and breeding of insects Retrieved from EU, Emergency Sanitation for Solid Waste Management Manual Yara Assi – Solid Waste Management – Fall 2016
  16. 16. MSW Management Chain Step 4: Treatment and Disposal Retrieved from EU, Emergency Sanitation for Solid Waste Management Manual Yara Assi – Solid Waste Management – Fall 2016
  17. 17. MSW Management Chain Step 4: Treatment and Disposal Landfilling: - Simple - Economical - Based on the concept of natural decomposition -  “Sanitary Landfilling is a process of dumping of MSW in a scientifically designed area spreading waste in thin layers, compacting to the smallest practicable volume and covering with soil on daily basis.” Retrieved from Pervez, A., et al., Impact of Solid Waste On Health and the Environment, 2013 Yara Assi – Solid Waste Management – Fall 2016
  18. 18. MSW Management Chain Step 4: Treatment and Disposal Landfilling: - Sealed bottom (prevent leaking) - Leachate collection/treatment system - Gas collection System (production of CH4) - Capping and covering (prevent passage of odors and gases into the air) - Monitoring Retrieved from AUB, Guide to Municipal Solid Waste Management, 2016 Yara Assi – Solid Waste Management – Fall 2016
  19. 19. MSW Management Chain Step 4: Treatment and Disposal Dumping: - When using ‘unscientific’ and ordinary landfills. - Common practice in developing countries Retrieved from AUB, Guide to Municipal Solid Waste Management, 2016 Yara Assi – Solid Waste Management – Fall 2016
  20. 20. MSW Management Chain Step 4: Treatment and Disposal Composting: The most environmental and “responsible” MSW disposal technique (Pervez, A., Kafeel, A., 2013) Creation of compost  beneficial for the soil Retrieved from EU, Emergency Sanitation for Solid Waste Management Manual Yara Assi – Solid Waste Management – Fall 2016
  21. 21. MSW Management Chain Step 4: Treatment and Disposal Recycling: - Requires sorting at the source - Preserves raw materials - End results is a homogenous material - Environmental friendly  reduces the required energy for the extraction process Retrieved from AUB, Guide to Municipal Solid Waste Management, 2016 Yara Assi – Solid Waste Management – Fall 2016
  22. 22. MSW Management Chain Step 4: Treatment and Disposal Incineration: - Reduced the volume of MSW - Causes air pollution - New techniques of incineration produce more steam and lesser air pollution  Incineration is the first step of transforming Waste to Energy Retrieved from Solid Waste Management: Its Sources, Collection, Transportation and Recycling, 2014 Yara Assi – Solid Waste Management – Fall 2016
  23. 23. MSW Management Chain Step 4: Treatment and Disposal Operational Treatment and Disposal Facilities Available Sorting Plants (n=13) Sanitary Landfills (n=3) Composting Plants (n=9) Incinerator (unlicensed) (n=1) Retrieved from Country report on the solid waste management in LEBANON, 2014 Yara Assi – Solid Waste Management – Fall 2016
  24. 24. Impact of MSW The characteristics of MSW - Corrosive: including acids or bases capable of corroding metal containers - Ignitability: can ignite under certain condition - Reactive: unstable in nature, possibility of causing explosions and toxic fumes when heated. - Toxicity: harmful or fatal when ingested or absorbed. Retrieved from Pervez, A., et al., Impact of Solid Waste On Health and the Environment, 2013 Yara Assi – Solid Waste Management – Fall 2016
  25. 25. Impact of MSW On the Air: - Foul odors and gases - Greenhouse gases (H2O, CO2, CH4, N2O, O3) - Pollution from dioxins (burning MSW) Retrieved from AUB, Guide to Municipal Solid Waste Management, 2016 Yara Assi – Solid Waste Management – Fall 2016
  26. 26. Impact of MSW On the Water: - Dissipation of MSW into aquifer - Contamination with leachate - Loss of clean water - Spread of fungi - Dissipation of metals (exp. Mercury) Retrieved from AUB, Guide to Municipal Solid Waste Management, 2016 Yara Assi – Solid Waste Management – Fall 2016
  27. 27. Impact of MSW On the Soil: - Absorption of toxins - Fire hazards - Spread of micro-org. to the plantation - Floods Retrieved from AUB, Guide to Municipal Solid Waste Management, 2016 Yara Assi – Solid Waste Management – Fall 2016
  28. 28. Impact of MSW On living organisms - Multiplication of rodents  increased diseases  infectious to humans and animals - Respiratory illnesses (from air pollution and fungi infections) - Food poisoning from contaminated soil and water - Spread of viruses through mosquitoes, rats, chicken, dogs - Cancerous diseases (from dioxins when burning MSW) - Mercury toxicity - Animals ingesting plastic waste Retrieved from AUB, Guide to Municipal Solid Waste Management, 2016 Yara Assi – Solid Waste Management – Fall 2016
  29. 29. References AUB, 2016, Guide to Municipal Solid Waste Management Del Cimmuto, A., Mannocci, A., Ribatti, D., Boccia, A., & La Torre, G. (2014). Impact on knowledge and behavior of the general population of two different methods of solid waste management: An explorative cross-sectional study. Waste Management & Research, 32(6), 556- 561. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), (2016). Criteria for the Definition of Solid Waste and Solid and Hazardous Waste Exclusions. Retrieved November 06, 2016, from https://www.epa.gov/hw/criteria-definition-solid-waste-and-solid-and-hazardous-waste-exclusions Gaurav K. S., et al 2014, Solid Waste Management: Its Sources, Collection, Transportation and Recycling, International Journal of Environmental Science and Development Yara Assi – Solid Waste Management – Fall 2016
  30. 30. References Hoornweg, D., Thomas, L.(1999), What a waste : solid waste management in Asia Ministry of Environment, (2014), Country report on the solid waste management in LEBANON Pervez, A., Kafeel, A. (2013), Impact of Solid Waste On Health and the Environment, International Journal of Sustainable Development and Green Economics, V-2, p. 165 Tammemagi, H. Y. (1999). The waste crisis: landfills, incinerators, and the search for a sustainable future. Oxford University Press. Urban Sanitation and Solid Waste Management. (n.d.). Retrieved November 07, 2016, from http://www.open.edu/openlearnworks/mod/oucontent/view.php?id=80575 Yara Assi – Solid Waste Management – Fall 2016
  31. 31. Just a thought Jane Perkins, British artist recreating famous portraits using found objects and recycled materials. Yara Assi – Solid Waste Management – Fall 2016

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