Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Nous utilisons votre profil LinkedIn et vos données d’activité pour vous proposer des publicités personnalisées et pertinentes. Vous pouvez changer vos préférences de publicités à tout moment.
Yashaswinee Sahoo
What is Genome?
Salient Features Of Human Genome
Participants of the HGP
Goals
DNA Sequencing
Application
Human Genome Pro...
A genome is an organism’s
complete set of DNA, including all
of its genes.
Each genome contains all of the
information nee...
1 bp = 660 Dalton
Genome of organism differ from others
Arrangement of
bases
Number of base
pairs
1000 bp = 1 kb
1000 kb =...
Erwin Chragaff
Organism A T G C A/T G/C
E.Coli 26 23.9 24.9 25.2 1.09 0.99
Yeast 31.3 32.9 18.7 17.1 0.95 1.09
Drosophila ...
SPECIES GENOME SIZE (Mb) No. of Chromosome(n)
FUNGI
SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE 12.1 16
ASPERGILLUS NIDULANS 25.4 8
PLANTS
AR...
GENE NUMBER SIZE (bp)
VIROIDS
PSTV RNA 0 359
SS RNA VIRUSES
STNV 1 1300
PHAGE MS2 4 3569
TMV 4 6400
INFLUENZA 12 13500
DS ...
ATCGCGCTA
AAATGGTCA
TATTAGGC
TACGGTTA
CGATGGCT
A BOOK 1000 PAGES
E.COLI
300 PAGES
YEAST
1 BOOK
DOSOPHILA
10 BOOKS
HUMAN
20...
Human genome consists information of 23
chromosome (22Autosomes +1X chromosome)
Human genome contains over 3 billion
nucle...
Structure of chromosome 1
(Has largest genes i.e.,
2968genes)
Y chromosome has lowest
genes(i.e., 231)
National Institute Of Health (NIH)
The Department Of Energy (DOE)
USA
UK
FRANCE
GERMANY
JAPAN
CHINA
Total expenditure
$3/b...
GOALS
IDENTIFY
DETERMINE
STORE
IMPROVE
TRANSFER
ADDRESS
Maxam-Gilbert chemical sequencing
Sanger chain termination sequencing
Automated Sequencing
The term DNA sequencing encompa...
32
P
5’
5’
3’
3’
5’ 3’
TAGTCGCAGGAC
ds DNA
ss DNA
Radio
labelled
G A+G T+C C
32PTAG 32PTA 32PT 32PTAGTC
32PTAGTCG 32PTAG 3...
G A+G T+C C
Bands on Autoradiogram
3’
C
A
G
G
A
C
G
C
T
G
A
T
5’
Sequencing
gels are read
from bottom
to top
(5′ to 3′).
5...
ssDNA , Labelled Primer , DNA
Polymerase ,Excess dNTPs
3’
3’
5’
5’
5’ 3’
TAGTCGCAGGACCG
ds DNA
ss DNA
A C G T
dd ATP dd CT...
Sequencing
gels are read
from bottom
to top
(5′ to 3′).
A C G T
3’
C
G
G
T
C
C
T
G
C
G
A
C
T
A
5’
5’
G
C
C
A
G
G
A
C
G
C
T...
APPLICATIONS
UNDERSTANDING
EVOLUTION
UNDERSTANDING
DIFFERENCES
BETWEEN
INDIVIDUALS
UNDERSTANDING
DIFFERENCES IN
FUNCTIONAL...
Fox2B
Dysbindin-1
CHRM-2
Williams
syndrome
WILLIAMS SYNDROME; LOW IN GENERAL INTELLIGENCE
BUT GOOD IN LANGUAGE : CHROMOSOM...
Privacy & confidentiality of genetic information.
Psychological impact, stigmatization & discrimination.
Uncertainties ass...
Gene number, exact location, function & regulation
Chromosomal structure & organisation.
Non coding DNA types, amount, dis...
Human genome project
Human genome project
Human genome project
Human genome project
Human genome project
Human genome project
Human genome project
Prochain SlideShare
Chargement dans…5
×

sur

Human genome project Slide 1 Human genome project Slide 2 Human genome project Slide 3 Human genome project Slide 4 Human genome project Slide 5 Human genome project Slide 6 Human genome project Slide 7 Human genome project Slide 8 Human genome project Slide 9 Human genome project Slide 10 Human genome project Slide 11 Human genome project Slide 12 Human genome project Slide 13 Human genome project Slide 14 Human genome project Slide 15 Human genome project Slide 16 Human genome project Slide 17 Human genome project Slide 18 Human genome project Slide 19 Human genome project Slide 20 Human genome project Slide 21 Human genome project Slide 22 Human genome project Slide 23 Human genome project Slide 24 Human genome project Slide 25 Human genome project Slide 26 Human genome project Slide 27 Human genome project Slide 28
Prochain SlideShare
What to Upload to SlideShare
Suivant
Télécharger pour lire hors ligne et voir en mode plein écran

2 j’aime

Partager

Télécharger pour lire hors ligne

Human genome project

Télécharger pour lire hors ligne

Human Genome Project

Livres associés

Gratuit avec un essai de 30 jours de Scribd

Tout voir

Livres audio associés

Gratuit avec un essai de 30 jours de Scribd

Tout voir

Human genome project

  1. 1. Yashaswinee Sahoo
  2. 2. What is Genome? Salient Features Of Human Genome Participants of the HGP Goals DNA Sequencing Application Human Genome Project Issue of concern Future Challenges: what we still don’t know
  3. 3. A genome is an organism’s complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. Each genome contains all of the information needed to build and maintain that organism. The genome includes both the genes and the non-coding sequence of DNA/RNA.
  4. 4. 1 bp = 660 Dalton Genome of organism differ from others Arrangement of bases Number of base pairs 1000 bp = 1 kb 1000 kb = 1 Mb ( 10 6 bp) 1000 Mb = 1 Gb (10 9 bp)
  5. 5. Erwin Chragaff Organism A T G C A/T G/C E.Coli 26 23.9 24.9 25.2 1.09 0.99 Yeast 31.3 32.9 18.7 17.1 0.95 1.09 Drosophila 27.3 27.6 22.5 22.5 0.99 1.00 Honey Bee 34.4 33.0 16.2 16.4 1.04 0.99 Mouse 29.2 29.4 21.7 19.7 0.99 1.10 Human(liver) 30.7 31.2 19.3 18.8 0.98 1.03 Chargaff’s rule G=C A=T DNA composition varies from species to species
  6. 6. SPECIES GENOME SIZE (Mb) No. of Chromosome(n) FUNGI SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE 12.1 16 ASPERGILLUS NIDULANS 25.4 8 PLANTS ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA 125 5 ORYZA SATIVA 430 12 ZEA MAYS 2500 10 PISUM SATIVUM 4800 14 TRITICUM AESTIVUM 16000 24 FRITILLARIAASSYRIACA 120000 12 INVERTEBRATES CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS 97 7 DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER 180 4 BOMBYX MORI 490 28 VERTEBRATES MUS MUSCULUS 3300 19+X & Y HOMO SAPIENS 3200 22 + X & Y
  7. 7. GENE NUMBER SIZE (bp) VIROIDS PSTV RNA 0 359 SS RNA VIRUSES STNV 1 1300 PHAGE MS2 4 3569 TMV 4 6400 INFLUENZA 12 13500 DS RNA VIRUSES REOVIRUS 22 23000 SS DNA VIRUSES PHAGE x174 11 5387 DS DNA VIRUSES SV 40 6 5226 PHAGE T4 200 165000 ORGANISMS MYCOPLASM 500 <106 BACTERIA 2-4000 <107 FUNGI 6000 1.3 X 107 FLIES 12000 1.6 X 108 MAMMALS 20000 3 X 108 PLANTS 50,000 < 1011
  8. 8. ATCGCGCTA AAATGGTCA TATTAGGC TACGGTTA CGATGGCT A BOOK 1000 PAGES E.COLI 300 PAGES YEAST 1 BOOK DOSOPHILA 10 BOOKS HUMAN 200 BOOKS EACH PAGE 50 LINES EACH LINE 100 LETTERS ATCGCGCTA AAATGGTCA TATTAGGC TACGGTTA CGATGGCT
  9. 9. Human genome consists information of 23 chromosome (22Autosomes +1X chromosome) Human genome contains over 3 billion nucleotide pair, about 30,000 genes & 3000 bases. Only 3% of genome codes for amino acid sequence of polypeptide . Only 0.2% of base pair is different in individual.
  10. 10. Structure of chromosome 1 (Has largest genes i.e., 2968genes) Y chromosome has lowest genes(i.e., 231)
  11. 11. National Institute Of Health (NIH) The Department Of Energy (DOE) USA UK FRANCE GERMANY JAPAN CHINA Total expenditure $3/bp ( 9billion US $) Time Period= 13 years Celera: 5 individuals; HGSC: ‘many’
  12. 12. GOALS IDENTIFY DETERMINE STORE IMPROVE TRANSFER ADDRESS
  13. 13. Maxam-Gilbert chemical sequencing Sanger chain termination sequencing Automated Sequencing The term DNA sequencing encompasses biochemical methods for determining the order of the nucleotide bases, Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine & Thymine in DNA oligonucleotide.
  14. 14. 32 P 5’ 5’ 3’ 3’ 5’ 3’ TAGTCGCAGGAC ds DNA ss DNA Radio labelled G A+G T+C C 32PTAG 32PTA 32PT 32PTAGTC 32PTAGTCG 32PTAG 32PTAGT 32PTAGTCGC 32PTAGTCGCAG 32PTAGTCG 32PTAGTC 32PTAGTCGCAGGAC 32PTAGTCGCAGG 32PTAGTCGCA 32PTAGTCGC 32PTAGTCGCAG 32PTAGTCGCAGGAC 32PTAGTCGCAGG 32PTAGTCGCAGGC
  15. 15. G A+G T+C C Bands on Autoradiogram 3’ C A G G A C G C T G A T 5’ Sequencing gels are read from bottom to top (5′ to 3′). 5’ G T C C T G C G A C T A 3’ Sequence of base on the Complementary strand. Sequence of base on the analysed strand. ELECTROPHORESIS
  16. 16. ssDNA , Labelled Primer , DNA Polymerase ,Excess dNTPs 3’ 3’ 5’ 5’ 5’ 3’ TAGTCGCAGGACCG ds DNA ss DNA A C G T dd ATP dd CTP dd TTP dd GTP ATCAGCGTCCTGGC ATCAGCGTCCTGGC ddATP ATCddATP ATddCTP ATCAGddCT ATCAGCGTddCTP ATCAGCGTCddCTP ATCAGCGTCCTGGddCTP ATCAddGTP ATCAGCddGTP ATCAGCGTCCTddGTP ATCAGCGTCCTGddGTP AddTTP ATCAGCGddTTP ATCAGCGTCCddTTP P 32
  17. 17. Sequencing gels are read from bottom to top (5′ to 3′). A C G T 3’ C G G T C C T G C G A C T A 5’ 5’ G C C A G G A C G C T G A T 3’ Sequence of base on the Complementary strand. Sequence of base on the analysed strand. Bands on Autoradiogram ELECTROPHORESIS
  18. 18. APPLICATIONS UNDERSTANDING EVOLUTION UNDERSTANDING DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS UNDERSTANDING DIFFERENCES IN FUNCTIONAL ABILITYAMONG INDIVIDUALS MANUPULATON OF GENOME UNDERSTANDING CAUSE OF GENETIC DISEASES
  19. 19. Fox2B Dysbindin-1 CHRM-2 Williams syndrome WILLIAMS SYNDROME; LOW IN GENERAL INTELLIGENCE BUT GOOD IN LANGUAGE : CHROMOSOME 11 SPECIFIC LANGUAGE IMPAIRMENT : LOW LINGUISTIC ABILITY WITHOUT AFFECTING INTELLIGENCE : CHROMOSOME 7
  20. 20. Privacy & confidentiality of genetic information. Psychological impact, stigmatization & discrimination. Uncertainties associated with gene test for susceptibilities and complex conditions. Clinical issues. Commercialization of products. Fairness in access to advanced genomic technologies . Health & environmental issues .
  21. 21. Gene number, exact location, function & regulation Chromosomal structure & organisation. Non coding DNA types, amount, distribution, information content, & function. Disease susceptibility prediction based on gene sequence variation. Genes involved in complex traits & multigene disease. Developemental genetics & genomics.
  • OmNagre1

    Aug. 27, 2021
  • PhoebeTorres1

    Jun. 6, 2021

Human Genome Project

Vues

Nombre de vues

83

Sur Slideshare

0

À partir des intégrations

0

Nombre d'intégrations

0

Actions

Téléchargements

3

Partages

0

Commentaires

0

Mentions J'aime

2

×