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Active English
Diploma Engineering Sem I
English (3300002)
GRAMMAR
Prepared by
I M KHAN
(Asst. Prof. in English)
1
What is Article?
Article can be taken as one of the ‘Determiners’ or
a subclass of the Determiners which determines
noun. ...
What is Article?
There are two articles in English, the definite article
the (the book) and the indefinite article a (a bo...
What is Determiner?
• Determiners are words placed in front of nouns
to clarify what the noun refers to. It is used to
ind...
Kinds of Articles
In English language, there are total three articles. (A, An
and The). These three articles are divided i...
Indefinite Articles
‘A’ and ‘An’ are the two indefinite articles. ‘A’ or ‘An’
means ‘one’or ‘anyone’
When the countable no...
What is Noun?
Noun is a name given to
any person, place, thing,
animal, thought / idea or
emotion.
Nouns are divided into
...
Articles and Nouns
Mostly articles are used only with countable nouns
which can be counted in number. Rest nouns take
othe...
The Selection of Articles (a / an)
• Indefinite articles ‘a’ or ‘an’ are not used
arbitrarily.
• There are definite rules ...
Rule 1
‘a’ is used before a word (or a countable noun)
beginning with a consonant sound.
Ex:
a boy
a man
a girl
a table
a ...
Rule 2
‘an’ is used with a word beginning with a vowel
sound.
Ex:
an apple
an elephant, an egg,
an ink-pot, an idiot
an or...
Rule 3
‘an’ is used before a word beginning with a
consonant letter but a vowel sound.
Ex.
an honest man
an hour
an honora...
Rule 4
‘a’ is used before a word beginning with a vowel
letter but a consonant sound.
Ex.
a university
a European
a union
...
Rule 5
Abbreviations which
begin with consonant
letter but their
pronunciation beings with
vowel take ‘an’article
which in...
Rule 6
A word beginning with ‘vowel’ letter but
‘consonant’ sound /w/ takes ‘a’ as an article.
Ex.
a one rupee note
a one ...
Rule 7
If the noun is modified by
an adjective, the choice
between a and an
depends on the initial
sound of the adjective
...
Rule 8
In English, the indefinite articles ‘a’ or ‘an’ are used
to indicate membership in a group.
Ex.
I am a teacher. (I ...
Rule 9
Indefinite articles ‘a’ and ‘an’ are used in the sense
of one of many.
Ex.
I met a friend. (means one of certain fr...
Rule 10
‘a’ or ‘an’ is used to show the whole class in the
sense of ‘all’ or ‘any’
Ex.
A student should be obedient. (any ...
Rule 11
‘a’ is used with words like ‘little’ and ‘few’
Ex.
a little milk (uncountable noun)
a few students (countable noun...
Rule 12
‘a’ or ‘an’ is used in the sense of ‘every’
Ex.
2,000 a month (means 2,000 every month)
10 rupees a dozen
5 rupees...
Rule 13
‘a’ or ‘an’ is used in an exclamatory sentence before
an adjective.
Ex.
What a beautiful flower!
What a pretty gir...
Rule 14
Indefinite article ‘a’ is
commonly used with
certain words.
Those are as below.
Ex.
a couple
a dozen
half a dozen
...
Rule 15
Indefinite ‘a’ or ‘an’ article is used to convert proper
noun into a common noun.
Ex.
He is a Gandhi. (a great pol...
Works Cited
1. Almas Juneja, Vaseem Qureshi. "Active English." New
Delhi: Macmillan Publishers India Ltd, 2013. 30.
2. Geo...
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  1. 1. Active English Diploma Engineering Sem I English (3300002) GRAMMAR Prepared by I M KHAN (Asst. Prof. in English) 1
  2. 2. What is Article? Article can be taken as one of the ‘Determiners’ or a subclass of the Determiners which determines noun. They are also known as Demonstrative Adjectives. It is often taken to be a separate part of speech also. 2
  3. 3. What is Article? There are two articles in English, the definite article the (the book) and the indefinite article a (a book) or an (an eye). Sometimes nouns require no article at all. This is called the ‘zero article’ (book, eyes). The articles are a subclass of the determiners. Please note that it is pronunciation, not the spelling, of the word that determines the choice of indefinite article: (249-250) 3
  4. 4. What is Determiner? • Determiners are words placed in front of nouns to clarify what the noun refers to. It is used to indicate the exactness of a noun. (1) • Determiners are the words which specify the range of reference of a noun e.g by making it definite (the book), indefinite (a book), or by indicating quantity (many books)….. (2) 4
  5. 5. Kinds of Articles In English language, there are total three articles. (A, An and The). These three articles are divided into two types. 1. Definite: The (is used to refer any particular person, place or thing.) 2. Indefinite: A & An (does not refer particular noun) 5
  6. 6. Indefinite Articles ‘A’ and ‘An’ are the two indefinite articles. ‘A’ or ‘An’ means ‘one’or ‘anyone’ When the countable noun is one / singular in number, it takes ‘a’ or ‘an’ as an article (depending on its first letter and sound). Indefinite articles (a / an) are used with several countable nouns in different conditions. 6
  7. 7. What is Noun? Noun is a name given to any person, place, thing, animal, thought / idea or emotion. Nouns are divided into certain types. 1. Common 2. Proper 3. Collective 4. Concrete 5. Abstract 6. Countable 7. Uncountable 8. Material 7
  8. 8. Articles and Nouns Mostly articles are used only with countable nouns which can be counted in number. Rest nouns take other determiners. Ex. a book  but a water  a boy  but a sugar a computer  but an air  a teacher  but a teaching 8
  9. 9. The Selection of Articles (a / an) • Indefinite articles ‘a’ or ‘an’ are not used arbitrarily. • There are definite rules to use these indefinite articles and these rules are strictly followed while speaking or writing English. • It is important to note that if articles are not used appropriately, the meaning may change or be misunderstood. • Therefore, it is must to understand and follow these rules to learn correct English. 9
  10. 10. Rule 1 ‘a’ is used before a word (or a countable noun) beginning with a consonant sound. Ex: a boy a man a girl a table a young man 10
  11. 11. Rule 2 ‘an’ is used with a word beginning with a vowel sound. Ex: an apple an elephant, an egg, an ink-pot, an idiot an orange, an orphan, an umbrella 11
  12. 12. Rule 3 ‘an’ is used before a word beginning with a consonant letter but a vowel sound. Ex. an honest man an hour an honorable guest an heir 12
  13. 13. Rule 4 ‘a’ is used before a word beginning with a vowel letter but a consonant sound. Ex. a university a European a union 13
  14. 14. Rule 5 Abbreviations which begin with consonant letter but their pronunciation beings with vowel take ‘an’article which includes….. Ex. an HOD an MA an ST an MLA an M.Sc. / MBBS an M.Com. / M.Phil. 14
  15. 15. Rule 6 A word beginning with ‘vowel’ letter but ‘consonant’ sound /w/ takes ‘a’ as an article. Ex. a one rupee note a one eyed man a one dollar note a one way ticket a one legged man 15
  16. 16. Rule 7 If the noun is modified by an adjective, the choice between a and an depends on the initial sound of the adjective that immediately follows the article: Ex. a broken egg an unusual problem a European country 16
  17. 17. Rule 8 In English, the indefinite articles ‘a’ or ‘an’ are used to indicate membership in a group. Ex. I am a teacher. (I am a member of a large group known as teachers.) Brian is an Irishman. (Brian is a member of the people known as Irish.) 17
  18. 18. Rule 9 Indefinite articles ‘a’ and ‘an’ are used in the sense of one of many. Ex. I met a friend. (means one of certain friends) I read a novel. (means one of certain novels) 18
  19. 19. Rule 10 ‘a’ or ‘an’ is used to show the whole class in the sense of ‘all’ or ‘any’ Ex. A student should be obedient. (any student / all students) A doctor must love his patient. (any doctor / all doctors) 19
  20. 20. Rule 11 ‘a’ is used with words like ‘little’ and ‘few’ Ex. a little milk (uncountable noun) a few students (countable noun) 20
  21. 21. Rule 12 ‘a’ or ‘an’ is used in the sense of ‘every’ Ex. 2,000 a month (means 2,000 every month) 10 rupees a dozen 5 rupees a kilo 5 times a year 80 km an hour 21
  22. 22. Rule 13 ‘a’ or ‘an’ is used in an exclamatory sentence before an adjective. Ex. What a beautiful flower! What a pretty girl! What a shameful act! What a hot day! What an idea sir ji! 22
  23. 23. Rule 14 Indefinite article ‘a’ is commonly used with certain words. Those are as below. Ex. a couple a dozen half a dozen a quarter a thousand a million a lot of a great deal of a great number of 23
  24. 24. Rule 15 Indefinite ‘a’ or ‘an’ article is used to convert proper noun into a common noun. Ex. He is a Gandhi. (a great political leader) She is a Mother Teresa. (a great social worker) He is an Amitabh Bachchan. (a famous actor) 24
  25. 25. Works Cited 1. Almas Juneja, Vaseem Qureshi. "Active English." New Delhi: Macmillan Publishers India Ltd, 2013. 30. 2. Geoffrey Leech, Jan Svartvik. "A Communicative Grammar of English." South Asia: Pearson Education Ltd., 2009. 249-250, 280-281. 3. Murthy, Jayanthi Dakshina. Contemporay English Grammar. New Delhi: Book Palace, 2013. Imran Khan M still a learner 25
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