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Strategies for Effective Oral Delivery. Strategies for Effective Non-verbal Delivery. Strategies for Removing Stage Fright.

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Strategies for Effective Oral Delivery. Strategies for Effective Non-verbal Delivery. Strategies for Removing Stage Fright.

  1. 1.  ZUBAIR AFZAL 52-FMS/BSAF/S-16  ADIL RIAZ 59–FMS/BSAF/S-16 PRESENTED TO Sir Umer Khan & Class Fellows
  2. 2.  Strategies for Effective Oral Delivery.  Strategies for Effective Non-verbal Delivery.  Strategies for Removing Stage Fright.
  3. 3. VOCAL CUES  Vocal Cues:-A voice communicates a great deal more than words alone. A presenter’s voice is a potentially powerful tool to make an oral delivery effective and impressive.  The quality of a speaker's voice is determined by four characteristics: Pitch, Volume, Rate, and Tone.
  4. 4. A voice that is pleasing and easy to listen to is mellow, meaning it is rich in tone and sounds fully mature. It is moderate; the pitch is not too low or too high, volume is not too loud or too soft, and the rate of speech is neither too fast nor too slow.
  5. 5.  The term pitch refers to the degree of highness or lowness of a sound.  The norm for an effective communicator is a pitch that can be raised a few levels without sounding squeaky and lowered a few levels without sounding grumbly.  Such a range allows a speaker to vary pitch for contrast while maintaining a vocal quality that is pleasing to the ear.
  6. 6.  An effective presenter uses pitch changes to indicate a change in the message. At the end of a sentence, dropping the pitch signifies a statement; raising the pitch signifies a question.
  7. 7.  Listeners want to clearly hear a speaker without straining to do so and without being blasted out of their chairs.  A presenter who speaks too loudly may be perceived as bombastic, aggressive, or insensitive to listeners.  On the other hand, one who speaks too softly may convey the impression of being passive or insecure.  An audience is more attentive to a point that is stated at a lower (but still clearly audible) volume.
  8. 8.  Take a Guess: How many words do you speak in a minute?  Most communication experts suggest that a public speaker lies between 80-160 words per minute.  In more casual conversation some people may range from 80-250 words per minute.  An average rate of speech is 140 words per minute.  For emphasis, a speaker may periodically slow down to less than 100 words per minute to voice a point in a purposeful manner.  To elevate the level of energy or quickly convey a point of lesser importance, a speaker may occasionally accelerate the rate to more than 170 words per minute.
  9. 9.  A consistently slow rate of speech conveys fatigue (‫)تھکاوٹ‬ or disinterest.  Presenters who consistently speak at a rapid rate may be perceived to be nervous, impatient, or hurried.
  10. 10.  The quality of tone is a combination of 1. Pitch, 2. Strength, 3. Character.  Character refers to “the sense or meaning a particular tone conveys”.  For example, a tone of voice may be described as gentle(‫,)نرم‬ angry, sarcastic (‫ہ‬َ‫ي‬ ِ‫نز‬َ‫ط‬), or serious.
  11. 11.  The tone of voice with which a speaker expresses a point says more to an audience than the words themselves.  A faltering tone of voice is perceived as confused.  A harsh tone of voice as aggressive.
  12. 12.  The term speech pattern refers to any vocal trait that is habitual.  Although usually learned behavior, speech pattern are sometimes a reflection of a psychological or emotional condition.  A person who repeatedly voices the phrase like “you know" may have acquired the habit from a peer group or the pattern may signal that the person is nervous when speaking before a group.
  13. 13.  The speech pattern with which presenters are most concerned are 1. Inflection 2. Articulation, 3. Fillers, 4. Pauses,
  14. 14.  Proper inflection is the practice of altering the tone and/or pitch of voice to more clearly express or magnify meaning.  It is an effective communication technique that can help to sustain audience attention and make a message more memorable.  Proper inflection is a speech pattern of skilled speakers who deliver each point in just the right pitch and tone that exactly conveys the conveys of the information, how the speaker feels about the point, or how the speaker wants the audience to feel in response.
  15. 15.  Articulation is the skill of speaking in clear syllables.  Articulate speech is characterized by correct pronunciation.  More articulate speech is developed by listening to articulate speakers and follow their speech patterns, checking a dictionary when in doubt about the pronunciation of a word.
  16. 16.  Mumbling (‫)بڑبڑانا‬ is a speech pattern lacking articulation.  Speakers who mumble do not convey vocal vitality, they lose the advantage that skillful inflection adds to a presentation, and they may be perceived as disinterested or timid.
  17. 17.  One of the more distracting patterns of speech is the use of fillers unnecessary words or phrases that are repeatedly interjected into a message.  Expressions such as "uh," "um”, "you know," "basically, add no meaning.  Fillers interrupt the continuity of communication.  They signal uncertainty or nervousness on the part of a speaker who tries (often unconsciously) to fill up every silence with sound.
  18. 18.  Speak in shorter sentences.  Avoid run-on sentences that string together several phrases joined by conjunctions. Speakers who make excessive use of conjunctions are more likely to develop a habit of attaching a filler to every conjunction, as in "and um" or "but uh.“  Pause to breathe.  Practice alternate words and phrases that can be used in place of fillers, such as "in addition," "on that point," and "however."
  19. 19.  At one time, a soft drink was advertised with the slogan, “The pause that refreshes.“  Pauses in a presentation can have the same effect.  While a presenter is speaking, the audience is working at listening. A moment of silence gives listeners an opportunity to digest what they have heard.  Pauses help a speaker avoid the use of fillers.  They can serve to slow a too-rapid rate of speech.
  20. 20.  Intentional pauses can add importance to a message.  Inserted after a key point or after a particularly striking or insightful statement, a pause allows the audience a moment to reflect.  For Example, "The right word," Mark Twain noted, "may be effective, but no word was ever as effective as a rightly timed pause."
  21. 21. Things Conveys the Effective non verbal Delivery  Gestures  Postures  Movement  Facial Expressions  Appearance / Attire  Eye Contact
  22. 22.  At a simplistic level “ any movement of the Hands, Arms, Head, Shoulders” are termed as Gestures.  Appropriate gestures give physical expression to the spoken word.  They are symbolic in nature, in that the meaning of many gestures is commonly understood among members of the same culture.
  23. 23. For Example When a person responds to a question by shrugging the shoulders? In the United States, the gesture indicates, "I don't know." It could mean differently in a different country.
  24. 24. Hand and Arm Gestures are used for Several reasons:  To Point: The index fingers calls attention, indicating either locations or directions.  To Reject: a sample phrase show this gesture would be “I can’t believe the actions of our competitors”. Here the hand go to side in act of Rejection.  To Describe : Clearly, though your hands cannot give the precise picture of the idea or thing you are speaking about, even an approximation of size is important.
  25. 25.  The position in which someone holds their body when standing or sitting.  Good posture is an attribute that contributes to a speaker’s presence.  When you stand Straight and Balance your weight on both feet, you give the impression of complete control.  When draped over a Rostrum with your shoulder sagging , you give the feeling of Depression , lack of control.
  26. 26.  Taking a few steps during a presentation helps holds attention, as does any moving object.  When a speaker doesn't move. People in the audience don't move their heads, their eyes, or their position while seated.  Remaining Still for long is Boring, and the last thing a presenter wants to create is the impression of being Boring.
  27. 27.  Head Movement  Body Movement  Head Movement:  Nodding the head up and down communicates affirmation.  Shaking the head side to side signifies disagreement.  Cocking the head to the side signals that a person is thinking.
  28. 28.  Body Movement:  Body movement adds more than expressiveness to a presentation.  Movement suggests that a speaker is at ease comfortable, and confident in the presentation environment.  By moving alternately to both right and left sides of the platform and forward toward the audience, a speaker can better make meaningful eye contact and convey connection with the audience.
  29. 29.  From facial expressions, an audience derives a sense of how a presenter feels about a point and about them.  A smile or a laugh suggests that your topic interests you.  A frown may convey non-verbal expressions that you are worried, angry, or ill.
  30. 30.  Making eye contact with people in an audience is important because it sends a signal that the speaker is connecting with them.  Attention to eye contact forces a presenter to become sufficiently prepared so as not to be dependent on reading from notes.  Meaningful eye contact distinguishes relational presenters from information-bound speakers.
  31. 31.  How you look and what you wear affect listeners.  It is the first and most visible thing an audience sees and something they view throughout a presentation.
  32. 32. The guidelines described below are consistent with the standards commonly accepted by successful professionals:  Refrain(‫)بچنا‬ from overdressing or under dressing.  Few accessories should be worn.  Hair should be clean and neatly styled.  Clothing of very bold or bright colors should be avoided.
  33. 33. There are two types of people in the world: 1) Those who love speaking in public and 2) Those who are scared stiff at the thought of it.  Performance anxiety and stage fright are perfectly normal phenomena that occur to many people.  It is important for you to understand what stage fright is, so that you can fully overcome it.
  34. 34.  Stage fright or performance anxiety is a persistent phobia which is aroused in an individual when required to perform in front of an audience.
  35. 35.  Know Your Stuff:  Know your content, your speech and more importantly your audience. If you know what you are talking about then you have no reason to be nervous.  Practice, Practice, Practice: ◦ You need to practice as much as you can before the performance . ◦ Really know your content inside out and practice (preferably in front of a live audience) as much as possible to build your confidence.
  36. 36.  Talk Yourself Down:  You need to realize that even though stage fright is “all in the mind,” the fear manifests itself in physical ways. The best offence is to change your negative talk. Stop worrying about, “What if I forget the content?”  Change that into positive talk like, “What if I am great at this?” It may sound simplistic or too easy, but positive affirmation will go a long way in reducing stage fright when speaking in public.  Wallow in the Worst:  If you can’t calm yourself down with positive talk, then maybe it is time you thought about the worst case scenario. Once you do this, you’ll realize that the worst case scenario isn’t really that bad. This might help calm your nerves.
  37. 37.  It is Not All about You:  Though you might feel like everyone is out to laugh, criticize or judge you, that is not the case. Get over the feeling that the world is going to hang on your every mistake.  Focus on your speech, audience and what they deserve from you. This will ease the pressure that is already accumulating.  Keep Calm, Don’t Rush It:  Don’t rush your presentation. Start slow and allow yourself time to get into a comfortable pace. You need time to get used to the audience and the audience also needs time to get used to you.  Focus on Getting Through the First 5 Minutes: ◦ Imagine your entire presentation is only five minutes long. This will make it less stressful. Focus on just getting through the first five minutes and by this time you will have already calmed down and the rest is downhill.
  38. 38.  Never Apologize for Being Nervous:  Three quarters of the time, no one will notice you are nervous. Why tell them? You may feel yourself shaking and shivering, but your audience might not be aware of it. Don’t mention it. It will make your audience nervous too and they will be too worried about your performance to get much out of your presentation.  Don’t Share Your Mistakes:  You have prepared, practiced and feel good about your speech or presentation. Suddenly, on stage you realize you mixed the order of topics or you forgot an important point. But remember, you’re the only one who knows about this. Your audience doesn’t. So, don’t make them aware of a mistake that they didn’t even know existed. If you bring it up, some people might start looking for more holes, which ultimately distracts from the whole purpose of your presentation in the first place.
  39. 39.  Arrive Early:  Obviously, if you are late, this will only increase your anxiety. Arrive early and acclimate to your surroundings. You can even check out the stage and the auditorium as get yourself used to the environment.  Stretch:  If you are nervous, odds are your body will be stiff and your muscles tight. Fifteen minutes before speaking in public and going on stage, do a few stretches. This will loosen the tense muscles and relax your body.  Breathe:  Nervousness is always accompanied by fast, short breaths and if this is not addressed, it will throw you off balance. Minutes before you go on stage, take some slow, deep breaths, so that by the time you get to the stage your breathing is relaxed.
  40. 40.  Double Check Everything:  Do you have a laptop or notes? Check that everything works. When you walk on stage and suddenly realize that you forgot your notes, it’s too late. Of course, your nerves will take over. Know your speech or presentation so well that should this happen, you can continue without a hitch.  Don’t Fight Your Stage Fright … Work With It:  You have to expect and accept the fact that you will feel worried, especially the first few minutes of your presentation. The more you resist your anxiety, the more it will work against you. Again, focus on the presentation when speaking in public and the anxiety will slowly ease off.