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أطلس مصور عن تشريح الدواجن

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أطلس مصور عن تشريح الدواجن

  1. 1. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com With the bird in dorsal recumbency, the walls of the right atrium and ventricle are positioned on top. After death, the atria often expand with blood and can appear quite enlarged. The great vessels can be seen entering the base of the heart. The heart muscle should be reddish-brown in color. A variable amount of fat will be present in the coronary grooves. If the bird is emaciated, this fat may be absent or have undergone serous atrophy, resulting in a gelatinous, wet appearance. Look for any external lesions on the epicardial surface of the heart or on the surrounding fathttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  2. 2. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com With the bird in dorsal recumbency, the walls of the right atrium and ventricle are positioned on top. After death, the atria often expand with blood and can appear quite enlarged. The great vessels can be seen entering the base of the heart. The heart muscle should be reddish-brown in color. A variable amount of fat will be present in the coronary grooves. If the bird is emaciated, this fat may be absent or have undergone serous atrophy, resulting in a gelatinous, wet appearance. Look for any external lesions on the epicardial surface of the heart or on the surrounding fathttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  3. 3. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com The heart muscle should be reddish-brown in color. A variable amount of fat will be present in the coronary grooves. If the bird is emaciated, this fat may be absent or have undergone serous atrophy, resulting in a gelatinous, wet appearance. Look for any external lesions on the epicardial surface of the heart or on the surrounding fathttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  4. 4. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com View of the left side of the hearthttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  5. 5. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com View of the apex of the hearthttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  6. 6. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com The bottom 1/3 of the apex of the heart has been removed. This view allows thethickness of the ventricular walls and septum to be assessed. The right ventricular free wall should be approximately 1/3 to 1/2 the thickness of the intraventricular septum and the left ventricular free wall. In the normal heart, the lumina of the ventricles should be small and there should be negligible space between the walls of the ventriculae and the septum. In cardiac diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension or congenital defects, this space will be widenedhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  7. 7. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com In this view, the chambers of the right atrium and ventricle have been opened bymaking a cut up the right ventricular free wall. Once opened, the right atrioventricularvalve and endocardium are exposed. The septal leaf of the right valve is normally very muscularhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  8. 8. http://www.zagaziguniversity.comIn this view, the chambers of the left atrium and ventricle have been opened by makinga cut up the left ventricular free wall. The left atrioventricular valve is normally thin and smoothhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  9. 9. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com The aorta has been opened by inserting scissors under the left atrioventricular valveand cutting upward. The normal lumen of the aorta, as seen here, is creamy white and the leaflets of the aortic valve are uniform and very thinhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  10. 10. http://www.zagaziguniversity.comThe liver is separated into a right and left lobe, as seen here, attached at the base. Theright hepatic lobe is slightly larger than the left and the liver margins should come to a thin crisp edgehttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  11. 11. http://www.zagaziguniversity.comIn domestic birds, the left lobe has a fissure running along its surface, dividing it into 2 partshttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  12. 12. http://www.zagaziguniversity.comThe liver is separated into a right and left lobe, as seen here, attached at the base. Theright hepatic lobe is slightly larger than the left and the liver margins should come to a thin crisp edgehttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  13. 13. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com The overall size of the liver is variable, often extending beyond the edge of the sternum. To identify hepatomegaly, look at the liver margins. Blunted or thickened margins are a sign of an enlarged liverhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  14. 14. http://www.zagaziguniversity.comHealthy hepatic parenchyma should be somewhat firm on palpation and have a smoothand glistening appearance. The color of the liver can vary depending on the nutritionalstate of the bird. Generally, the liver is reddish-brown but it can be light brown or evenslightly yellow, depending on the fat content in the diet. However, a very yellow liver is an abnormal finding, except in chicks between 1 to 5 days of agehttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  15. 15. http://www.zagaziguniversity.comHealthy hepatic parenchyma should be somewhat firm on palpation and have a smoothand glistening appearance. The color of the liver can vary depending on the nutritionalstate of the bird. Generally, the liver is reddish-brown but it can be light brown or evenslightly yellow, depending on the fat content in the diet. However, a very yellow liver is an abnormal finding, except in chicks between 1 to 5 days of agehttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  16. 16. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com The gallbladder is located on the visceral surface of the right hepatic lobe. It isnormally dark green in color, due to the bile located within the lumen of this thin-walled structure. During autolysis, bile pigments may leak out of the gallbladder, staining the adjacent hepatic tissues yellow to green. This bile inbibition is a normal part of autolysis and should not be confused with a lesion. Similar staining can also occur in the ascending duodenum, adjacent to the area where the bile and pancreatic ductsempty. The size of the gallbladder is variable and may be enlarged in birds that are off- feedhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  17. 17. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com The gallbladder is located on the visceral surface of the right hepatic lobe. It isnormally dark green in color, due to the bile located within the lumen of this thin-walled structure. During autolysis, bile pigments may leak out of the gallbladder, staining the adjacent hepatic tissues yellow to green. This bile inbibition is a normal part of autolysis and should not be confused with a lesion. Similar staining can also occur in the ascending duodenum, adjacent to the area where the bile and pancreatic ductsempty. The size of the gallbladder is variable and may be enlarged in birds that are off- feedhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  18. 18. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com View of the liver on cross section. As seen here, the color and texture should be uniform. Focal or regional changes may indicate a lesion. It’s normal for a small amount of blood to ooze from the cut surface of the liver __________________http://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  19. 19. http://www.zagaziguniversity.comThe lungs are tightly adhered to the dorsal rib cage. Their color should be bright pink in a fresh bird but will become increasinly more congested, wet, and dark red with autolysis, as seen here. To assess the lungs, do not over-interpret their color but rather, use a combination of visual inspection and palpation to assess the health of this tissuehttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  20. 20. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com The air sacs are thin membranes distributed throughout the body. In a fresh healthy bird, airsacs should be transparent but, as seen here, the membranes will become slightly cloudy afterdeath. In over-conditioned birds, fat may be present on the air sac membranes. Inflammation of the air sacs can result in thickened membranes, opacities, or fibrin deposition. Fluid, foam, or exudate can accumulate between the air sac membraneshttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  21. 21. http://www.zagaziguniversity.comThe proventriculus is the glandular stomach that lies between the esophagus and the gizzard. It is lined with mucosal glands that secrete digestive enzymes important in food break down. On close inspection, these glands can be seen through the serosal surface, giving it a “honeycomb-like� texture. On palpation the proventriculus should feel turgid and, itssurface should be shiny tan. Look for abnormalities such as hemorrhagic lesions or neoplastic infiltrates on its surfacehttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  22. 22. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com The serosa of the proventriculus is normally shiny, tan, and has a fine vascular pattern. In a fresh bird, on close inspection, the glands can be visualized through the mucosa. Themuscular wall of the proventriculus should feel uniformly turgid. Flaccidity or dilatation of the organ might indicate an improper diet or feeding program, infection, or neuromusculardysfunction. The external features of the ventriculus, or gizzard, should consist of alternatinghttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  23. 23. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com bands of dark red and light red smooth muscles, forming a roughly circular shape. Thesemuscles may be covered by a thick layer of fat, as seen here. On palpation, the gizzard should be extremely firm. Thinning or laxity in the muscles may indicate inflammation, an improper diet or feeding program, or neuromuscular problems The proventriculus in situhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  24. 24. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com The serosa of the proventriculus is normally shiny, tan, and has a fine vascular pattern. In a fresh bird, on close inspection, the glands can be visualized through the mucosa. Themuscular wall of the proventriculus should feel uniformly turgid. Flaccidity or dilatation of the organ might indicate an improper diet or feeding program, infection, or neuromusculardysfunction. The external features of the ventriculus, or gizzard, should consist of alternating bands of dark red and light red smooth muscles, forming a roughly circular shape. Thesemuscles may be covered by a thick layer of fat. On palpation, the gizzard should be extremelyfirm. Thinning or laxity in the muscles may indicate inflammation, an improper diet or feeding program, or neuromuscular problemshttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  25. 25. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com View of the serosal surface of the proventriculus and gizzardhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  26. 26. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com Close-up of the glands of the proventriculus as seen through the outer wallhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  27. 27. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com View of the glands of the proventriculus as seen from the mucosal surfacehttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  28. 28. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com Close-up view of the glands of the proventriculus as seen from the mucosal surfacehttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  29. 29. http://www.zagaziguniversity.comThe contents of the proventriculus can vary from mucoid and creamy to more formed pieces of ingesta, depending on how recently the bird atehttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  30. 30. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com View of the serosal surface of the proventriculus and gizzardhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  31. 31. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com View of the left side of the proventriculus and gizzardhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  32. 32. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com The consistency of the gizzard contents will vary depending on the stage of digestion. Generally, it contains fibers and portions of seeds. Additionally, small pebbles, ingested to facilitate the break up of food, may also be presenthttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  33. 33. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com The mucosa of the gizzard is covered by a sturdy layer of protein called koilin, which aids infood digestion. The koilin layer should be smooth and uniform. The color may vary from white, to yellow, to green depending on the diet and the degree of bile staininghttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  34. 34. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com Close-up view of the koilin layer of the gizzardhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  35. 35. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com The spleen is located dorsal to the gizzardhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  36. 36. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com On very close inspection, the spleen as a slight stippled patternhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  37. 37. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com On very close inspection, the spleen as a slight stippled patternhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  38. 38. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com On very close inspection, the spleen as a slight stippled patternhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  39. 39. http://www.zagaziguniversity.comView of the cut section of the spleen. On cross section, the spleen may appear slightly granular due to the variations in red and white pulphttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  40. 40. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com The duodenum has a descending and ascending loop, arranged in a U-shape. The loops are held together by a thin strip of mesentery and surround the pancreas. The appearance of the intestine can vary greatly depending on the post-mortem conditionof the bird. In a fresh bird, the serosa of a healthy intestine is usually pink, smooth, and glistening. As the post-mortem interval increases, the intestinal walls will becomecongested, as seen here, and eventually, even a healthy loop of bowel may appear dark red. However, if the serosa has a dull granular appearance, this can be evidence ofinflammation. The normal appearance of the pancreas is pale red or slightly yellow. On close inspection, its glandular nature is evident. Swelling of the pancreas can be recognized if the organ extends beyond its normal location between the loops of the duodenumhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  41. 41. http://www.zagaziguniversity.comThe walls of the duodenum should be smooth and uniform and offer little resistance to incision. In the proximal duodenum, the ingesta is normally mucoid and pale tan to yellow. Distal to the bile ducts, the ingesta becomes more green in colorhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  42. 42. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com The duodenum has a descending and ascending loop, arranged in a U-shape. The loops are held together by a thin strip of mesentery and surround the pancreas. The appearance of the intestine can vary greatly depending on the post-mortem conditionof the bird. In a fresh bird, the serosa of a healthy intestine is usually pink, smooth, and glistening. As the post-mortem interval increases, the intestinal walls will becomecongested, as seen here, and eventually, even a healthy loop of bowel may appear dark red. However, if the serosa has a dull granular appearance, this can be evidence ofinflammation. The normal appearance of the pancreas is pale red or slightly yellow. On close inspection, its glandular nature is evident. Swelling of the pancreas can be recognized if the organ extends beyond its normal location between the loops of the duodenumhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  43. 43. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com The duodenum has a descending and ascending loop, arranged in a U-shape. The loops are held together by a thin strip of mesentery and surround the pancreas. The appearance of the intestine can vary greatly depending on the post-mortem conditionof the bird. In a fresh bird, the serosa of a healthy intestine is usually pink, smooth, and glistening. As the post-mortem interval increases, the intestinal walls will becomecongested, as seen here, and eventually, even a healthy loop of bowel may appear dark red. However, if the serosa has a dull granular appearance, this can be evidence ofinflammation. The normal appearance of the pancreas is pale red or slightly yellow. On close inspection, its glandular nature is evident. Swelling of the pancreas can be recognized if the organ extends beyond its normal location between the loops of the duodenumhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  44. 44. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com The normal appearance of the pancreas is pale red or slightly yellow. On closeinspection, its glandular nature is evident. Swelling of the pancreas can be recognized if the organ extends beyond its normal location between the loops of the duodenumhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  45. 45. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com On close inspection, the pancreas has a fine glandular texturehttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  46. 46. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com After 10 days of age, the only remnant of the yolk sac is a small tag of scar tissue, called Meckel’s diverticulum. This tag, located on the antimesenteric side of the intestine, contains lymphoid tissue and is part of the GALT, or Gut AssociatedLymphoid Tissue. Meckel’s diverticulum is also an important anatomical landmark, as it is located at the junction between the jejunum and the ileum. Being able to differentiate the jejunum from the ileum is important to generating differentials for intestinal diseases. Some infections, such as coccidiosis, have a predilection for the jejunum and other diseases target the ileumhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  47. 47. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com After 10 days of age, the only remnant of the yolk sac is a small tag of scar tissue, called Meckel’s diverticulum. This tag, located on the antimesenteric side of the intestine, contains lymphoid tissue and is part of the GALT, or Gut AssociatedLymphoid Tissue. Meckel’s diverticulum is also an important anatomical landmark, as it is located at the junction between the jejunum and the ileum. Being able to differentiate the jejunum from the ileum is important to generating differentials for intestinal diseases. Some infections, such as coccidiosis, have a predilection for the jejunum and other diseases target the ileumhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  48. 48. http://www.zagaziguniversity.comAt the junction between the ileum and the descending colon, are two blind-ended sacs known as the ceca. In domestic poultry, the cecae are large structures that bend over themselves, with their apices pointing caudally. The walls should be thin and semi-translucent, allowing the greenish-colored intestinal contents to be visualized within. If the walls are opaque, thin or irregular, infection should be suspectedhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  49. 49. http://www.zagaziguniversity.comAt the junction between the ileum and the descending colon, are two blind-ended sacs known as the ceca. In domestic poultry, the cecae are large structures that bend over themselves, with their apices pointing caudally. The walls should be thin and semi-translucent, allowing the greenish-colored intestinal contents to be visualized within. If the walls are opaque, thin or irregular, infection should be suspectedhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  50. 50. http://www.zagaziguniversity.comAt the base of the ceca, near the junction of the ileum and the descending colon, are 2 important lymphoid structures called cecal tonsils. The tissue here bulges outward slightly as it is thicker and slightly more granularhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  51. 51. http://www.zagaziguniversity.comAt the base of the ceca, near the junction of the ileum and the descending colon, are 2 important lymphoid structures called cecal tonsils. The tissue here bulges outward slightly as it is thicker and slightly more granularhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  52. 52. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com As demonstrated here, the cecal tonsils should be opened and the mucosa examined closely. This is a common location for lesions to be detected. In inflammatory or neoplastic diseases, the tonsils may be come enlarged and mottled red and tan. Insome viral infections, the lymphoid tissue may become necrotic, causing the tonsils to become redhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  53. 53. http://www.zagaziguniversity.comThe cecal tonsil has been opened to show the mucosa. It’s important to examine this area closely for lesions. In inflammatory or neoplastic disease, the cecal tonsilsmay become enlarged and mottled red and tan. In some viral infections, this lymphoid tissue may become necrotic, causing the tonsils to become redhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  54. 54. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com As demonstrated here, the cecal tonsils should be opened and the mucosa examined closely. This is a common location for lesions to be detected. In inflammatory or neoplastic diseases, the tonsils may be come enlarged and mottled red and tan. Insome viral infections, the lymphoid tissue may become necrotic, causing the tonsils to become redhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  55. 55. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com The serosa of the ileum should be shiny, tan, and smooth, with no thickening orbulges. Be careful not to over-interpret the color of the intestinal walls as post-mortemcongestion and autolysis can quickly turn the intestinal walls red or black. Because theintestinal walls are semi-translucent, look for areas of proliferation or mucosal exudatewhich can sometimes be visualized through the intestinal wall. At the junction between the ileum and the descending colon, are two blind-ended sacs known as the ceca. In domestic poultry, the cecae are large structures that bend over themselves, with their apices pointing caudally. The walls should be thin and semi-translucent, allowing the greenish-colored intestinal contents to be visualized within. If the walls are opaque, thin or irregular, infection should be suspectedhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  56. 56. http://www.zagaziguniversity.comThe quality of intestinal ingesta can yield important clues about the functional status of the intestines. If the ingesta is normal, as seen here, regardless of the appearance of the intestinal wall, the intestines were likely functioning normal at the time of death. If the content is abnormal, intestinal dysfunction is present. Keep in mind that as the ingesta moves though the intestines, its color and consistency will change. In the jejunum, pictured here, the ingesta becomes slightly thicker and yellow tan in colorhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  57. 57. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com Distal to the ceca, the intestines continue as a short straight tube known as thedescending colon. These walls should be smooth and uniform. Look for any dilatations which may indicate an obstruction due to a mechanical blockage, a scar, or another disease processhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  58. 58. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com The cloaca is the common chamber for the gastrointestinal, urinary, and reproductive tracts. Here the cloaca has been opened. By the time ingesta enters the cloaca, it should have the normal color and consistency of feces and will be mixed with urates from the urinary system __________________http://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  59. 59. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com On the dorsal wall of the cloaca is a diverticulum called the Bursa of Fabricius. This structure is an important lymphoid organ. The shape of the bursa varies with species. In the chicken, itis roughly pear shaped. In ducks, geese and turkeys it is more spindle shaped. The size varieswith the age of the bird. It typically reaches its maximum size between 4 to 12 weeks of age, atwhich time it can weigh up to 4 grams. Normally, the bursa begins to involute when the bird isapproximately 3 months of age. By the time the bird reaches sexual maturity, it may no longer be evident on gross examinationhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  60. 60. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com On the dorsal wall of the cloaca is a diverticulum called the Bursa of Fabricius. This structure is an important lymphoid organ. The shape of the bursa varies with species. In the chicken, itis roughly pear shaped. In ducks, geese and turkeys it is more spindle shaped. The size varieswith the age of the bird. It typically reaches its maximum size between 4 to 12 weeks of age, atwhich time it can weigh up to 4 grams. Normally, the bursa begins to involute when the bird isapproximately 3 months of age. By the time the bird reaches sexual maturity, it may no longer be evident on gross examinationhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  61. 61. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com On the dorsal wall of the cloaca is a diverticulum called the Bursa of Fabricius. This structure is an important lymphoid organ. The shape of the bursa varies with species. In the chicken, itis roughly pear shaped. In ducks, geese and turkeys it is more spindle shaped. The size varieswith the age of the bird. It typically reaches its maximum size between 4 to 12 weeks of age, atwhich time it can weigh up to 4 grams. Normally, the bursa begins to involute when the bird isapproximately 3 months of age. By the time the bird reaches sexual maturity, it may no longer be evident on gross examinationhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  62. 62. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com On the dorsal wall of the cloaca is a diverticulum called the Bursa of Fabricius. This structure is an important lymphoid organ. The shape of the bursa varies with species. In the chicken, itis roughly pear shaped. In ducks, geese and turkeys it is more spindle shaped. The size varieswith the age of the bird. It typically reaches its maximum size between 4 to 12 weeks of age, atwhich time it can weigh up to 4 grams. Normally, the bursa begins to involute when the bird isapproximately 3 months of age. By the time the bird reaches sexual maturity, it may no longer be evident on gross examinationhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  63. 63. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com The bursa of Fabricius has been opened to show its mucosal surface. The normal mucosa consists of many folds of tissue, which are pale white to pink or tan and slightly firm on palpationhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  64. 64. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com The vent, located just beneath the tail, is the external orifice of the urinary, genital andgastrointestinal systems. The normal vent is free of fecal and urate staining, swelling, redness, or evidence of traumahttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  65. 65. http://www.zagaziguniversity.comThis image shows the normal ovary of a sexually immature female, approximately 10 weeks of age. Here, the ovary is small and inactivehttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  66. 66. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com View of the dorsal aspect of the ribs. Note that the ventral ribs have been removed from the fieldhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  67. 67. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com The kidneys consist of a right and left chain, with each chain being made up of 3 lobes. The lobes are tightly embedded in the bone of the synsacrum. They are normally red to dark mahogany brown in color and have a slightly granular texturehttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  68. 68. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com This image shows a detailed view of the normal texture of the kidneyshttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  69. 69. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com The nerves should have a creamy-white color and a slightly striated texture on close inspection. This image shows a normal ishiadic plexus in the caudal coelomic cavityhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  70. 70. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com The thyroid glands should be smooth, oval, and reddish-brown in color. On very close inspection, the thyroid glands have a very fine granular appearancehttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  71. 71. http://www.zagaziguniversity.comA properly formed beak, shown here, is bilaterally symmetrical and the upper and lower halves should form a smooth line where they articulatehttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  72. 72. http://www.zagaziguniversity.comA properly formed beak is bilaterally symmetrical and the upper and lower halves should form a smooth line where they articulate. Nutritional imbalances may result in beak malformations. The color of the beak depends on the bird’s coloration, with lighter birds typically havingyellow beaks. However, beak color can also be influenced by physiologic factors. For example, yellow pigment in the beak may be lost as the chicken produces more eggshttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  73. 73. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com The oropharynx should be examined for any lesions. Note that birds do not have a soft palate or a discrete boundary between the oral cavity and the pharynx. The color of the oral mucosa will vary with lighter birds tending to have a pink mucosa while darker birds will have more pigment. Look for ulcers, erosions, opacities, diptheritic nodules, or other lesionshttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  74. 74. http://www.zagaziguniversity.comA bird’s tongue is supported by the hyobranchial apparatus, making it somewhat inflexiblehttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  75. 75. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com The color of the oral mucosa will vary with the overall coloration of the bird. However, the mucosa should be free of ulcers, erosions, opacities, diptheritic nodules, and other lesionshttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  76. 76. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com The dorsal surface of the chicken tongue should be smooth and pink. There is a row of large papillae near the caudal attachment of the tongue. Inspect the tongue for any lesions such as ulcers or noduleshttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  77. 77. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com The dorsal surface of the chicken’s tongue is smooth and there is a row of large papillae near the caudal attachment. When inspecting the tongue, look for ulcers and erosionshttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  78. 78. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com On the roof of the oropharynx is a fissure, called the choana, which opens into the nasal cavity. Inspect the area around the choana for ulcers. The choana is also a good place to findrespiratory exudate. Birds do not form liquid pus and inspusated exudate tends to accumulate in the choanal orifice. If exudate is present, you can collect a swab sample from the choana. The choana is surrounded by ridges and rows of sharp well-demarcated papillae that point caudally. A variety of diseases can damage the papillae, resulting in bluntinghttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  79. 79. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com Just caudal to the choana is the infundibular cleft. This is the opening to the Eustachian tube and it is surrounded by ridges and rows of sharp well-demarcated papilla that point caudallyhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  80. 80. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com The tongue, esophagus, and trachea have been removed as one unit. This view allows thestructures of the structures of the caudal oral cavity and pharynx to be examined more closelyhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com
  81. 81. http://www.zagaziguniversity.com The tongue, esophagus, and trachea have been removed as one unit. This view allows the structures of the caudal oral cavity and pharynx to be examined more closelyhttp://www.zagaziguniversity.com

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