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Word formation

Word formations allows one to understand how words are being structured, originated and used in compositions.

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Word formation

  2. 2. Contents Blending / Amalgamation2 Derivations/Eponyms3 Acronyms4 Clipping or Truncation1
  3. 3. Contents Loaning / Borrowing7 Compounding6 Reduplicating5
  4. 4. LOGO CLIPPINGS or TRUNCATION www.themegallery.com
  5. 5. www.themegallery.com Clipping is a type of abbreviation of a word in which one part is 'clipped' off the rest, and the remaining word now means essentially the same thing as what the whole word means or meant. For example, the word rifle is a fairly modern clipping of an earlier compound rifle gun, meaning a gun with a rifled barrel.
  6. 6. TYPES OF CLIPPING www.themegallery.com
  7. 7. Back Clipping / Apocopation Examples: Max – maximum Bra – brassiere Bros – brothers Typo – typo graphical error Carbs - Carbohydrates www.themegallery.com
  8. 8. Fore Clipping / Aphaeresis / Apheresis Examples: Varsity – university Pike – turnpike Chute – parachute Burger – hamburger Gator – alligator www.themegallery.com
  9. 9. Middle Clipping / Syncope Examples: Flu – Influenza Jam/jammies – pajamas Tec – detective www.themegallery.com
  10. 10. LOGO BLENDING / AMALGAMATION www.themegallery.com
  11. 11. Blending is one of the most beloved of word formation processes in English. It is especially creative in that speakers take two words and merge them based not on morpheme structure but on sound structure. The resulting words are called blends. www.themegallery.com
  12. 12. Examples: Prosumer = produce + consumer Gasohol = gasoline + alcohol Modem = modulator + demodulator Cooperators = cooperative + investors Brunch = breakfast + lunch www.themegallery.com
  13. 13. Examples: Bleep = blankout + beep Swipe = wipe + weep Swaddle = wade + toddle Blurt = blow + spurt www.themegallery.com
  15. 15. Deriviation is the creation of words by modification of a root without the addition of other roots. Often the effect is a change in part of speech. www.themegallery.com
  16. 16. adjective-to-noun: -ness (slow → slowness) adjective-to-verb: -ise (modern → modernise) in British English or -ize (archaic → archaicize) in American English and Oxford spelling adjective-to-adjective: -ish (red → reddish) adjective-to-adverb: -ly (personal → personally) noun-to-adjective: -al (recreation → recreational) noun-to-verb: -fy (glory → glorify) verb-to-adjective: -able (drink → drinkable) verb-to-noun (abstract): -ance (deliver → deliverance) verb-to-noun (agent): -er (write → writer) www.themegallery.com
  17. 17. Examples: Braille – Louise Braille (french teacher) Boycott – Charles C. Boycott (Irish land agent) Ammonia – Ammon (Egypt god) Ampere – Andre Marie Amper (physicist) Arachnid – Arachne (the girl in greek mythology who was turned into a spider www.themegallery.com
  18. 18. LOGO ACRONYM
  19. 19. Acronyms are formed by taking the initial letters of a phrase and making a word out of it. The classical acronym is also pronounced as a word. Scuba was formed from self-contained underwater breathing apparatus. www.themegallery.com
  20. 20. Examples: a.k.a = Also Known As NB = nota bene Cc = Caron Copy a.m. = ante meridiem p.m. = post meridiem ps = postscripts www.themegallery.com
  22. 22. Process of forming new words either by doubling an entire word (total reduplication) or part of a word (partial reduplication) www.themegallery.com
  23. 23. Examples: Eency – weency Incy – wincy Wee – wee Walkie – talkie Mumbo – jumbo Itsy – bitsy Bye – bye www.themegallery.com
  25. 25. Compounding or composition is the process of word formation that creates compound lexemes (the other word- formation process being derivation). That is, in familiar terms, compounding occurs when two or more words are joined together to make them one word. The meaning of the compound may be very different from the meanings of its components in isolation. www.themegallery.com
  26. 26. Examples: (non – hyphenated) Curriculum vitae Marriage certificate Editorial staff Memorandum circular Notary club Lieutenant colonel www.themegallery.com
  27. 27. Examples: (hyphenated) Editor – in – chief Officer – in – charge Bio – data Attorney – in – law Mother – in – law www.themegallery.com
  29. 29. Loanwords are words adopted by the speakers of one language from a different language (the source language). A loanword can also be called a borrowing. The abstract noun borrowing refers to the process of speakers adopting words from a source language into their native language. "Loan" and "borrowing" are of course metaphors, because there is no literal lending process. There is no transfer from one language to another, and no "returning" words to the source language. The words simply come to be used by a speech community that speaks a different language from the one these words originated in. www.themegallery.com
  30. 30. Examples: Thee – you Whither – where Yore – years ago Canst – can Cometh – come www.themegallery.com
  32. 32. An affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word. Affixes may be derivational, like English -ness and pre-, or inflectional, like English plural -s and past tense -ed. They are bound morphemes by definition; prefixes and suffixes may be separable affixes. Affixation is, thus, the linguistic process speakers use to form different words by adding morphemes (affixes) at the beginning (prefixation), the middle (infixation) or the end (suffixation) of words www.themegallery.com