Shock is a life-threatening condition that occurs when the
body is not getting enough blood flow.
Lack of blood flow means the cells and organs do not get
enough oxygen and nutrients to function properly.
Many organs can be damaged as a result of shock.
Shock requires immediate treatment and can get worse very
As many 1 in 5 people who suffer shock will die from it.
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THE MAIN TYPES OF SHOCK
Cardiogenic shock (due to heart problems)
Hypovolemic shock (caused by too little blood volume)
Anaphylactic shock (caused by allergic reaction)
Septic shock (due to infections)
Neurogenic shock (caused by damage to the nervous system)
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WHAT ARE THE 8 MAIN CAUSES OF SHOCK?
There are several main causes of shock:
Heart conditions (heart attack or heart failure )
Heavy internal or external bleeding such as from a serious injury or rupture of a blood vessel
Dehydration especially when severe or related to heat illness.
Infection (septic shock)
Severe allergic reaction (anaphylactic shock)
Spinal injuries (neurogenic shock)
Persistent vomiting or diarrhea
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SING AND SYMPTOMS OF
Low blood pressure and weak pulse
Low or no urine output
Pale, cool, clammy skin
Bluish limps and fingernails
Thirst and dry mouth
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SEPTIC SHOCK AND ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK
Septic shock results from bacteria multiplying in the blood and
releasing toxins. Common causes of this are pneumonia ,urinary tract
infections, skin infections(cellulitis) intra-abdominal infections (such as
ruptured( appendix), and meningitis.
Anaphylactic shock is a type of shock that lead severe hypersensitivity
or allergic reaction. Causes include allergy to insect stings, medicines, or
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CARDIOGENIC, HYPOVOLEMIC AND NEUROGENIC SHOCK
Cardiogenic shock: happens when your heart cannot pump enough blood and
oxygen to the brain and other vital organs. This is a life-threatening emergency.
This can be the end result of a heart attack or congestive heart failure.
Hypovolemic shock: is caused by severe blood and fluid loss, such as from
traumatic bodily injury, which makes the heart unable to pump enough blood to
the body, or severe anemia where there is not enough blood to carry oxygen
through the body.
Neurogenic shock: is caused by spinal cord injury, usually as a result of a
traumatic accident or injury.
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WHAT IS THE TREATMENT FOR
Depending on the type or the cause of the shock, treatments differ. In general, fluid
resuscitation (giving a large amount of fluid to raise blood pressure quickly) with an IV
is the first-line treatment for all types of shock.
The doctor will also administer medications such as epinephrine, norepinephrine,
or dopamine to the fluids to try to raise a patient's blood pressure to ensure blood
flow to the vital organs.
Tests (for example, X-rays and blood tests ) will determine the underlying cause of the
shock and uncover the severity of the patient's illness.
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SEPTIC SHOCK MANAGEMENT
Septic shock is treated with administration of antibiotics depending on
the source and type of underlying infection.
These patients are often dehydrated and require large amounts of fluids to
increase and maintain blood pressure.
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Cardiogenic shock is treated by identifying and treating the underlying cause.
A patient with a heart attack may require a surgical procedure called a cardiac catheterization
to unblock an artery.
A patient with congestive heart failure may need medications to support and increase the force
of the heart's beat.
In severe or prolonged cases a heart transplant may be the only treatment.
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Hypovolemic shock is treated with fluids (saline) in minor cases, but
may require multiple blood transfusions in severe cases.
The underlying cause of the bleeding must also be identified and
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NEUROGENIC SHOCK MANAGEMENT
Neurogenic shock is the most difficult to treat.
Damage to the spinal cord is often irreversible and causes problems with the
natural regulatory functions of the body.
Besides fluids and monitoring, immobilization (keeping the spine from moving),
anti-inflammatory medicine such as steroids and sometimes surgery are the main
parts of treatment.
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