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  1. Set by: Mohamed Ibrahim 3/27/2023 lecturer: mohamed ibraahim 1
  2. SHOCK Shock is a life-threatening condition that occurs when the body is not getting enough blood flow. Lack of blood flow means the cells and organs do not get enough oxygen and nutrients to function properly. Many organs can be damaged as a result of shock. Shock requires immediate treatment and can get worse very rapidly. As many 1 in 5 people who suffer shock will die from it. 3/27/2023 lecturer: mohamed ibraahim 2
  3. THE MAIN TYPES OF SHOCK Cardiogenic shock (due to heart problems) Hypovolemic shock (caused by too little blood volume) Anaphylactic shock (caused by allergic reaction) Septic shock (due to infections) Neurogenic shock (caused by damage to the nervous system) 3/27/2023 lecturer: mohamed ibraahim 3
  4. WHAT ARE THE 8 MAIN CAUSES OF SHOCK? There are several main causes of shock: Heart conditions (heart attack or heart failure ) Heavy internal or external bleeding such as from a serious injury or rupture of a blood vessel Dehydration especially when severe or related to heat illness. Infection (septic shock) Severe allergic reaction (anaphylactic shock) Spinal injuries (neurogenic shock) Burns Persistent vomiting or diarrhea 3/27/2023 lecturer: mohamed ibraahim 4
  5. SING AND SYMPTOMS OF SHOCK Low blood pressure and weak pulse Shallow breathing Low or no urine output  Dizziness Pale, cool, clammy skin Bluish limps and fingernails Profuse sweating Chest pain Thirst and dry mouth 3/27/2023 lecturer: mohamed ibraahim 5
  6. SEPTIC SHOCK AND ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK Septic shock results from bacteria multiplying in the blood and releasing toxins. Common causes of this are pneumonia ,urinary tract infections, skin infections(cellulitis) intra-abdominal infections (such as ruptured( appendix), and meningitis. Anaphylactic shock is a type of shock that lead severe hypersensitivity or allergic reaction. Causes include allergy to insect stings, medicines, or foods. 3/27/2023 lecturer: mohamed ibraahim 6
  7. CARDIOGENIC, HYPOVOLEMIC AND NEUROGENIC SHOCK Cardiogenic shock: happens when your heart cannot pump enough blood and oxygen to the brain and other vital organs. This is a life-threatening emergency. This can be the end result of a heart attack or congestive heart failure. Hypovolemic shock: is caused by severe blood and fluid loss, such as from traumatic bodily injury, which makes the heart unable to pump enough blood to the body, or severe anemia where there is not enough blood to carry oxygen through the body. Neurogenic shock: is caused by spinal cord injury, usually as a result of a traumatic accident or injury. 3/27/2023 lecturer: mohamed ibraahim 7
  8. WHAT IS THE TREATMENT FOR SHOCK? Depending on the type or the cause of the shock, treatments differ. In general, fluid resuscitation (giving a large amount of fluid to raise blood pressure quickly) with an IV is the first-line treatment for all types of shock. The doctor will also administer medications such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, or dopamine to the fluids to try to raise a patient's blood pressure to ensure blood flow to the vital organs. Tests (for example, X-rays and blood tests ) will determine the underlying cause of the shock and uncover the severity of the patient's illness. 3/27/2023 lecturer: mohamed ibraahim 8
  9. SEPTIC SHOCK MANAGEMENT Septic shock is treated with administration of antibiotics depending on the source and type of underlying infection. These patients are often dehydrated and require large amounts of fluids to increase and maintain blood pressure. 3/27/2023 lecturer: mohamed ibraahim 9
  10. CARDIOGENIC SHOCK MANAGEMENT Cardiogenic shock is treated by identifying and treating the underlying cause. A patient with a heart attack may require a surgical procedure called a cardiac catheterization to unblock an artery. A patient with congestive heart failure may need medications to support and increase the force of the heart's beat. In severe or prolonged cases a heart transplant may be the only treatment. 3/27/2023 lecturer: mohamed ibraahim 10
  11. HYPOVOLEMIC SHOCK MANAGEMENT Hypovolemic shock is treated with fluids (saline) in minor cases, but may require multiple blood transfusions in severe cases. The underlying cause of the bleeding must also be identified and corrected. 3/27/2023 lecturer: mohamed ibraahim 11
  12. NEUROGENIC SHOCK MANAGEMENT Neurogenic shock is the most difficult to treat. Damage to the spinal cord is often irreversible and causes problems with the natural regulatory functions of the body. Besides fluids and monitoring, immobilization (keeping the spine from moving), anti-inflammatory medicine such as steroids and sometimes surgery are the main parts of treatment. 3/27/2023 lecturer: mohamed ibraahim 12
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