The processes that account for an individual’s
intensity, direction, and persistence of effort
toward achieving a goal”
• Intensity = how hard an employee tries
• Direction = should benefit the organization
(i.e. quality of effort counts!)
• Persistence = how long can an employee
maintain his/her effort?
Note: the goal is an “organizational” goal
4. There are many ways to motivate employees.
Managers who want to encourage
productivity should work to ensure that
Feel that the work they do has meaning or
Believe that good work is rewarded
Believe that they are treated fairly
5. Motivation theory which suggests five interdependent levels
of basic human needs (motivators) that must be satisfied in
a strict sequence starting with the lowest level.
The theory of Maslow's hierarchy of needs basically talks
about how all humans have different levels of needs for
survival and we work to make money to fulfil those needs.
6. 1. Biological and Physiological needs - air, food, drink,
shelter, warmth, sex, sleep.
2. Safety needs - protection from elements, security,
order, law, stability, freedom from fear.
3. Love and belongingness needs - friendship, intimacy,
affection and love, - from work group, family, friends,
4. Esteem needs - achievement, mastery, independence,
status, dominance, prestige, self-respect, respect from
5. Self-Actualization needs - realizing personal potential,
self-fulfillment , seeking personal growth and peak
7. Dislike working.
Avoid responsibility and need to be directed.
Have to be controlled, forced, and threatened to
deliver what's needed.
Need to be supervised at every step, with
controls put in place.
Need to be enticed to produce results; otherwise
they have no ambition or incentive to work.
X-Type organizations tend to be top heavy, with
managers and supervisors required at every step
to control workers. There is little delegation of
authority and control remains firmly centralized.
9. Take responsibility and are motivated to fulfil
the goals they are given.
Seek and accept responsibility and do not
need much direction.
Consider work as a natural part of life and
solve work problems imaginatively.
Enjoy their work.
Able to solve problem.
Want to make a contribution.
11. Management Style and Control
In a Theory X organization, management is authoritarian, and
centralized control is retained, whilst in Theory Y, the
management style is participative: Management involves
employees in decision making, but retains power to implement
Theory X employees tend to have specialized and often repetitive
work. In Theory Y, the work tends to be organized around wider
areas of skill or knowledge; Employees are also encouraged to
develop expertise and make suggestions and improvements.
Rewards and Appraisals
Theory X organizations work on a ‘carrot and stick’ basis, and
performance appraisal is part of the overall mechanisms of
control and remuneration. In Theory Y organizations, appraisal is
also regular and important, but is usually a separate mechanism
from organizational controls. Theory Y organizations also give
employees frequent opportunities for promotion.
12. According to the Two Factor Theory of Herzberg
people are influenced by two factors. Satisfaction
and psychological growth was a factor of motivation
factors. Dissatisfaction was a result of hygiene
Hygiene factors are needed to ensure an employee
does not become dissatisfied. They do not need to
higher level of motivation, but without them there is
Motivation factors are needed in order to motivate
an employee into higher performance. These factors
result from internal generators in employees.
13. Working conditions
Quality of supervision
Company policies and administration
Recognition for achievement
Responsibility for task
Interest in the job
Advancement to higher level tasks
15. David McClelland describes three central
motivational paradigms: achievement,
affiliation and power.
People who are strongly achievement-
motivated are driven by the desire for
mastery. They prefer working on tasks
of moderate difficulty in which
outcomes are the result of their effort
rather than of luck.
They value receiving feedback on their
People who are strongly affiliation-motivated are
driven by the desire to create and maintain social
relationships. They enjoy belonging to a group and
want to feel loved and accepted. They may not
make effective managers because they may worry too
much about how others will feel about them.
People who are strongly power-motivated are driven
by the desire to influence, teach, or encourage others.
They enjoy work and place a high value on discipline.
However, they may take a zero-sum approach to
group work—for one person to win, or succeed,
another must lose, or fail. If channelled appropriately,
though, this can positively support group goals and
help others in the group feel competent about their
17. Leadership concept that the subordinates accept
a leader's behaviour only so far as they view it as
resulting in immediate or future benefit. Thus, a
leader's main function is to 'clear a path' to
the realization of the subordinates' goals; he or she
must choose the behaviour patterns that are most
applicable in helping the subordinates get what
The theory that specific and difficult goals lead to
Goals tell an employee what needs to be done and
how much effort will need to be expended.
Specific goals increase performance; that difficult
goals, when accepted, result in higher performance
18. Specific hard goals produce a higher level of output
than does the generalized goal of "do your best."
◦ The specificity of the goal itself acts as an
◦ Be sure to note the importance of goal
commitment, self-efficacy, task characteristics,
and national culture on goal-setting theory.
19. Job design is the systematic and purposeful
allocation of tasks to individuals and groups
within an organization.
23. A counterpoint to the goal-setting theory.
In reinforcement theory, a behaviouristic approach,
which argues that reinforcement conditions behaviour.
Reinforcement theorists see behaviour as being
Reinforcement theory ignores the inner state of the
individual and concentrates solely on what happens to
a person when he or she takes some action.
Because it does not concern itself with what initiates
behaviour, it is not, strictly speaking, a theory of
It does however provide a powerful means of analysis
of what controls behaviour.
24. Adams' Equity Theory calls for a fair balance to
be struck between an employee's inputs (hard
work, skill level, acceptance, enthusiasm, and
so on) and an employee's outputs (salary,
benefits, intangibles such as recognition, and
25. To do this, consider the balance or imbalance
that currently exists between your employee's
inputs and outputs, as follows:
Inputs typically include:
26. Financial rewards (such as salary, benefits,
Intangibles that typically include:
The theory argues that managers should seek to
find a fair balance between the inputs that an
employee gives, and the outputs received.
And according to the theory, employees should be
content where they perceive these to be in
27. Expectancy is the belief that increased effort
will lead to increased performance i.e. if I
work harder then this will be better. This is
affected by such things as:
Having the right resources available (e.g. raw
Having the right skills to do the job
Having the necessary support to get the job
done (e.g. supervisor support, or correct
information on the job)
28. Instrumentality is the belief that if you perform
well that a valued outcome will be received. The
degree to which a first level outcome will lead to
the second level outcome. i.e. if I do a good job,
there is something in it for me. This is affected
by such things as:
Clear understanding of the relationship between
performance and outcomes – e.g. the rules of the
Trust in the people who will take the decisions on
who gets what outcome
Transparency of the process that decides who
gets what outcome
29. Cross-cultural challenges
Although most current motivation theories were
developed in U.S. and validated with American
workers, the ways how to motivate employees are
different in many countries and depends on their
cultural characteristics. Managers should
understand deeply cultural characteristics
before they design and launch any motivational
program. Despite these cross-cultural
differences in motivation, there are some cross-
cultural consistencies such as the desire for
interesting work, growth, achievement, and
30. The employees have different needs,
personalities, skills, abitilities , interest,
aptitude, and vary widely in what they want
from their jobs. Hence, motivating unique
groups of workers has never been an easy task.
1)Motivating a diverse workforce: To motivate
employees with such diverse needs, managers
should use flexible work arrangement such as:
31. 2)Motivating Professionals
Characteristics of professionals :
Strong and long-term commitment to their field of
Loyalty is to their profession, not to the employer.
Have a need to regularly update their knowledge.
Barely define their workweek as 8:00 am to 5:00
pm. five days per week.
32. Motivating programs for professionals :
Organizational support of their works.
3)Motivating contingent workers
For that small set of individuals who prefer the
freedom of their temporary status, the lack of
stability may not be an issue. But for the temporary
employees are not temporary by choice, these are
the answers how to motivate them :
An opportunity to become a permanent employee
Opportunity for training
Equity in compensation and benefits
4)Motivating low-skilled, minimum
To motivate minimum-wage employees,
managers should use: