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Survival Of The Fittest Or Survival In Captivity By Martin Cj Mongiello

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Survival Of The Fittest Or Survival In Captivity By Martin Cj Mongiello

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Survival Of The Fittest Or Survival In Captivity By Martin Cj Mongiello

  1. 1. Mongiello Page 1 of 7 Survival of the fittest or survival in captivity? Where is the Lost Colony today… that first settled America? By Martin CJ Mongiello For Professor Preston Lewis Western Civilization I The Art Institute of Charlotte The Art Institute of Pittsburgh Online Survival of the fittest or survival in captivity - where is the Lost Colony today that first settled America?
  2. 2. Mongiello Page 2 of 7 INTRODUCTION: Survival of the fittest or survival in captivity - where is the Lost Colony today that first settled America? Did they sail away and founder at sea or were they really killed off by the Spanish? Survival by any means may exist with documented records and investigation. Which of the stories will you believe? First, it is important to understand the difference between establishing Colonies to enslave local populations (in the attainment of gold and other items sent back to Europe) versus the establishment of Colonies to set up humans - who will multiply. ON MULTIPLICATION: Multiplication of human beings is a very important factor for any empire in that items can be cultivated and sent back to the master. In addition, the colonists will need things, which naturally must be purchased from the master. In the case of some other items not being obtained from the master, then the master will establish a tax on imports, and still get paid. This is a fantastic system to establish, for any King or Queen. As the years had gone by, Spain’s conquests in the new world provided intense power and riches. Spain grew so powerful, bolstered by her successes, that she readily engaged with the governments of Portugal, Italy, the Netherlands, France and England, often at her own free will, and unasked to comment. England, ruled by Queen Elizabeth I in 1570, knew the Spanish already had spies in her court. She was not stupid in her attempts to set up explorers, mining operations, and full colonies. HER MOVES ON THE CHESS BOARD: In the lat 1570’s, Martin Frobisher made three voyages to Labrador looking for gold. In 1577, Francis Drake set off in his famed, “Golden Hind,” for three Survival of the fittest or survival in captivity - where is the Lost Colony today that first settled America?
  3. 3. Mongiello Page 3 of 7 years around the world. Spain and England set off a massive battle, against one another, and claimed numerous firsts in the settlement of Saint Augustine, Florida in 1565 - as well as the exploration of the San Diego bay, in 1542, by Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo. Urgency became the name of the day as Sir Francis Drake sailed his ship into San Francisco bay in 1579. The English were giving the Spanish quite a whipping now. Drake had also stolen millions of dollars in treasure, taken in raids on the Spaniards. All of which was turned over to Queen Elizabeth - and stored away in the tower of London. These ventures in the new world could be profitable and must continue to be expanded! To that end, Sir Humphrey Gilbert was dispatched in complete secrecy in the year of 1578. The specific instructions given by the Queen to Gilbert were, “to search, find out, and view such remote, heathen, and barbarous lands, countries, and territories not actually possessed of any Christian people or prince”. Although his adventures were partly successful, the Queen’s advisers urged her to consider that the winters in North America were long and cold and would provide excellent sales of English woolen goods. Also, of great importance was the fact that, furs were very popular in Paris. Since there was so much wildlife, these would be in great abundance and could be sold - as well as taxed! Large deposits of copper were being reported by the French and vast supplies of fish were available for resale. All of these items could be taxed. The flow of cash back home would be tremendous. Therefore, in 1584, two barks would leave and head for the Carolina’s to establish a colony on the new island called Roanoke. ROANOKE IS ESTABLISHED: In June of 1585, Sir Richard Grenville, assembled the first of his colonists to travel to America and landed on Roanoke Island. He called this, “her majesty’s new kingdom of Virginia”. Part of his reports described sweet trees, grapes, flax similar to silk, and Survival of the fittest or survival in captivity - where is the Lost Colony today that first settled America?
  4. 4. Mongiello Page 4 of 7 apothecary drugs. He left about 100 colonists on Roanoke who spent their time searching for gold and arguing with the local Indians – instead of planting crops and cultivating the new world. Not a smart idea for this first group. While they waited for a promised, new ship, to arrive with supplies, a tremendous hurricane hit North Carolina (then, technically the island of Roanoke in Virginia). It took the settlers to the psychological breaking point. Help was on the way, though, as Sir Francis Drake had been raiding and destroying towns all over the West Indies, suddenly torched Saint Augustine, and then sailed with precision to the Roanoke colony. He was awash with supplies, compassion and food. However, as they were shaken to their knees (with no crops to feed from) and the recent hurricane, Drake agreed to take them home in failure. THE LOST COLONY IS NOT LOST: Now, I propose that not all of them most likely headed home. Anyone would suppose, that at least one or two would secretly agree to stay. Certainly, there were adventurers in the group and this combination - with stout, brave, strong men leads any sane explorer, woodsman or mountain man to realize it must be true. The challenge occurs with historians who rule textbook and novel writing, via bureaucracy, and whom have never explored in the wilderness, nor lived in the wilds and practiced old world skills. Many of those who do understand these findings today, are called living historians, reenactors and educational living historians. I have already proven, in records, that the Queen advocated secret missions and was a staunch supporter of covert activities, with Sir Humphrey Gilbert, as well as many others. I will further prove my theories. Survival of the fittest or survival in captivity - where is the Lost Colony today that first settled America?
  5. 5. Mongiello Page 5 of 7 Thereafter, the previously promised supply ship arrived and found no one in the colony, turned back and headed for England. Grenville then appeared with three ships and spent days frantically trying to find his colonists. As he refused to give up, he dispatched 15 men into the colony with enough stores and provision to last for two years. In April of 1587, another expedition under John White was sent to Roanoke and found the fort demolished. Part of the problem with this expedition was that only one skeleton was found. White decided to rebuild the fort along with several houses and named it, “the Citie of Raleigh in Virginia”. It was here that his granddaughter, Virginia Dare, was born as the first child of an English family in North America. Then he returned to England, himself. However, as every single ship England owned, was needed to fight the great Spanish Armada of 130 vessels with 2500 guns – White’s mission was swallowed completely. THE LOST COLONY OF ROANOKE SURVIVES: After four years, John White finally returned with his supplies to the mysterious colony. No one was found, yet he did find the word CROATOAN carved into a tree - and CRO on another. “There are some people who believe descendants of the colonists now reside in Robeson County, North Carolina. There, the Lumbee people, a tribe with 40,000-plus members, have lived for centuries. Many Lumbee are confident that their ancestors migrated from the Outer Banks to the swampy marshland that is now Robeson Country. One primary advocate of this theory was Adolph Dial, a Lumbee historian whose 1975 book, The Only Land I Know, co-written with David Eliades, details the history of his people, including one assertion Dial was sure of. “The circumstantial evidence, when joined with logic, unquestionably supports the Lumbee tradition that there was a real and lasting connection with the Raleigh Settlement. Proponents of the Lost Survival of the fittest or survival in captivity - where is the Lost Colony today that first settled America?
  6. 6. Mongiello Page 6 of 7 Colony-Lumbee connection point to how Anglicized the tribe became. The Lumbee people have long spoken English and followed Protestant religious traditions. Nor did they undergo the forced migrations that other Native American tribes suffered through, because of their mixed-race status and because the tribe enacted early agreements with various governmental bodies to avoid displacement and the grossest forms of injustice. Today, the Lumbee people are one of the most prosperous and educated tribes in the United States, thanks largely to UNC-Pembroke, a university originally founded in 1887 as a school for the Lumbee. It’s at UNCP’s Native American Resource Center that much of the academic research into the history of the Lumbee people has taken place. One of the foremost scholars on Lumbee tradition is Knick, the center’s director. He says there is plenty of evidence that could suggest that the Lost Colony and the Lumbee are connected. Many modern Lumbee surnames match up with surnames found among the Roanoke settlers, he says, and contemporary Lumbee oral history is filled with tales that assert a similar connection”, (Whirty). More than likely, a combination of attacks by the Indians and attacks by the Spanish helped to clear out the fort. At the same time, it is highly likely that some of the settlers migrated into the Indians at peace, or by capture, and lived out their days with them. In 1603, the Queen died and James I assumed command believing that the new world offered the only hope for the starving and jobless, after years of wars with Spain. The colonies would become a priority now. ------------------------------------------ Supporting Data: "1588, An eye-witness account of the New World was provided by "A Briefe and True Account of the New Found Land of Virginia," written by Thomas Harriot. It recounted English attempts from 1584-1588 to colonize what later became known as eastern North Carolina Survival of the fittest or survival in captivity - where is the Lost Colony today that first settled America?
  7. 7. Mongiello Page 7 of 7 and encouraged further settlement and investment there. In 1590 Flemish engraver Theodor de Bry published an illustrated edition featuring paintings by English colonist John White." (TL- MB, 1988, p.24)(Arch, 5/05, p.26) http://timelines.ws/1575_1599.HTML I am reading and reviewing three books as cited below and planning a trip to THE LOST COLONY on the outer banks. Estes, R. "Where have all the Indians Gone? Native American Eastern Seaboard Dispersal, Genealogy, and DNA in Relation to Sir Walter Raleigh's Lost Colony of Roanoke." (2009)Print. Miller, L. Roanoke: Solving the Mystery of the Lost Colony. Arcade Publishing, 2001. Print. Padget, C. D. "The Lost Indians of the Lost Colony: A Critical Legal Study of the Lumbee Indians of North Carolina." American Indian Law Review 21.2 (1997): 391-424. Print. Thotex, E., L. Emsworth, and K. Wick. US History. Ioss, LLC. Print. Whirty, R. The Lost Colony of Roanoke, Natives People magazine, March/April 2007, Written by Ryan Whirty, History Department. 10 Sep. 2010 http://www.lost- colony.com/magazineNP.html Willard, F. L. "Sassafras in the New World and the Syphilis Exchange”. (2009) Print. Willard, F. "Raleigh's 1587 Lost Colony: Conspiracy, Spies, Secrets & Lies." Print. Survival of the fittest or survival in captivity - where is the Lost Colony today that first settled America?