What is a Robot…?
A re-programmable, multifunctional, automatic
industrial machine designed to replace human in
hazardous work. It can be used as :-
•An automatic machine sweeper
•An automatic car for a child to play with
•A machine removing mines in a war field
•In military , and many more..
• The word robot was introduced to the
public by Czech writer Karel
Capek(1890-1938) in his play R.U.R.
(Rossum's Universal Robots), published
in 1920. The play begins in a factory
that makes artificial people called
robots . Capek was reportedly several
times a candidate for the Nobel prize
for his works .
• The word "robotics", used to
describe this field of study, was
coined accidentally by the Russian
–born , American scientist and
science fiction writer, Isaac
Asimov(1920-1992) in 1940s.
• Asimov also proposed his three "Laws of
Robotics", and he later added a “zeroth law”.
• Zeroth Law : A robot may not injure
humanity, or, through inaction, allow
humanity to come to harm
• First Law : A robot may not injure a human
being, or, through inaction, allow a human
being to come to harm, unless this would
violate a higher order law
• Second Law: A robot must obey orders given
it by human beings, except where such orders
would conflict with a higher order law
• Third Law : A robot must protect its own
existence as long as such protection does not
conflict with a higher order law.
• Most industrial robots have at least the following five
Types of Robots
• The most common types of Robots are..
Mobile robots are able to move, usually they
perform task such as search areas. A prime
example is the Mars Explorer, specifically
designed to roam the mars surface.
Mobile robots are a great help to such
collapsed building for survivors Mobile robots
are used for task where people cannot
go. Either because it is too dangerous of
because people cannot reach the area that
needs to be searched.
• Mobile robots are of two types….
• Rolling robots have wheels to move
around. They can quickly and easily
search. However they are only useful in
• Robots on legs are usually brought in
when the terrain is rocky. Most robots
have at least 4 legs; usually they have 6
• Robots are not only used to explore areas or
imitate a human being. Most robots perform
repeating tasks without ever moving an
inch. Most robots are ‘working’ in industry
settings. Especially dull and repeating tasks
are suitable for robots. A robot never grows
tired, it will perform its duty day and night
without ever complaining. In case the tasks at
hand are done, the robots will be
reprogrammed to perform other tasks..
Autonomous robots are self supporting or in other words self
contained. In a way they rely on their own ‘brains’.
Autonomous robots run a program that give them the
opportunity to decide on the action to perform depending on
their surroundings. At times these robots even learn new
behavior. They start out with a short routine and adapt this
routine to be more successful at the task they perform. The
most successful routine will be repeated as such their
behavior is shaped. Autonomous robots can learn to walk or
avoid obstacles they find in their way. Think about a six
legged robot, at first the legs move ad random, after a little
while the robot adjust its program and performs a pattern
which enables it to move in a direction.
An autonomous robot is despite its autonomous not a
very clever or intelligent unit. The memory and brain
capacity is usually limited, an autonomous robot can be
compared to an insect in that respect.
In case a robot needs to perform more complicated yet
undetermined tasks an autonomous robot is not the right
Complicated tasks are still best performed by human
beings with real brainpower. A person can guide a robot
by remote control. A person can perform difficult and
usually dangerous tasks without being at the spot where
the tasks are performed. To detonate a bomb it is safer
to send the robot to the danger area.
• Virtual robots don’t exits In real life. Virtual
robots are just programs, building blocks of
software inside a computer.
• Robots offer specific benefits to workers, industries and countries. If
introduced correctly, industrial robots can improve the quality of
life by freeing workers from dirty, boring, dangerous and heavy
labor. it is true that robots can cause unemployment by replacing
human workers but robots also create jobs: robot technicians,
salesmen, engineers, programmers and supervisors.
The benefits of robots to industry include improved management
control and productivity and consistently high quality products.
Industrial robots can work tirelessly night and day on an assembly
line without an loss in performance.
Consequently, they can greatly reduce the costs of manufactured
goods. As a result of these industrial benefits, countries that
effectively use robots in their industries will have an economic
advantage on world market.
Going to far away planets.
Going far down into the unknown waters and mines
where humans would be crushed
Giving us information that humans can't get
Working at places 24/7 without any salary and food.
Plus they don't get bored
They can perform tasks faster than humans and much
more consistently and accurately
Most of them are automatic so they can go around by
themselves without any human interference.
People can lose jobs in factories
It needs a supply of power
It needs maintenance to keep it
It costs money to make or buy a
• Today we find most robots working for people in
industries, factories, warehouses, and laboratories.
Robots are useful in many ways. For instance, it
boosts economy because businesses need to be
efficient to keep up with the industry competition.
Therefore, having robots helps business owners to be
competitive, because robots can do jobs better and
faster than humans can, e.g. robot can built,
assemble a car. Yet robots cannot perform every job;
today robots roles include assisting research and
industry. Finally, as the technology improves, there
will be new ways to use robots which will bring new
hopes and new potentials.