1922 Czech author Karel Capek wrote a
story called Rossum’s Universal Robots and
introduced the word “Rabota”(meaning
1954 George Devol developed the
first programmable Robot.
1955 Denavit and Hartenberg developed
the homogenous transformation matrices
1962 Unimation was formed, first
industrial Robots appeared.
A robot can be defined as a computer controlled machine with some
degrees of freedom.
that is, the ability to move about in its environment.
A robot typically has
sensors to sense its environment, particularly to make sure it does not hit any obstacles in
goals (otherwise there is no need to have the robot)
planning to determine how to accomplish those goals
some robots are pre-programmed with the plan steps to carry out the given goals so planning is not
path planning to determine how to move about its environment using the available degrees
this may be the motion of an arm to pick something up or it may be a series of movements to
physically move it from location 1 to location 2
4. Defined by Robotics Industry
Association (RIA) as
a re-programmable, multifunctional
manipulator designed to move material,
parts, tools or specialized devices
through variable programmed motion for
a variety of tasks
possess certain anthropomorphic
sensors to respond to input
Intelligence to make decisions
5. Law of Robotics
Three Laws of Robotics are:-
A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human
being to come to harm.
A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings except where such
orders would conflict with the First Law.
A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not
conflict with the First or Second Laws.
6. Robot Classification
The following is the classification of Robots according to the Robotics Institute of
Variable-Sequence Robot : A device that performs the successive stages of
a task according to a predetermined method easy to modify.
Playback Robot :A human operator performs the task manually by leading the
Numerical Control Robot : The operator supplies the movement program
rather than teaching it the task manually.
Intelligent Robot : A robot with the means to understand its environment and
the ability to successfully complete a task despite changes to the environment.
7. Robot Accessories
A Robot is a system, consists of the following elements, which are integrated to form a
Manipulator / Rover : This is the main body of the Robot and consists of links,
joints and structural elements of the Robot.
End Effector : This is the part that generally handles objects, makes connection to
other machines, or performs the required tasks.
It can vary in size and complexity from a endeffector on the space shuttle to a small
8. Acutators : Actuators are the muscles of the manipulators. Common types of
actuators are servomotors, stepper motors, pneumatic cylinders etc.
Sensors : Sensors are used to collect information about the internal state of the
robot or to communicate with the outside environment. Robots are often equipped
with external sensory devices such as a vision system, touch and tactile sensors etc
which help to communicate with the environment
Controller : The controller receives data from the computer, controls the motions
of the actuator and coordinates these motions with the sensory feedback information.
9. Robot Type
Some of the most commonly used Robots are:-
Cartesian co-ordinate Robots : It is also called as “Linear
Robot”.In this type of Robot The principle axis of control are Linear( They move in
straight line rather than rotate).It is a very simple kind of Robot.
13. Selective Compliance Assembly Robot
They have two revolute joints that are parallel and allow the Robot to move in a
horizontal plane, plus an additional prismatic joint that moves vertically.
14. Parallel Robot:-
A parallel manipulator is a mechanical system that uses several computer control
series chain to support a single platform, or end-effector.Generally used in flight
Critical/complex work can be
Less labour required
Can work which is complex
High accuracy with precision
No fatigue like human feel while
High intial cost.
High maintainance cost.
Regular maintenance required.
Skilled labour required.
Special training required for controlling
Welding and others.
Automation in industries.