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MicroGrid and Energy Storage System COMPLETE DETAILS NEW PPT

  2. OUTLINE • Introduction to Microgrid. • The Need of Microgrids. • Components of Microgrids. • Microgrid Operating Modes. • Need for ESSs in Microgrids. • Energy storage technologies. • Advantages & Disadvantages of Microgrid. • On going Microgrid activities. • Future Directions on Microgrid Research. • References. 2 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUNNAR
  3. INTRODUCTION TO MICROGRID •What is Microgrid? •A group of interconnected loads and distributed energy resources within clearly defined electrical boundaries that acts as a single controllable entity with respect to the grid. •Enables local power generation for local loads. •Comprises of various small power generating sources that makes it highly flexible and efficient.3 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUNNAR
  4. INTRODUCTION TO MICROGRID •What is Microgrid? •It is connected to both the local generating units and the utility grid thus preventing power outages. •Excess power can be sold to the utility grid. •Size of the Microgrid may range from housing estate to municipal regions. 4 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUNNAR
  5. KEY ATTRIBUTES OF MICROGRID •Grouping of interconnected loads and distributed energy resources •Can operate in island mode or grid-connected if desired •Acts as a single controllable entity to the grid 5 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUNNAR
  6. THE NEED OF MICROGRID • Microgrid could be the answer to our energy crisis. • Transmission losses gets highly reduced. • Microgrid results in substantial savings and cuts emissions without major changes to lifestyles. • Provide high quality and reliable energy supply to critical loads 6 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUNNAR
  7. COMPONENTS OF MICROGRID •Distributed Generation •Loads •Energy storage systems •Static disconnect switch •Controller •Mode switching device •Point of Common Coupling 7 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUNNAR
  8. Hybrid AC/DC Microgrids Main Utility Grid PCC Household appliances and electronics DC Coupled Subsystem 8 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUNNAR
  10. THE NEED OF MICROGRID • Microgrid could be the answer to our energy crisis. • Transmission losses gets highly reduced. • Microgrid results in substantial savings and cuts emissions without major changes to lifestyles. • Provide high quality and reliable energy supply to critical loads 10 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUNNAR
  11. MICROGRID OPERATING MODES • Grid Connected Mode: • Utility grid is active. • Static switch is closed • All the feeders are being supplied by utility grid. 11 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUNNAR
  12. Main Utility Grid PCC Household appliances and electronics DC Coupled Subsystem 12 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUNNAR
  13. MICROGRID OPERATING MODES • Island Mode: • Utility grid is not supplying power • Static switch is open. • Feeder A, B, C are being supplied by Microsources. • Feeder D (not sensitive ) is dead. 13 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUNNAR
  14. Household appliances and electronics DC Coupled Subsystem 14 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUNNAR
  16. NEEDS OF ESS IN MICROGRIDS • Crucial element in the integration of DG into Microgrid. • Critical role in stabilising the voltage and frequency. 17 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUNNAR
  17. 18 ENERGY STORAGE IN MICROGRID High Performance: • Avoid costly downtime and battery replacements • Very high cycle life • Extremely abuse tolerant • Ability to stand at partial state of charge • High efficiency • Self-balancing • Wide operating temperature range • Minimal degradation COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUNNAR
  18.  Safe: • Inherently safe chemistry • Not flammable, explosive, or corrosive • No dangerous or toxic components  Sustainable: • Simple, abundant, nontoxic materials • Environmentally benign materials • No corrosive acids or noxious fumes • Suitable for deployment globally Excellent Economics: • Industry-leading total cost of ownership • Low acquisition costs ($/kWh) • Better value than lead acid or lithium ion • No regular maintenance • No thermal management • No active management required 19 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUNNAR
  19. ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM  ESS include electrochemical battery, super capacitor, compressed air energy storage, super conducting energy storage, flywheel energy storage etc. .  Lithium ion is commonly used because best energy to weight ratio and slow loss of charge when not in use.  ESS store energy at the time of surplus and redispatch it when needed. 20 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUNNAR
  20.  ESS plays an important role in microgrid.  Sizing of ESS to be considered first when considering ESS in Microgrid.  ESS increase the reliability of power system.  The cost of ESS includes one time ESS cost and the annual maintenance cost.  The battery storage system made up of small battery blocks. ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEM 21 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUNNAR
  21. ESS IN ISLANDED MICROGRID  Sizing of a suitable battery bank in terms of power and energy help in shaving the peak demand.  Stores excess renewable energy and supply load when renewable energy is low.  When ESS discharges its energy to power grid, its generating positive real power 22 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUNNAR
  22. ESS IN GRID CONNECTED MICROGRID  The upstream grid can be treated as bidirectional generator which generate positive power when power is transferred from the MG and generate negative power when the power transferred from the Microgrid to upstream grid.  The output of bidirectional generator is limited by the capacity of transmission line between the Microgrid and upstream grid. 23 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUNNAR
  23. ENERGY STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES • Ultracapacitors. • Superconducting magnetic ESS. • Compressed air. • Pumped hydro. • Fuel cells. • Fly wheels. • Batteries. 24 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUNNAR
  24. TYPES OF BATTERIES •Nickel Cadmium. •Lead Acid. •Li-ion. 25 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUNNAR
  25. ON GOING MICROGRID ACTIVITIES •CERTS *Demonstrated in Santa Rita jail, in California *Main objective- Reduce Microgrid system cost Increase reliability 26 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUNNAR
  27. •SPIDERS program •Illinois Institute of Technologies perfect power system 28 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUNNAR
  28. CONVENTIONAL GRID VS. MICROGRID •Efficiency of conventional grid is very low as compared to Microgrid. •Large amount of energy in the form of heat is wasted in conventional grid. •Power sources in case of Microgrid (often referred to as Microsources) are small and are located in close proximity to load. 29 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUNNAR
  29. ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES • Microgrid Advantages • A major advantage of a Microgrid, is its ability, during a utility grid disturbance, to separate and isolate itself from the utility seamlessly with little or no disruption to the loads within the Microgrid. • In peak load periods it prevents utility grid failure by reducing the load on the grid. • Significant environmental benefits made possible by the use of low or zero emission generators. 30 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUNNAR
  30. ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES • Microgrid Advantages • The use of both electricity and heat permitted by the close proximity of the generator to the user, thereby increasing the overall energy efficiency. • Microgrid can act to mitigate the electricity costs to its users by generating some or all of its electricity needs. 31 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUNNAR
  31. ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES • Microgrid Disadvantages • Voltage, frequency and power quality are three main parameters that must be considered and controlled to acceptable standards whilst the power and energy balance is maintained. • Electrical energy needs to be stored in battery banks thus requiring more space and maintenance. • Resynchronization with the utility grid is difficult. 32 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUNNAR
  32. ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES • Microgrid Disadvantages • Microgrid protection is one of the most important challenges facing the implementation of Microgrids. • Issues such as standby charges and net metering may pose obstacles for Microgrid. • Interconnection standards needs to be developed to ensure consistency. IEEE P1547, a standard proposed by Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers may end up filling the void.33 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUNNAR
  33. FUTURE DIRECTIONS ON MICROGRID RESEARCH • To investigate full-scale development, field demonstration, experimental performance evaluation of frequency and voltage control methods under various operation modes. • Transition between grid connected and islanded modes on interaction phenomena between distribution generation and high penetration of distributed generation. • Transformation of Microgrid system today into the intelligent, robust energy delivery system in the future by providing significant reliability and security benefits. 34 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUNNAR
  34. FUTURE SCOPE • In the near future when cost of Microgrid system will be affordable then Microgrids will become more popular and conventional grid will be replaced by Micro grid. • Research are going such as to increase stability and reliability of the Microgrid for effecttive working. 35 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUNNAR
  35. CONCLUSION • Micro-Grid gives impetus to the use of Renewable sources of energy. • Reliability is achieved due to decentralization of supply. • In an event of Power Grid failure Micro-Grid is one of the best alternatives. 36 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUNNAR
  36. REFERENCES • [1] H. Rongxian , L. Zhiwen , C. Yaoming , W. Fu and R. Guoguang "DC micro-grid simulation test platform", Proc. 9thTaiwan Power Electron. Conf., pp.1361 -1366 2010 • [2] S. Morozumi "Micro-grid demonstration projects in Japan", Proc. IEEE Power Convers. Conf., pp.635 -642 Apr. 2007 • [3] YUAN Vue, LI Zhenjie, FENG Yu. "Development Purposes, Orientations and prospects of microgrid in China". Automation of Electric Power Systems (in Chinese), voU, pp.59-64., Apr. 2010. • [4] LU Zongxiang, WANG Caixia, MIN Y ong. "Overview on microgrid research". Automation of Electric Power Systemsvo1.l9, pp.lOO-l06, Apr. 2007. 37 COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING MUNNAR
  37. 38 Another version of this ppt is available without videos on following link size:4mb
  38. 39 For other reference papers in this topic and if you have any doubts contact me
  39. THANK YOU 40
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