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Health Education Methods
and Materials
By: Abraham Tamirat (BSc, MPH)
Email: abrishntamirat@gmail.com
Jimma University ,Co...
Outline
What is health education method?
Common health education methods
Information Education Communication (IEC)
mate...
Learning outcomes
At the end of this session, you will be able to,
 Differentiate method and materials
 Describe common ...
Health Education Methods
 Methods refers to ways through which
messages are conveyed to achieve a desired
behavioral chan...
Common teaching method in health
education
Informal methods
1. Health talk
2. Lecture
3. Brainstorming
4. Group discussion...
1. Health talks
 When talks are on health
agenda we call it health
talks.
 It is the most natural way
of communicating w...
2. Lecture
 It is oral, simple, quick
and traditional way of
presentation of the
subject matter.
 Presents factual
mater...
Forms of lecture
• Teacher is the only speaker
Traditional
lecture
• Begins with learner
brainstorming and use pause in
be...
3. Group discussion
 The participants have equal
chance to express freely and
exchange ideas
 The subject of discussion ...
Group D…
Strengths
 Pools ideas and experiences from group
 Effective after a presentation, film or experience
that need...
4. Buzz group
 A large group is divided
into small group, of not
more than 10 or 12 people
in each small group and
they h...
5. Brainstorming
 Instead of discussing the problem at great length the
participants encouraged to make a list in a short...
Brainstorming…
Strengths
 Allows creative thinking for new ideas
 Encourages full participation because all ideas
equall...
6. Demonstration
 “Showing how is
better than telling
how.”
 Although basically
focuses on
practice/skill it
involves th...
Demonstration …
Note that,
 You remember 20% of what you hear
 You remember 50% of what you hear and
see
 You remember ...
Demonstration …
 Demonstration can be used with individuals and
small groups.
 If the group is too large, members will n...
7. Role-play
 A type of drama in a simplified manner. It
portrays expected behavior of people.
 A role-play is a spontan...
Role play….
 Few minutes for instruction and 5-10
minutes for them to plan & think
 A role play should last about 20 min...
8. Drama
 Drama is a presentation, in which the subject
matter or topic is studied well either written or
in words, and t...
Drama…
Audiences identify with characters and
settings
 In a serial drama, for example, if the
characters and settings ar...
Many dramas portray positive, negative, and
transitional role models.
 Positive characters: model healthy values
and beha...
9. Case study
Case Study: is an in-depth analysis of
real or simulated problems that help
audiences to identify problems ...
11. Traditional media
1) Poems
2) Songs
3) Proverbs
4) Dances with songs
5) Fable
6) Games
7) Stories
8) Town criers etc.
...
Traditional media …
Traditional Medias are useful for the following
reasons
 They are realistic and based on the daily li...
Selection methods for health education
• Consider the following things before choosing
health education methods.
1. How re...
4. What resources are available?
5. What mixture of methods is needed?
6. Subject matter
7. Limitations of time
8. What me...
Note that
 It is important thing to remember that effective
health education is seldom achieved through the
use of one me...
Scientific methods
28By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
2.Formal methods-Scientific methods
1. Seminar:
 A seminar is a lecture or presentation
delivered to an audience on a par...
Formal methods…
2. workshop
 is a period of discussion and practical work on
a particular subject in which a group of peo...
Formal methods…
 It also means a group working together,
on a creative project, discussing a topic, or
studying a subject...
Formal methods …
3. Symposium
 is typically a more formal or academic
gathering, featuring multiple experts
delivering sh...
Formal methods…
4. Conference: Conference refers to meeting for
lectures of discussion where representative of
various sta...
Scientific methods…
5. Panel discussion: is a meeting where
experts (two or more) are invited to make
short presentation o...
HLM…
 Health learning materials: are those teaching
aids which give information and instruction
about health specifically...
Role of IEC materials in behavior change
communication
 Can speak to the people without the presence of
communicator.
 I...
Role…
 It can motivate the public to seek for further
information.
 Some IEC materials serve as means of
delivering heal...
Health Learning Materials (HLMs)
There are four types of health learning
materials:
1. Printed HLMs
2. Visual HLMs
3. Audi...
1. Printed health learning materials
 It is the production of multiple copies of an
original image usually using ink pres...
Print materials ….
 Example of print IEC materials
1. Poster
2. flipcharts
3. leaflets
4. booklets
5. cards
6. News paper...
Poster
 Poster is a large
sheet of paper
ranging in size
from large bill
boards to small
notices.
43
• But often it has
a...
Poster ..
A poster consists
of ;
 words and
 pictures or
symbols that
include a
message on it.
44By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
Content of poster
 All words in a
poster should be in
language the
community
understand or in
two languages.
 The words ...
content …
 The symbols/
picture used
should be
understood
irrespective of
educational
status.
46
Asendabo HC
By :ATG(BSc,...
content…
 Put only one idea on a poster.
47By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
content…
 The poster should encourage practice-
action oriented.
48By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
content…
 It is better to use life picture if possible.
49By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
content …
The picture/message should not be out of reality
50By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
51
The synchronize between the text and picture
and color should be eye catching
By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
 Posters should
contain the
following
information
 The year of
publication
 The place
 The
sponsoring
organization
52B...
Purpose of posters
• To reinforce/remind a message the public is
receiving through other channels.
• To give information a...
Poster storage and utilization
• Store poster in safe place
• Post them in a place where many people can see
them when pas...
Misused poster, jimma zone, HCs
55By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
Misused poster, Jimma zone, HCs
56By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
Flip chart
• Are a series of pictures
that are bound together,
usually at the top, and can
be turned over by the
educator....
Flip charts …
Purpose
• To give information and instructions
Content
• There should be a single separate idea on a
chart.
...
Flip chart…
59By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
Leaflet or flyer (handbill)
 Leaflet or flyer is usually a short, often urgent,
written message printed on just one side ...
Brochure
 A brochure is a glorified/modified leaflet.
 It is still a single sheet of paper but it's longer,
folded up in...
Purpose of flyers and brochures
 They are useful reinforcement for individual and
group sessions
 Serve as a reminder of...
Leaflet/brochures …
 The content of the leaflet/brochures should
CARE
 C be clear – have something to say and say it
 A...
2. Visual health learning materials
• Include something seen, for example models, real
objects, and photographs.
• Written...
Visuals ….
Real objects
 Are just that-real. If your display is on
‘family planning methods’, you would display
real IUDs...
Models
 Are three dimensional objects which look
like the real objects.
 Models might be used for 3 reasons:
1. If the r...
Model might be used for 3 reason:
1. If the real objects
are not available.
2. If the real object is too small
to be seen ...
.
3. If the real object is too big to display.
By :ATG(BSc,MPH) 68
3. Audio Health Learning Materials
 Includes any thing heard such as spoken word,
health talk, music, sound, etc.
 Radio...
 Radio is a very powerful tool because no other mass
media reaches more people than radio.
 Radio can reinforce the advi...
4. Audio visual Health Learning Material
 Audio visuals are multi-sensory materials- combine
both seeing and listening
 ...
IEC material production
 The success and impact of IEC materials depends
largely on the understanding of the target
audie...
Steps in IEC materials production
 Six steps should be followed
Step 1: Selecting the most appropriate IEC
materials
 Ty...
Steps…
 But, how? Audience and media research
◦ Observations: social gatherings, health settings
where IEC materials migh...
Production…
Step 2: Developing a Creative Brief (CB)
 To identify what would be the best IEC materials to be used,
and be...
Production…
 Step 3: Preparing draft of IEC materials (or
adapting existing materials)
 Adapting saves time and money- p...
production…
Step 4 Pretesting of the draft IEC materials
 help determine whether the material and message is
acceptable t...
Production…
Step 5.Asses pretest results and revise
 It is safe to assume that if 70 percent of the target
audience under...
Production…
Step 6. Monitoring the use and impact
 Monitoring refers to the review and supervision of
distribution and us...
Characteristic of effective IEC materials
 Create a distinct look and personality — Effective IEC
materials are vivid, ha...
References
1. Getnet M. Health education lecture note for health
sciences students. Addis Ababa, community health
departme...
82
Readers are
Tomorrow's Leaders!!
By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
Health Education Methods and Materials-2015
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Health Education Methods and Materials-2015

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Methods refers to ways through which messages are conveyed to achieve a desired behavioral changes in a target audience.


In health education it is not enough to decide what will be done; by whom and when, we also need to decide how it will be done (methods).

Publié dans : Santé & Médecine
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Health Education Methods and Materials-2015

  1. 1. Health Education Methods and Materials By: Abraham Tamirat (BSc, MPH) Email: abrishntamirat@gmail.com Jimma University ,College of Health Science 1By :ATG(BSc,MPH)12/8/2015
  2. 2. Outline What is health education method? Common health education methods Information Education Communication (IEC) materials/Health Learning Materials (HLMs) Common IEC materials Production of IEC materials 2By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  3. 3. Learning outcomes At the end of this session, you will be able to,  Differentiate method and materials  Describe common health education methods  Discuss common IEC materials  Identify steps of IEC production 3By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  4. 4. Health Education Methods  Methods refers to ways through which messages are conveyed to achieve a desired behavioral changes in a target audience.  In health education it is not enough to decide what will be done; by whom and when, we also need to decide how it will be done (methods). 4By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  5. 5. Common teaching method in health education Informal methods 1. Health talk 2. Lecture 3. Brainstorming 4. Group discussion 5. Buzz group discussion 6. Demonstration 7. Role play 8. Drama 9. Case studies 10. Traditional media 5 Formal methods 1. Conference 2. workshop 3. Seminar 4. Panel discussion 5. Symposium Common health education methods By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  6. 6. 1. Health talks  When talks are on health agenda we call it health talks.  It is the most natural way of communicating with people to share health knowledge and facts.  Can be conducted with one person or with a family or group of people or through mass communication 6By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  7. 7. 2. Lecture  It is oral, simple, quick and traditional way of presentation of the subject matter.  Presents factual material in direct, logical manner  Economical  In most cases audience is passive 7By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  8. 8. Forms of lecture • Teacher is the only speaker Traditional lecture • Begins with learner brainstorming and use pause in between Participatory lectures • Mini lectures followed by small group discussion, it gives opportunity to manipulate lecture content Feedback lecture • Use of media such as films, slides along with traditional methods Mediated lecture 8By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  9. 9. 3. Group discussion  The participants have equal chance to express freely and exchange ideas  The subject of discussion is taken up and shared equally by all the members of the group.  It is collective thinking process to solve problems.  Extremely useful in health education 9By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  10. 10. Group D… Strengths  Pools ideas and experiences from group  Effective after a presentation, film or experience that needs to be analyzed  allows everyone to participate in an active process Limitations  Not practical with more than 20 people  Few people can dominate  Others may not participate  Time consuming 10By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  11. 11. 4. Buzz group  A large group is divided into small group, of not more than 10 or 12 people in each small group and they have given a time to discuss the problem.  Then, the whole group is reconvened and the reporters of the small groups will report their findings and recommendation 11By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  12. 12. 5. Brainstorming  Instead of discussing the problem at great length the participants encouraged to make a list in a short period of time all the ideas that come to their mind regarding the problems without discussing among themselves  Is a means of eliciting from the participants their ideas and solution on health issues. 12By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  13. 13. Brainstorming… Strengths  Allows creative thinking for new ideas  Encourages full participation because all ideas equally recorded  Draws on group's knowledge and experience Limitations  If not facilitated well, criticism and evaluation may occur 13By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  14. 14. 6. Demonstration  “Showing how is better than telling how.”  Although basically focuses on practice/skill it involves theoretical teaching as well. Chinese proverb;  If I hear, I forget  If I see, I remember 14By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  15. 15. Demonstration … Note that,  You remember 20% of what you hear  You remember 50% of what you hear and see  You remember 90% of what you hear, see and do and with repetition close to 100% is remembered. 15By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  16. 16. Demonstration …  Demonstration can be used with individuals and small groups.  If the group is too large, members will not get a chance to practice the skills and ask questions. 16By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  17. 17. 7. Role-play  A type of drama in a simplified manner. It portrays expected behavior of people.  A role-play is a spontaneous and/or unrehearsed acting out of real-life situations. A script is not necessary.  It is a very direct way of learning; you are given a role or character and have to think and speak immediately with out detailed planning. 17By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  18. 18. Role play….  Few minutes for instruction and 5-10 minutes for them to plan & think  A role play should last about 20 minutes.  Allow another 20-30 minutes for discussion  People can better understand their problem and the behavior associated with the problem 18By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  19. 19. 8. Drama  Drama is a presentation, in which the subject matter or topic is studied well either written or in words, and then presented in educative and recreating manner.  Needs detail planning and script development , practicing 19By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  20. 20. Drama… Audiences identify with characters and settings  In a serial drama, for example, if the characters and settings are familiar to audiences, they can identify with the situations, and feelings of the characters .  Drama is very effective in behavior change communication 20By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  21. 21. Many dramas portray positive, negative, and transitional role models.  Positive characters: model healthy values and behavior, and they are rewarded.  Negative characters: model unhealthy behavior and antisocial values, and they suffer as a result.  Transitional characters: representing the audience, are uncertain at first about which behavior to adopt. 21By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  22. 22. 9. Case study Case Study: is an in-depth analysis of real or simulated problems that help audiences to identify problems and suggest solutions according to their own contexts. 22By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  23. 23. 11. Traditional media 1) Poems 2) Songs 3) Proverbs 4) Dances with songs 5) Fable 6) Games 7) Stories 8) Town criers etc. 23By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  24. 24. Traditional media … Traditional Medias are useful for the following reasons  They are realistic and based on the daily lives of local people  They can communicate attitudes, beliefs, values and feelings in powerful ways.  They can motivate people to change behavior.  They can show ways to solve problems.  Usually they are very interesting. 24By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  25. 25. Selection methods for health education • Consider the following things before choosing health education methods. 1. How ready and able are people to change? 2. Your ‘learning’ objectives. 3. How many people are involved? 4. Is the method appropriate to the local culture? 25By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  26. 26. 4. What resources are available? 5. What mixture of methods is needed? 6. Subject matter 7. Limitations of time 8. What methods fit the characteristics of the target group? 26 Selection …. By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  27. 27. Note that  It is important thing to remember that effective health education is seldom achieved through the use of one method alone.  The best method of teaching combines the various methods 27By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  28. 28. Scientific methods 28By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  29. 29. 2.Formal methods-Scientific methods 1. Seminar:  A seminar is a lecture or presentation delivered to an audience on a particular topic or set of topics that are educational in nature.  Seminars are educational events  It is usually held for groups of 10-50 individuals for about an hour though usually not in practice. 29By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  30. 30. Formal methods… 2. workshop  is a period of discussion and practical work on a particular subject in which a group of people share their knowledge and experiences.  It is a series of educational and work sessions (where manual work is done).  Small groups of people meet together over a short period of time to concentrate on a defined area of concern. 30By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  31. 31. Formal methods…  It also means a group working together, on a creative project, discussing a topic, or studying a subject.  Workshops tend to be more intense than seminars. 31By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  32. 32. Formal methods … 3. Symposium  is typically a more formal or academic gathering, featuring multiple experts delivering short presentations on a particular topic.  It is an academic in nature where experts (academicians ) present their views on a particular theme.  Eg. JU annual research symposium 32By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  33. 33. Formal methods… 4. Conference: Conference refers to meeting for lectures of discussion where representative of various stakeholders participate.  Conference has a far broader spectrum of meaning than the other three (seminar, workshop, symposium ).  Not limited to academic activities only; beyond academic where many diverse participants participate 33By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  34. 34. Scientific methods… 5. Panel discussion: is a meeting where experts (two or more) are invited to make short presentation or speak on different aspect of the same subject area or theme.  Eg. Theme-mental health in Ethiopia. Expert1: history of mental health in Ethiopia Exeprt2: Mental health and health policy Expert3 :Future of mental health 34By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  35. 35. HLM…  Health learning materials: are those teaching aids which give information and instruction about health specifically directed to a clearly defined group of audience.  HP programs rely on them  Are considered cross cutting issue for public health interventions nowadays. 37By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  36. 36. Role of IEC materials in behavior change communication  Can speak to the people without the presence of communicator.  It serves as transferring of health message or acts as channel to carry a message to target audiences.  Can enhance the understanding, the credibility and the believability of health message.  It can remind the public the message they can received from different sources. 38By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  37. 37. Role…  It can motivate the public to seek for further information.  Some IEC materials serve as means of delivering health message on very sensitive issues. For example, leaflets 39By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  38. 38. Health Learning Materials (HLMs) There are four types of health learning materials: 1. Printed HLMs 2. Visual HLMs 3. Audio HLMs 4. Audio-visual HLMs 40By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  39. 39. 1. Printed health learning materials  It is the production of multiple copies of an original image usually using ink pressed on to paper.  It involves the exchange of facts, ideas, and opinions through a written instrument /materials.  It can be used as a medium in its own right or as support for other kinds of media. 41By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  40. 40. Print materials ….  Example of print IEC materials 1. Poster 2. flipcharts 3. leaflets 4. booklets 5. cards 6. News paper etc. 42By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  41. 41. Poster  Poster is a large sheet of paper ranging in size from large bill boards to small notices. 43 • But often it has a size of 40cm wide and 60cm high. By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  42. 42. Poster .. A poster consists of ;  words and  pictures or symbols that include a message on it. 44By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  43. 43. Content of poster  All words in a poster should be in language the community understand or in two languages.  The words should be few and simple to understand slogan -contain a maximum of 7 words. 45By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  44. 44. content …  The symbols/ picture used should be understood irrespective of educational status. 46 Asendabo HC By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  45. 45. content…  Put only one idea on a poster. 47By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  46. 46. content…  The poster should encourage practice- action oriented. 48By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  47. 47. content…  It is better to use life picture if possible. 49By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  48. 48. content … The picture/message should not be out of reality 50By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  49. 49. 51 The synchronize between the text and picture and color should be eye catching By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  50. 50.  Posters should contain the following information  The year of publication  The place  The sponsoring organization 52By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  51. 51. Purpose of posters • To reinforce/remind a message the public is receiving through other channels. • To give information and advice. E.g. learn more about malaria! • To give directions and instructions for actions. E.g. a poster about malaria prevention methods. • To announce important events and programs. E.g. World Malaria Day. 53By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  52. 52. Poster storage and utilization • Store poster in safe place • Post them in a place where many people can see them when passing by (e.g. market places, meeting halls, etc.) • Ask permission before putting poster on a house or building. • Use as teaching aid to support your communication • Never put posters on sacred or worshipping places. • Do not leave a poster up for long time. 54By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  53. 53. Misused poster, jimma zone, HCs 55By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  54. 54. Misused poster, Jimma zone, HCs 56By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  55. 55. Flip chart • Are a series of pictures that are bound together, usually at the top, and can be turned over by the educator. • A flip chart is made up of a number of posters on a related subject that are shown one after the other. • Are good to present several steps or aspects of a central topic 57By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  56. 56. Flip charts … Purpose • To give information and instructions Content • There should be a single separate idea on a chart. • The arrangement should follow a logical order. • Five is a good number of charts to put in a flip chart 58By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  57. 57. Flip chart… 59By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  58. 58. Leaflet or flyer (handbill)  Leaflet or flyer is usually a short, often urgent, written message printed on just one side of single a standard weight paper.  Once there are more than five sheets it is common to use the term ‘booklets’. 60By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  59. 59. Brochure  A brochure is a glorified/modified leaflet.  It is still a single sheet of paper but it's longer, folded up in ½ or 1/3 and printed on both sides.  It can explain things in more detail. It is useful for long-term use and is less likely to be thrown away.  We can fit more material into a brochure.  Leaflet and brochures are the most common way of using print media in health education. 61By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  60. 60. Purpose of flyers and brochures  They are useful reinforcement for individual and group sessions  Serve as a reminder of the main points that you have made.  They are also helpful for sensitive subjects.  Can provide people with enough basic information to encourage them to ask for more. 62By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  61. 61. Leaflet/brochures …  The content of the leaflet/brochures should CARE  C be clear – have something to say and say it  A be accurate – aim at precise  R make it readable – use familiar words, and active verbs  E have empathy – never forget that you are writing for another person 63By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  62. 62. 2. Visual health learning materials • Include something seen, for example models, real objects, and photographs. • Written words are not included under visuals. • Visuals are one of the strongest methods of communicating messages, especially where literacy status is low. 64By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  63. 63. Visuals …. Real objects  Are just that-real. If your display is on ‘family planning methods’, you would display real IUDs, pills, condoms, diaphragms, and foams. 65By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  64. 64. Models  Are three dimensional objects which look like the real objects.  Models might be used for 3 reasons: 1. If the real objects are not available 2. If the real object is too big to display. 3. If the real object is too small to be seen easily. 66By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  65. 65. Model might be used for 3 reason: 1. If the real objects are not available. 2. If the real object is too small to be seen easily. By :ATG(BSc,MPH) 67
  66. 66. . 3. If the real object is too big to display. By :ATG(BSc,MPH) 68
  67. 67. 3. Audio Health Learning Materials  Includes any thing heard such as spoken word, health talk, music, sound, etc.  Radio and audio cassettes are common audio aids.  They are easily forgotten. 69By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  68. 68.  Radio is a very powerful tool because no other mass media reaches more people than radio.  Radio can reinforce the advice that people receive through other channels. 70By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  69. 69. 4. Audio visual Health Learning Material  Audio visuals are multi-sensory materials- combine both seeing and listening  They convey messages with high motivational appeals.  It show real life situation and enter-taniable.  These materials include TV, projected materials, films or videos, 71By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  70. 70. IEC material production  The success and impact of IEC materials depends largely on the understanding of the target audience.  How? Audiences analysis Audiences analysis based on the problem characteristics of each audience audience’s stage of behavior change  barriers to behavior change key influencers  Furthermore, the nature of the problem and media analysis is important 72By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  71. 71. Steps in IEC materials production  Six steps should be followed Step 1: Selecting the most appropriate IEC materials  Types (strength, weakness, compatibility/the message to be conveyed [content], cost of production and distribution of IEC)  Audience (preferences and characteristics, and knowledge or literacy level and attitudes/stage of behavior change) By :ATG(BSc,MPH) 73
  72. 72. Steps…  But, how? Audience and media research ◦ Observations: social gatherings, health settings where IEC materials might be used. ◦ Observe how people react to the materials, and how they interact with each other concerning the materials) ◦ IDI and FGD (extensive probing with key informants) ◦ Media survey (preferences, coverage, media habits) 74By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  73. 73. Production… Step 2: Developing a Creative Brief (CB)  To identify what would be the best IEC materials to be used, and before beginning the actual design of IEC materials  CB: presents the core message/big idea and include target audience, objectives, obstacles, advice [key message] and support statements [reasons], tone of the messages, and other creative considerations such as different language versions or social conditions.  CB serves as a map or guidebook between the IEC material development team and the "creative people", those who will draft the scripts, design the posters and prepare display75By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  74. 74. Production…  Step 3: Preparing draft of IEC materials (or adapting existing materials)  Adapting saves time and money- provided that "not reinvent the wheel”. Please consider the following points,  Does the material selected fit the audience's learning style (i.e. oral, written, audio, visual, or audiovisual)?  Is the content limited to no more than a few concepts?  Are concepts and messages presented in a simple and organized manner?  Are appropriate, culturally specific values and beliefs represented?  Are visuals, photographs, and images culturally relevant?  Do visuals, photographs, and images correspond with the message in a way that is clear to the target audience?  Is text written or narrated at an appropriate comprehension level? 76By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  75. 75. production… Step 4 Pretesting of the draft IEC materials  help determine whether the material and message is acceptable to the intended target audience  People see, hear, and interpret messages according to their various backgrounds, education, and knowledge (perception!).  So, pretesting on representative/members of target audience will help you revise them  Pretesting of draft IEC material ensures that the material is "right" from the audience's perspective.  What to test? Understanding, acceptance, attractiveness (attention), involvement (message is directed toward them), inducement action etc By :ATG(BSc,MPH) 77
  76. 76. Production… Step 5.Asses pretest results and revise  It is safe to assume that if 70 percent of the target audience understands message, would consider taking the action recommended, and finds the IEC material attractive, acceptable, and believable, then the materials are successful-go ahead! Otherwise, if no,  Is there a clear rejection of the material? If so, why?  Is there a general consensus that the material is ugly, culturally insensitive? If so, why?  Is there a gross incomprehension of words, of a specific drawing, symbol? Which ones? Why? If so, which can be changed according to the suggestions given?  The change may be the form, content of IEC materials 78By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  77. 77. Production… Step 6. Monitoring the use and impact  Monitoring refers to the review and supervision of distribution and usage activities.  Findings are used to improve distribution systems, the use of materials by health workers, and the future design of materials.  Monitoring is a tool to identify and correct problems early enough to make changes and maximize the impact of the IEC materials. 79By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  78. 78. Characteristic of effective IEC materials  Create a distinct look and personality — Effective IEC materials are vivid, having an appealing personality.  Messages and design all must speak with the same voice — in design, color, text and narrative.  Stress the most compelling benefit. address real needs and problems facing the target audience.  Generate trust. Credible and believable images, and a solid information foundation.  Appeal to both the heart and the head. A decision on the part of the target audience to try something new is not made entirely in the mind — trials are often decided in part by an emotional response.  Thus, effective IEC materials and messages should be designed to appeal to both the heart or emotions, and the head or reason. 80By :ATG(BSc,MPH)
  79. 79. References 1. Getnet M. Health education lecture note for health sciences students. Addis Ababa, community health department.2003 2. Shabbir Ismail, Health education lecture note for MPH students.deparment of community health, AAU,2003. 3. 3. Alemneh cherinet,guide line on development of production and distribution of HLM,health education center,FMOH,may, 2000. By :ATG(BSc,MPH) 81
  80. 80. 82 Readers are Tomorrow's Leaders!! By :ATG(BSc,MPH)

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