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3D Printing, Customization, and Product Lines

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3D printing is gaining more and more momentum to build
customized product in a wide variety of fields. We con-
duct an exploratory study of Thingiverse, the most popular
Website for sharing user-created 3D design les, in order to
establish a possible connection with software product line
(SPL) engineering. We report on the socio-technical aspects
and current practices for modeling variability, implementing
variability, confi guring and deriving products, and reusing
artefacts. We provide hints that SPL-alike techniques are
practically used in 3D printing and thus relevant. Finally,
we discuss why the customization in the 3D printing eld
represents a challenging playground for SPL engineering.

Publié dans : Ingénierie
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3D Printing, Customization, and Product Lines

  1. 1. Customiza*on and 3D Prin*ng A Challenging Playground for So3ware Product Lines Mathieu Acher, Benoit Baudry, Olivier Barais, Jean-­‐Marc Jézéquel
  2. 2. 3D Print your 3D Printer
  3. 3. Puppets 5
  4. 4. 6
  5. 5. 7
  6. 6. 9
  7. 7. So7ware product line (SPL) perspec*ve 3D PrinIng is gaining momentum – CustomizaIon also • SPL? Variability? • « the ability of a so3ware system or arIfact to be efficiently extended, changed, customized or configured for use in a parIcular context » • Can SPL engineering learn from 3D prin*ng? • Can 3D prin*ng benefit from SPL engineering? 10
  8. 8. Field/ethnographic study We observed how a community of people (i.e, the Thingiverse community) interacts and collaborates for achieving a technical work (i.e., customizing and producing 3D models) 11
  9. 9. Playground 12
  10. 10. 13
  11. 11. No need to hide, there is an “open” access to data 14
  12. 12. Analysis of Thingiverse 15
  13. 13. 16
  14. 14. 17
  15. 15. 18
  16. 16. 19 .scad
  17. 17. 20
  18. 18. Documenta*on (hLp://customizer.makerbot.com/docs) 21
  19. 19. We observed how a community of people (i.e, the Thingiverse community) interacts and collaborates for achieving a technical work (i.e., customizing and producing 3D models) Preconcep*on: product line perspec*ve Variability Modeling Variability Implementation 22 Configuration Reuse
  20. 20. 23
  21. 21. 24
  22. 22. Conditional statements hell 25
  23. 23. 33 imbrications “else” not necessarily here 26
  24. 24. 27 Configuration Clone and Own
  25. 25. 28 Reuse
  26. 26. Key Results (1) • Variability Modeling and ConfiguraIon – Variability concepts are here – No constraints – ConfiguraIon • Configurator • Visibility / SeparaIon of Concerns • Many configuraIon issues – Huge complexity • 38 parameters, 8 tabs, 10^28 configuraIons 29
  27. 27. Key Results (2) • ImplementaIon – Parameterized Procedures – CondiIonal Statements • 33 imbricaIons – pre-­‐compiled datastructures • themselves parameterizable • DerivaIon – You can visualize your result before prinIng • Limited reuse mechanism 30
  28. 28. So What? • Will So3ware Product Line Engineering save the world? • Can help, can learn • Challenges ahead 31
  29. 29. Capture Specific Things • Physical properIes – Are we even able to print the 3D product • Specific to the product – knowledge out there • So3ware level 32
  30. 30. Complexity and Cogni*ve Effort • Keeping a low cogniIve effort – Not necessarily so3ware developers • More sophisIcated techniques induce someImes accidental complexity 33
  31. 31. Cost-­‐benefit Tradeoff • Cost of applying more sophisIcated techniques versus benefit of upfront investment • Pay off when? – For dozens of people in their garage? – For millions of rich people? 34
  32. 32. Challenging Playground 35
  33. 33. Future • Automated techniques to support large scale, more comprehensive analysis – Beyond an exploratory and very manual analysis – We have an infrastructure to mine Things and analyze .scad files • Adressing the challenges • Helping a community like Thingiverse to master the complexity 36
  34. 34. OpenJSCAD 37

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