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Introduction to Staffing - An Essential Human Resources Function - Aditya Dasgupta (MD, KeyQual Technologies Pvt. Ltd.)

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Introduction to Staffing - An Essential Human Resources Function - Aditya Dasgupta (MD, KeyQual Technologies Pvt. Ltd.)

The above presentation is an introduction to Staffing, its components and processes. Every great organization has an equally insightful staffing practice. Hope this effort will help in learning the basics of this very important Human Resources Function.

Disclaimer : The above presentation and all its contents have been prepared through secondary sources and contain no proprietary information, and hence can be freely used for research purposes. In case there should be any discrepancy, please contact me on aditya@keyqual.com.

The above presentation is an introduction to Staffing, its components and processes. Every great organization has an equally insightful staffing practice. Hope this effort will help in learning the basics of this very important Human Resources Function.

Disclaimer : The above presentation and all its contents have been prepared through secondary sources and contain no proprietary information, and hence can be freely used for research purposes. In case there should be any discrepancy, please contact me on aditya@keyqual.com.

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Introduction to Staffing - An Essential Human Resources Function - Aditya Dasgupta (MD, KeyQual Technologies Pvt. Ltd.)

  1. 1.  Recognize the importance of effective policies and procedures for staffing  Understand the importance of concrete, fair policies and procedures in selection  Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing staffing processes  Understand how to evaluate the various results of staffing processes  Develop metrics for the measurement of staffing systems  Recognize the legal issues involving record keeping and applicant/employee privacy  Plan for effective dispute resolution
  2. 2. The integration of all processes, programs, and systems in an organization that ensure staff are acquired and used in an effective way
  3. 3. HR is multidisciplinary: It applies the disciplines of Economics (wages, markets, resources), Psychology (motivation, satisfaction), Sociology (organization structure, culture) and Law (min. wage, labor contracts) What HR Professionals Do? HR planning Recruitment & Selection Training and development Compensation & Performance review Labor relations
  4. 4. Human Resource Planning Recruitment or Downsizing Selection of Employees Orientation Training and Development Performance Appraisals Safety and Health Compensation and Benefits Competent High-Performing Workers
  5. 5. The process of systematically reviewing HR requirements to ensure that the required number of employees, with the required skills, are available when they are needed
  6. 6. Human Resource Planning Making a Future Assessment Making a Current Assessment Designing a Future Program
  7. 7. We have found the gap, how do we fill this void? Internal Labour Supply Skill Inventory Succession Planning Replacement Planning – Inventory Chart • Present & Future staffing situations • Helps in retention & expulsion strategy External Labour Supply
  8. 8.  3 Parts: Recruitment, Selection, Hiring  Recruiting – the process of attracting qualified applicants  Selecting – the process of screening applicants and narrowing the job pool  Hiring – the process of extending offers to the most desirable applicants
  9. 9.  Staffing includes all managed movement into, around, and out of an organization (e.g., recruiting, hiring, promotion, transfer, redeployment, attrition, retention)  An issue is a "gap" between where you are and where you need to be to achieve business objectives or implement business strategies  A strategy is a long term directional plan of action that describes how objectives will be met.
  10. 10.  Job - Consists of a group of tasks that must be performed for an organization to achieve its goals  Position - Collection of tasks and responsibilities performed by one person; there is a position for every individual in an organization  Job analysis - Systematic process of determining the skills, duties, and knowledge required for performing jobs in an organization (functional job analysis , position analysis questionnaire)  Job description – document providing information regarding tasks, duties, and responsibilities of job  Job specification – minimum qualifications to perform a particular job
  11. 11. Process of locating, identifying, and attracting capable candidates Can be for current or future needs Critical activity for some corporations. What sources do we use for recruitment
  12. 12. Job Analysis - Functional Job Analysis, Position analysis questionnaire A Basic Human Resource Management Tool Tasks Responsibilities Duties Job Analysis Job Descriptions Job Specifications Knowledge Skills Abilities Human Resource Planning Recruitment Selection Training and Development Performance Appraisal Compensation and Benefits Safety and Health Employee and Labor Relations Legal Considerations Job Analysis for Teams
  13. 13.  Application Blanks  Personal Interviews  Psychological Tests  Reference and Credit Checks  Remember: The least costly tools should be used first to narrow the applicant pool.
  14. 14. ©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 6 17 Traditional Recruiting Sources Internal Searches Employee Referrals Employee Leasing Temp Services Employment Agencies Advertisements School Placement
  15. 15. What is “workforce planning” or “strategic staffing”? What makes staffing strategic in the first place? What does the process include? • Defining near- and long-term staffing requirements • Forecasting staffing availability • Comparing “demand” to “supply” to define staffing gaps and surpluses • Defining short-term (usually one period) staffing plans/actions Why aren’t traditional (macro) practices more effective? What should we be doing differently?
  16. 16. 1. Redefine the process and its objectives 2. Change the context within which the process is implemented
  17. 17. Definition: A process for defining and addressing the most critical staffing implications of business strategies and plans (both skills and staffing levels) Objectives: • Create longer term staffing strategies that “best” eliminate critical gaps/surpluses • Use those strategies as a context within which effective short term staffing decisions are made Deliverables: • Longer term staffing strategies • Specific shorter term staffing plans and supporting actions • Answers and solutions!
  18. 18.  Jobs are characterized by their requirements and rewards  Individuals are characterized via qualifications (KSAOS) and motivation  These concepts are not new or faddish, this is an enduring model of staffing  Matching process involves dual match  KSAOs to requirements  Motivation to rewards  Job requirements expressed in terms of both  Tasks involved  KSAOs necessary for performance of tasks  Job requirements often extend beyond task and KSAO requirements
  19. 19.  Organizational culture and values  Norms of desirable attitudes and behaviors for employees  New job duties  Tasks that may be added to target job over time  “And other duties as assigned . . . “  Multiple jobs  Flexibility concerns - Hiring people who could perform multiple jobs  Future jobs  Long-term matches during employment relationship
  20. 20. Develop longer term staffing strategies that support business strategy Address staffing strategically Time Frame Scope Develop shorter term staffing plans Few Many Short Term Long Term
  21. 21. Sample staffing strategies:  Focus full time hiring and training/development on “proprietary” jobs and use contingent staff for “commodity” positions (IT)  Develop staffing processes that can absorb 25% swings in business without affecting full time staffing levels (Wireless Infrastructure)  Meet needs at senior technical levels by using outside hires and modify recruiting practices as required (Utility) Sample staffing plans:  Hire 10 full time line mechanics in the first quarter  Redeploy 10 staff from A to B providing accelerated development  Use an outside staffing agency to meet third shift needs for 3 Techs
  22. 22. ©Prentice Hall, 2001 Chapter 6 26 Affirmative Action Employment Training Retention
  23. 23. 1. Identify the parts of the business that will be included 2. Define staffing gaps and surpluses for all planning periods  Define staffing requirements  Forecast staffing availability  Compare supply to demand 3. Develop staffing strategies across planning periods 4. Define specific staffing plans/actions for each planning period
  24. 24. A series of steps from initial applicant screening to final hiring of the new employee. Selection process. Step 1 Completing application materials. Step 2 Conducting an interview. Step 3 Completing any necessary tests. Step 4 Doing a background investigation. Step 5 Deciding to hire or not to hire.
  25. 25. Step 1 Completing application materials. Gathering information regarding an applicant’s background and experiences. Typical application materials. Traditional application forms. Résumés. Sometimes tests may be included with application materials. Step 2 Conducting an interview. Typically used though they are subject to perceptual distortions. Interviews can provide rough ideas concerning the person’s fit with the job and the organization.
  26. 26. Step 3 Completing any necessary tests. Administered before or after the interview. Common examples of employment tests. Cognitive, clerical, or mechanical aptitudes or abilities. Personality. Step 4 Doing a background investigation. Can be used early or late in selection process. Background investigations include: Basic level checks. Reference checks.
  27. 27. Step 5 Deciding to hire or not to hire. Draws on information produced in preceding selection steps. A job offer is made. A physical examination may be required if it is relevant to job performance. Negotiation of salary and/or benefits for some jobs. Step 6 Socialization. The final step in the staffing process. Involves orienting new employees to: The firm. The work units in which they will be working. The firm’s policies and procedures. The firm’s organizational culture.
  28. 28. Well-Matched Applicants Realistic Expectations Increased Commitment Realistic Job Previews
  29. 29.  The process of measuring the extent to which a tool or qualification is related to or able to predict job performance  Tools should be validated before they are used in selection.
  30. 30.  Age, race, marital status  # and ages of children, child care arrangements  Height, weight, sexual preference  Religious affiliation or memberships  Spouse’s maiden name, living arrangements  Arrest record
  31. 31.  Puts all candidate information in a uniform format  Asks for more specific information than is provided on the resume
  32. 32.  There is no satisfactory substitute for personal interaction with the applicant.  Reveals conversational ability, social intelligence, poise  Reveals how badly the candidate wants the job  Gives the company a chance to “sell” itself
  33. 33.  In general, they are not good predictors of job performance.  The interviewer may bias the process, by not knowing how to correctly or effectively interview.  The interviewer asks the wrong questions or does not use objective criteria.  Problems occur when comparing the interviews of several applicants.
  34. 34.  Prior knowledge about an applicant  Attitude of the interviewer  The order of the interview  Negative information  The first five minutes  The content of the interview  The validity of the interview  Structured versus unstructured interviews  Prior knowledge about an applicant  Attitude of the interviewer  The order of the interview  Negative information  The first five minutes  The content of the interview  The validity of the interview  Structured versus unstructured interviews
  35. 35.  Thoroughly review the applicant’s resume and application beforehand.  Use standardized rating forms – fill them out immediately afterward.  Have more than one interview with each candidate; let others participate.  Train the interviewers how to conduct the interview and fill out the rating forms.
  36. 36.  Guided  Highly standardized; order and format of questions the same across candidates.  Makes it easy to compare candidates.  Non-directed  Very informal; no set order or format is used  Interpretation/rating is very difficult.
  37. 37.  Behavioral  Asks candidates to describe past or intended behaviors in specific situation  Performance  Asks candidate to perform an exercise  Stress  Intentionally puts candidate under stress to judge reaction/abilities
  38. 38.  The most controversial of all selection tools  Several types: IQ, aptitude, personality, interest  Use is on the rise (Can be validated and standardized)  Studies show they are better predictors of performance than any other tool.
  39. 39.  When tests are used as the sole knockout factor in selection  When scores are interpreted individually rather than within a range  When applicant fakes answers
  40. 40. The identification, measurement, and management of human performance in organizations.
  41. 41. Make decisions about that person's future with the organization Identify training requirements Employee improvement Pay, promotion, and other personnel decisions Research Validation of selection techniques and criteria
  42. 42. Skills/Activities/Output Performance Appraisal System Reward/Training/Punishment
  43. 43. Multiperson Graphic Rating Scales Critical Incidents Written Essay BARS 360-Degree Appraisal MBO
  44. 44. Evaluation by superiors Evaluation by colleagues Peer ratings tend to be more favorable for career development than for promotion decisions Self-evaluation Self-ratings suffer from leniency Subordinate evaluation Effective in developing leadership Leads to improved performance 360 degree feedback (multi-source)
  45. 45. The combination of peer, subordinate, and self-review
  46. 46. Top management communicates the goals Employees and managers are involved in the development of the appraisal criteria and process. Employees are trained in giving & receiving feedback. Employees are informed of the nature of the 360° appraisal instrument and process. The 360° system undergoes pilot testing Management continuously reinforces the goals of the 360° appraisal and is ready to change the process when necessary.
  47. 47.  Number of positions filled  count of the number of individuals who accepted positions during the fiscal year.  Time-to-fill openings  the number of days it takes for a job requisition to result in a job acceptance by a candidate.  Hiring cost estimates  sum of advertising, agency fees, employee referrals, travel costs for applicants and staff, relocation costs, and pay and benefits for recruiters  Staffing cost or efficiency ratio  total staffing costs/total compensation recruited
  48. 48. An appraisal format that asks supervisors to compare an employee's performance to the performance of other employees doing the same job. Relative Judgment An appraisal format that asks supervisors to make judgments about an employee’s performance based solely on performance standards. Absolute Judgment
  49. 49. Performance rating scales Supervisors indicate how or to what degree a worker possesses a relevant job characteristic Ranking technique Supervisors list the workers in order from highest to lowest Paired-comparison technique Compares the performance of each worker with that of every other person in the group Forced choice technique Raters are presented with groups of descriptive statements and are asked to select the phrase in each group that is most descriptive of the worker being evaluated
  50. 50. Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) Appraisers rate critical employee behavior Critical-incident behaviors are established These behaviors are used as standards for appraising effectiveness The BARS items can be scored objectively by indicating whether the employee displays that behavior Behavioral observation scales (BOS) Appraisers rate the frequency of critical employee behaviors The ratings are assigned on a five point scale The evaluation yields a total score Management by objectives (MBO)
  51. 51. Current Supply Future Requirements Gaps/Surpluses Reduce Deficits and Surpluses The Supply Side The Demand Side
  52. 52. Current Supply Future Requirements Gaps/Surpluses Reduce Deficits and Surpluses The Supply Side The Demand Side
  53. 53. “Supply Then” “Demand Then” Gaps/Surpluses Reduce Deficits and Surpluses The Supply Side The Demand Side “Supply Now” Assumptions (re: Staffing and Turnover) Define New Staffing Actions
  54. 54. “Supply Then” “Demand Then” Gaps/Surpluses Reduce Deficits and Surpluses The Supply Side The Demand Side “Supply Now” Assumptions (Uncontrollable Staffing) Adjust Controllable Staffing Actions
  55. 55. Within what context should this staffing process be applied? • All units? • All jobs? • Common process, timing, planning parameters, and templates? • Compiled results?
  56. 56. Defined as adoption of a new idea or behavior by an organization. Organizations need to continuously adapt to new situations if they are to survive and prosper
  57. 57. Planned Changes • Changes in products and services • Changes in administrative systems • Changes in organizational size or structure • Introduction of new technologies • Advances in information processing and communication Unplanned Changes • Changing employee demographics • Performance gaps • Governmental regulations • Economic competition in the global arena Organizational Change
  58. 58. Forces For Change Workforce Competition World Politics Technology Social Trends Economic Shocks
  59. 59. Overt and immediate Voicing complaints, engaging in job actions Implicit and deferred Loss of employee loyalty and motivation, increased errors or mistakes, increased absenteeism
  60. 60. Selective Information Processing Fear of the Unknown Force of Habit Need for Security Economic Factors Individual
  61. 61. Structural & Group Inertia Limited Focus Threat to establish resource allocation Threat to Expertise Threat to establish power relationship Organization
  62. 62. Education and Communication Participation Negotiation Facilitation and Support Coercion Manipulation and Cooptation
  63. 63. Unfreezing Changing Refreezing Lewin’s Three-Step Process Organizational Change
  64. 64. Unfreezing the Status Quo Desired State Status Quo Restraining Forces Driving Forces Time
  65. 65. OD is a planned process of change in an organization’s culture through the utilization of behavioral science technology, research, and theory.
  66. 66. a systemwide application and transfer of behavioral science knowledge to the planned development, improvement, and reinforcement of the strategies, structures, and processes that lead to organization effectiveness.
  67. 67. Organizational Development - The Premises Respect for people Trust and support Power equalization Confrontation Participation
  68. 68. . OD Process Diagnosis Intervention Evaluation
  69. 69. OD Interventions Intergroup development Process consultation Sensitivity training Third Party Intervention Survey feedback Team building Culture Change
  70. 70. On the Job Training Planned Progression Job Rotation Creation of “assistant-to” Temporary promotion Committees Off the Job Training Conference MDPs Business Simulations
  71. 71.  Refers to contracting out work to a vendor or third-party administrator  Outsourcing of HR functions is increasing  Types of staffing activities outsourced  Use of temporary employees, executive search, drug testing, skill testing, background checks, job fairs, employee relocation, assessment centers, and affirmative action planning  Strategic and operating reasons to outsource  Expertise, flexibility, time savings, service quality, reduction of legal liability, and cost reduction
  72. 72.  Competition for scarce resources  Time pressure  Unreasonable standards, policies, rules or procedures  Communication breakdowns  Personality clashes  Ambiguous or overlapping jurisdictions  Unrealized expectations
  73. 73.  Avoidance  Problem solving  Compromise  Forcing  Smoothing  Structural change
  74. 74. Workforce Diversity Sexual Harassment Current HRM Issues
  75. 75. Family-Friendly Benefits Unions and Management Current HRM Issues
  76. 76. Workplace Violence Survivors of Layoffs Current HRM Issues
  77. 77.  Record-keeping, privacy, and reports  EEO Report  Legal Audits  Training  Dispute resolution
  78. 78.  Record keeping, privacy, and reports  Creation and maintenance of records  Four purposes of records  Federal Record-Keeping Requirements  Privacy concerns  Preparation of reports  Audits
  79. 79.  Negotiation  Discuss complaint with goal of resolving it  Fact finding  Neutral person investigates complaint  Peer review  Employees and managers work together in a panel  Mediation  Neutral person helps to find a solution  Arbitration  Neutral person makes a decision binding on the parties
  80. 80.  Mentor – someone with knowledge, experience, position, or power who counsels and guides a younger or newer employee  Formal program – the mentor is assigned and engages in prescribed mentoring activities  Informal program – a relationship develops without a formal assignment or contract  Types – manager to rep, senior executive to rep, co- worker to rep
  81. 81.  Represent the organization’s interests.  Beware of conflicts of interest.  Remember the job applicant.  Follow staffing policies and procedures.  Know and follow the law.  Consult professional codes of conduct.  Shape effective practice with research results.  Seek ethics advice.  Be aware of an organization’s ethical climate/culture
  82. 82.  Issue 1  It has been suggested that the use of staffing technology and software is wrong because it dehumanizes the staffing experience, making it nothing but a mechanical process that treats applicants like digital widgets. Evaluate this assertion.  Issue 2  Since there are no standard ways of creating staffing process results and cost metrics, is there a need for some sort of oversight of how these data are calculated, reported, and used within an organization? Explain.
  83. 83. Biotech IT Function  Strategic context  “Technical Services” unit provides IT support to other units (e.g, network, cabling, database, systems reconfiguring)  Need for service exceeds available resources  Desire to define actual work performed and true “value added”  Strategic Staffing  Focus on  Corporate IS projects to be implemented in 2001  Critical jobs only (e.g, network, desktop, infrastructure)  Create a “rolling four quarter” supply/demand model  Outcomes  Staff “oversight” positions with full time employees  Staff “hands on” positions with contractors
  84. 84. Electric Utility  Strategic context  An aging workforce will result in a large number of retirements in the coming 3-5 years  The specific impacts of these retirements was undefined, even though both staffing levels and capabilities will be affected  Strategic Staffing  Based on eligibility requirements, forecast the number of retirements  Identify those job categories most at risk  Focus the analysis on at risk categories only  Outcomes  Specific staffing plans (recruiting and internal movement) to address critical shortages (e.g., line mechanics)  Development and knowledge transfer plans to address key losses
  85. 85. Medical center  Strategic context  Competitor entering the marketplace  Competitor will “poach” key staff  Strategic Staffing  Define job categories that are most vulnerable  Make assumptions regarding losses that are tied to competitor plans  Develop scenario-based staffing models to forecast the impact of poaching  Outcomes  Specific staffing plans regarding replacement in the short term  Staffing strategies that aimed to make the the organization’s staff “unpoachable” in the future
  86. 86. Telecommunications company  Strategic context  Radically new technology will be implemented  Implementation will be nation-wide, spread over four years  New technical and “soft” skills will both be needed  Many in current workforce nearing retirement  Strategic Staffing  Focus on Central Office Technician role (which encompasses many current jobs/titles)  Create a supply demand model  Develop alternate retirement scenarios  Outcomes  Redeployment and training requirements  Plans for hiring and staff reductions
  87. 87. Insurance company  Strategic context  Growth and replacement increased needs for branch managers  Traditional paths (through underwriting) take time  Alternative sources will be required  Strategic Staffing  Create a supply demand model  Include jobs along the traditional path  Build in “lags and leads”  Outcomes  Define required size of trainee pool  Define number of external hires in advance
  88. 88. Who said that a Job needs to be an endless wait for salary and 1001 smoke breaks ? We're trying to change that. KeyQual is a Campaign for Confidence. Firstly, KeyQual is short for Key Quality, and pronounced as an Equal. Concept being, we're trying to match candidates with the job / corporate through both their Key Qualities, and maintaining 100% Confidentiality and 0% Bias. Yes, Equal. At KeyQual Technologies Pvt. Ltd., we provide solutions for the HR industry, particularly in the field of Recruitment. Our prime motive is to support the HR function with a fresh and technologically updated Recruitment Model to enhance the management of Human Capital in any organization and industry. All this, in a confidential and unbiased manner. Hence the tagline, "Campaign for Confidence". Our algorithm based Job Portal, along with HR Support, ensures an all round prompt development of the system and enhances the role of the HR function as a Change Agent, and giving the candidate a chance at a job he/she deserves. Either as a customer or as a partner, we welcome your participation in our journey. Your feedback and contribution will surely take KeyQual a long way.

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