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  1. 1. Education From Peter the Great to Catherine the Great
  2. 2. <ul><li>the reform of education under catherine took many forms - Including higher education, scientific advances, and Attempts to bring education to the masses. </li></ul><ul><li>Prior to the reign of Peter The Great, many Russians, including the gentry were illiterate. Education was restricted to the few, and even then was viewed as unnecessary, as demonstrated by several illiterate tsars and a largely illiterate nobility. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was expected that with the expansion of education, it would be easier to enact necessary reforms such as the development of a free-market economy and the emancipation of the serfs. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Russian Alphabet <ul><li>Due to low levels of literacy during throughout the muscovite period, the Russian language remained a non-standardized mix of styles, and was only standardized in Peter’s Reign, with dictionaries and Rules of Grammar Produced. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Mass Literacy <ul><li>Peter the Great introduced Newspapers in 1702, which facilitated the spread of information and opinions among the gentry. Eventually, the tradition of newspapers and pamphlets allowed revolutionary groups to communicate around the country and to expatriate members. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Scientific Advances <ul><li>The Russian Academy of Sciences, established under Peter and expanded under Catherine, allowed scientific research to expand, placing Russian on the forefront of European scientific discovery. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Scientific Advances <ul><li>Mikhail Lomonosov (1711-1765) represents the new scientific curiosity taking hold in Russia during the Imperial Era. Combining interests in Chemistry, Astronomy, Physics, Literature, and many more sciences and arts, Lomonosov set the standard for Russian academics into the current period. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Higher Education <ul><li>Moscow University, established in 1755 under the direction of Lomonosov. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Higher Education <ul><li>Universities in Russia, including Moscow University and St. Petersburg University, as well as a number of Provincial universities and technical schools became the focal points of intellectual discussion and development. The universities of the two metropolises in particular were noted for their independence and liberal leanings. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Provincial and Elementary Education <ul><li>Outside of St. Petersburg & Moscow, Illiteracy and lack of education were even more rampant. </li></ul><ul><li>In an effort to combat this, and to instill Enlightenment ideals of education throughout Russia, Catherine establishes 315 Provincial schools by the end of her reign, significantly raising the literacy rate. </li></ul><ul><li>however, this education was generally not available to most peasants, and certainly not to serfs, ensuring that most of the population would continue to be illiterate. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Women’s Education <ul><li>The Smolny Institute: Established for girls in the gentry by Catherine in 1764. While it did not provide a comprehensive university education, it did encourage literacy among women. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>From the time of Peter, Education received a much needed boost in national attention, raising it from simply a personal matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Under Catherine II particularly, education was made into a top priority. Universities were established, and children’s education, whether in the capital or the provinces, was heavily supported. </li></ul><ul><li>Following Peter, the sciences entered a position of prominence in Russia which continues to today, where groundbreaking scientists such as Lomonosov used their curiosity to explore the natural world. Such scientists were granted the enthusiastic support of the tsars, notably through the establishment of the Academy of Sciences. </li></ul><ul><li>While education was intended to allow the people to more effectively serve the state, the spread of literacy, and the focus of liberal activity within the universities also ensured that education set the stage for later Intelligentsia revolt. </li></ul>