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SMALLHOLDERS’ AGRICULTURE AT THE TROPICAL FOREST MARGIN INCAMEROON: OPPORTUNITIES FOR A LANDSCPE APPROACH TO PROMOTEAGROFO...
BIO-PRESENTATIONv.robiglio@cgiar.orgForest landscape ecologist at IITApartner in the ASB platformResearch subject: analysi...
CAMEROON                                  Population: 19.5 M, 42% rural, urbanizationDense tropical forest :           3.4...
THE LAND USE MOSAIC AT THE FOREST MARGIN                                    Fallow Units and secondary forests  4 M ha   ...
DEFORESTATIONIn much of CA and WA the expansion of agriculture by small-holder farmers isa leading driver of deforestation...
LANDSCAPE CONCEPT AND LANDSCAPE APPROACH                                                                      Production  ...
BEYOND THE UNDERSTANDING OF LAND USE /LAND COVER CHANGE What are the implications of LULC on local  and global environment...
impact of combined agricultural expansion/deforestation and intensification processes on thepotential for biodiversity con...
impact of combined agricultural expansion/deforestation and intensification processes on the    landscape structurepotenti...
impact of combined agricultural expansion/deforestation and intensification processes on thepotential for biodiversity con...
impact of combined agricultural expansion/deforestation and intensification processes on thepotential for biodiversity con...
impact of combined agricultural expansion/deforestation and intensification processes on thepotential for biodiversity con...
impact of combined agricultural expansion/deforestation and intensification processes on thepotential for biodiversity con...
factors influencing farmers land use decision making in the villages functional territories         Robiglio V., Mala W.A....
What are the implications of landscape change on the local and globalenvironmental services? •12 villages HH surveys + Foc...
What are the implications of landscape change on the local and globalenvironmental services? data collection  • 173 Plots ...
What are the implications of landscape change on the local and globalenvironmental services?preliminary results1. LULC 200...
What are the implications of landscape change on the local and globalenvironmental services?preliminary results   2. Land ...
What are the implications of landscape change on the local and globalenvironmental services?    Land Use System Change    ...
What are the implications of landscape change on the local and globalenvironmental services?preliminary results   3. Carbo...
What are the entry points for AFS? On –farm timber production                                a flourishing domestic timber...
What are the entry points for AFS? On –farm timber production           …targets a handful of species harvested …         ...
What are the entry points for AFS? On –farm timber production                       …in the agricultural land use units   ...
What are the entry points for AFS? On –farm timber production What are on-farm trees in the rural mosaic?    Farmers tradi...
What are the entry points for AFS? On –farm timber production   Towards an assessment of the opportunity to develop manage...
What are the entry points for AFS? On –farm timber productionResults: Farmland timber Stock and species  About 49 over 51 ...
What are the entry points for AFS? On –farm timber production  Other results  P and NPLD species regenerate and grow in fa...
What are the entry points for AFS? On –farm timber production   Analysis of barriers    Tenure and use right restriction  ...
What are the entry points for AFS? On –farm timber production   Opportunities and the way forwards    There is potential f...
THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR ATTENTION !!!! MERCI!!!! GRAZIE!!!                       ASANTE SANA!!!!
LULC: DEGRADATION AND AGRICULTURAL INTENSIFICATIONComplex mosaics evolve from tree-rich to tree-poor systemsvertical: coco...
trees species richness and diversity assessment per land use typefactors affecting the pattern of abundance of woody speci...
preliminary results3. Carbon and species diversity indicators• Mature Cocoa farms and Long fallow intercrop stock a high a...
ANY ROLE for REDD+ in small-holder farmerscontext?                                              Depends on what is eligibl...
methodological challenges for the next steps• Coupled biodiversity inventory and carbon  stock measurement• Uncertainty in...
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Smallholders’ agriculture at the tropical forest margin in cameroon opportunities for a landscpe approach to promote agroforestry

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Smallholders’ agriculture at the tropical forest margin in cameroon opportunities for a landscpe approach to promote agroforestry

  1. 1. SMALLHOLDERS’ AGRICULTURE AT THE TROPICAL FOREST MARGIN INCAMEROON: OPPORTUNITIES FOR A LANDSCPE APPROACH TO PROMOTEAGROFORESTRY Valentina Robiglio, 29/11/2011 WORLD AGROFORESTRY CENTRE, Nairobi
  2. 2. BIO-PRESENTATIONv.robiglio@cgiar.orgForest landscape ecologist at IITApartner in the ASB platformResearch subject: analysis of land usesystems at the humidtropical forest margin. Implications forlivelihoods, carbon sequestration andbiodiversity.Key words: smallholderfarmers, shifting cultivation, land usetrajectories, deforestation and forestdegradation, tree based mitigation(REDD+/REALU) and adaptationstrategies
  3. 3. CAMEROON Population: 19.5 M, 42% rural, urbanizationDense tropical forest : 3.4%, variation across regions 7.5 p/Km2 Est, 12.5PFD 12M ha protected 4.5M p/Km2 South; production 7.5 Economy: GDP 44 billions $, agriculture 20% GDP –NPFD 5M ha liable to conversion labor force 70%; Export: oil, lumber and cocoaDeforestation rate: 1.1% Dense humid forest: 16.5 M haMajor driver of deforestationsmall-scale agricultureREDD+
  4. 4. THE LAND USE MOSAIC AT THE FOREST MARGIN Fallow Units and secondary forests  4 M ha Annual crops  900 t ha Cocoa Agro-forests  500 t ha
  5. 5. DEFORESTATIONIn much of CA and WA the expansion of agriculture by small-holder farmers isa leading driver of deforestation;Nutrients in the plant biomass are mined by agricultural householdsemploying slash and burn;The same households depend on stock of wild food, fuelwood, and traditionalmedicines which are produced by the forest they cut down and burn in theiragricultural practices;Fallows and agroforests provide environmental services such as biodiversityconservation and carbon stock =>mitigation of deforestation.
  6. 6. LANDSCAPE CONCEPT AND LANDSCAPE APPROACH Production Ecosystem services Biodiversity Institutions Carbon sink and sequestration Livelihoods strategies policy System resilience Landscapes: spatially heterogeneous geographic areas characterized by diverse interacting patches or ecosystems Landscape approach is necessary to deal at the same time with production, biodiversity, ecosystem services and functions, livelihoods strategies, policy and institutions across scales. That approach is particularly valuable to create an understanding in the complex (competing) interrelationships between resource use and users across scales.
  7. 7. BEYOND THE UNDERSTANDING OF LAND USE /LAND COVER CHANGE What are the implications of LULC on local and global environmental services provided by landscapes? Are LULC changes indicator of agricultural change? (e.g. a change in the social asset, or technology…) What are the entry points for AFS once adopting a landscape approach? Comparison of HH data for 1996-2011 in AWAE
  8. 8. impact of combined agricultural expansion/deforestation and intensification processes on thepotential for biodiversity conservation in shifting cultivation landscapesWhat are the current trends in the agricultural mosaics and how do they affect forest speciesregeneration capacity and conservation potential of the mosaics?1) What factors do control species regeneration (fallows)?2) What are the factors that shape LULC at the local scale and how do they operate? Robiglio V., Sinclair F.L. (2011). Maintaining the Conservation Value of Shifting Cultivation Landscapes Requires Spatially Explicit Interventions. Environmental Management . 48(2): 289-306.
  9. 9. impact of combined agricultural expansion/deforestation and intensification processes on the landscape structurepotential for biodiversity conservation in shifting cultivation landscapes Shifting cultivation landscapes are complex fragmented landscapes: Complexity results from the dynamics within the non-forest agricultural matrix and from the linked process of forest loss and recovery in fallows. PLOT LEVEL TRAJECTORIES LANDSCAPE LEVEL OUTCOME
  10. 10. impact of combined agricultural expansion/deforestation and intensification processes on thepotential for biodiversity conservation in shifting cultivation landscapes •Focus Group RRA •Participatory GIS mapping to define territory/landscape scale on the base of land resources management; •RS fine grained monitoring of transition and modification of LC classes; •Analysis of forest fragmentation and agricultural expansion (FRAGSTATS) Nkometou Core Area Herbaceous land Shrubland Grassland herbaceous 100 1951 2001 1951 2001 1951 2001 80 60 Nkometou 40 %of class’ land 43.6 65.7 58.3 49.1 68.9 67.8 20 Core areas per patch 1.4 1.8 1.5 1.4 1.2 1.3 0 Mean core area 1.4 12.7 3.7 1.9 5.8 9.7 1951 2001 1951 2001 1951 2001 Median core area 0.6 1.1 1.1 0.9 2.3 2.2 Core area range 7.1 449.5 42.0 25.8 45.0 44.8 shb hb gr_hb hb shb frF_agr fr_mlF mlf dhf gr_hb gr
  11. 11. impact of combined agricultural expansion/deforestation and intensification processes on thepotential for biodiversity conservation in shifting cultivation landscapes Plot level trees species richness and diversity assessment per land use type factors affecting the pattern of abundance of woody species: -Plot level factors : the land use, weeds layer, the density of un- felled trees, age -Landscape factors: mature vegetation, forest , matrix. 1. test of the influence of plot and landscape sets using RDA 2. significant sets arranged in a hierarchy, on the basis of a variance partitioning procedure.
  12. 12. impact of combined agricultural expansion/deforestation and intensification processes on thepotential for biodiversity conservation in shifting cultivation landscapesResultsSpecies regeneration:1) The type of agricultural matrix in which the fallows are embedded, the degree of adjacency to mature vegetation and the distance from the forest have the highest impact on forest species distribution in the regenerating fallows.Land Use / Land Cover change:1) Agricultural patches are expanding and merging;2) Remnant forest patches are shrinking and increasingly isolated;3) Within the agricultural matrix the proportion cropped at any time is increasing, as well as the frequency and size of short fallow patches;4) Fallow plots are increasingly scattered throughout the agricultural matrix and isolated from one another and the remaining forest => loss of fallow functions and degradation of the agricultural matrix
  13. 13. impact of combined agricultural expansion/deforestation and intensification processes on thepotential for biodiversity conservation in shifting cultivation landscapes Implications: Methodological: 1. Analytical frameworks of forest fragmentation and conservation at the tropical forest margin should integrate the processes that control secondary forest recovery within the agricultural matrix: the intensity, persistency and spatial pattern of the agricultural disturbances. Landscape management: 1. Non-forest matrix provides required conditions in the absence of forest; 2. With the loss of fallow functions, scattered trees, live fences, multistrata cocoa, home gardens and small degraded forest spots that farmers maintain, become the foci of conservation and dispersal of forest species; 3. Spatial distribution matters!
  14. 14. factors influencing farmers land use decision making in the villages functional territories Robiglio V., Mala W.A. and Diaw M.C. (2003) Mapping landscapes: Integrating GIS and social science methods to model human-nature relationships in Southern Cameroon. Small-Scale Forestry Volume 2, Number 2, 171-184.
  15. 15. What are the implications of landscape change on the local and globalenvironmental services? •12 villages HH surveys + Focus groups for LUC Drivers, Resources Management, income, landholdings •6 villages for carbon and trees biodiversity assessment , GPS-LU mosaic mapping, land use trajectories and profitability analysis •LULC analysis over 2001-2007 based on Landsat and Aster img.
  16. 16. What are the implications of landscape change on the local and globalenvironmental services? data collection • 173 Plots • LUTs: Degraded forest Logged forest Secondary forest Fallows Cocoa farms Trees dbh > 5cm, measured and identified +understory, litter, dead trees • Allometric equation adopted: AGB = ρ * EXP {-1.499 + [2.148 * LN(DBH)] + [0.207 * LN(DBH)] 2 – [0.0281 * LN(DBH)] 3} Chave et al. (2005) AGB = aboveground biomass in kg/tree ρ = wood density g/cm3 EXP = ―e‖ to the power of DBH = diameter at breast height in cm
  17. 17. What are the implications of landscape change on the local and globalenvironmental services?preliminary results1. LULC 2001/2007 :Clusters of local landscape changes allow identifying typical landscapes of shifting cultivation, settled areas with more stable agriculture, and areas with net deforestation, how these are distributed in space and how they relate to pattern of identified drivers.Within a dynamic landscape with high percentages of LU changes, the aggregated proportion of forest is stable but there are contrasting local dynamics ;
  18. 18. What are the implications of landscape change on the local and globalenvironmental services?preliminary results 2. Land Use Mosaic: Perennial crops Slash and Burn systems Traditional Shaded Cocoa Oil Palm-small scale Forest fields (Essep ) M ixed Foodcrop M onoculture Foodcrops % of land 9.70% 4.30% 8.20% 3.40% 0.10% S (ha) 0.6 3.4 0.6 0.13 0.19 *Data for 1 site Fallow land is the main component of the land use mosaic
  19. 19. What are the implications of landscape change on the local and globalenvironmental services? Land Use System Change Carbon stock distribution General trends of Change reported by the farmers in sites with good market acces: 1) Increase of number of fields by HH, in particular under short intercrop systems : introduction of mono-cultural crops 2) Increase of average fields surface in particular for forest farms 3) Decrease of remnant trees left during field preparation both for mixed food crops and in cocoa farms DEGRADATION of the RURAL MOSAIC
  20. 20. What are the implications of landscape change on the local and globalenvironmental services?preliminary results 3. Carbon and species diversity indicators Carbon/tree species diversity correlate significantly across the land use types considered (R, Pearson 0.748; SW, Pearson 0.663, p<0.001) Carbon /tree species diversity correlate for non- pioneer and late/shade bearer species in fallow intercrop degraded forest (R, Pearson 0.64, p<0.01). late/shade bearer species show the clearest pattern with C stock both for fallows and degraded forest
  21. 21. What are the entry points for AFS? On –farm timber production a flourishing domestic timber sector… 3.0 Millions m3 2.0 1.0 Robiglio, V. et al. 2011.From farmers to loggers: understanding the role of 0.0 the rural land for timber production 2000 2005 2010 in Cameroon. Submitted to a special Official production SSL informal production issue of Small Scale Forestry . Robiglio, V. et al. ASB PolicyBrief23 On-farm timber production Once SSL production is included the overall for emission reduction with value of national timber production doubles! sustainable benefits at the tropical forest margins. 21
  22. 22. What are the entry points for AFS? On –farm timber production …targets a handful of species harvested … Five species made about 75% of total sales in Yaounde. Ayous is the most largely commercialised Important commercial species are harvested more in the NPFD Source: Cerutti and Lescuyer 2010 22
  23. 23. What are the entry points for AFS? On –farm timber production …in the agricultural land use units 23
  24. 24. What are the entry points for AFS? On –farm timber production What are on-farm trees in the rural mosaic? Farmers traditionally maintained selected forest species on their farms 1. increase crop productivity (e.g. enhancement of soil fertility, of nutrient cycling, management of light and moisture, protection from wind); 2. provide valuable products (food, medicines, construction timber, fuel wood etc.) for household consumption and income diversification.!! On-farm trees in Cameroon are not managed by farmers for timberproduction.!! SSL benefits of a stock of trees that were preserved by farmers for reasonsother than timber production
  25. 25. What are the entry points for AFS? On –farm timber production Towards an assessment of the opportunity to develop management options for the on-farm timber stock Are there significant variations in tree species distribution in the different land use systems? What are the factors influencing trees species distribution? How will the evolution of agricultural land use systems affect future timber production? Can timber production from farmland become a livelihood option for smallholders? 25
  26. 26. What are the entry points for AFS? On –farm timber productionResults: Farmland timber Stock and species About 49 over 51 commercial species inventoried. The most abundant were the Pioneers and Non Pioneer Light Demanding Species; Larger volumes and higher density values were found in the Nkolabang, intensively cultivated, short rotations are dominant, high population fallow units (medium and old) pressure and for secondary species, Trees density varied across sites; Within sites trees density varied across Land Use Units; ANOVA of average density per LUT was significant only for one species in one site (Iroko, F=2.79, Mevo Mevo, medium and long fallow rotations are dominant, low population pressure p=0.026). 26
  27. 27. What are the entry points for AFS? On –farm timber production Other results P and NPLD species regenerate and grow in fallow based and permanent tree crop systems Density depends on the type of LUT, the length of the fallow rotation and on the species There is a high potential to promote secondary species in particular in the fallow units Agricultural expansion and intensification coupled to logging is rapidly reducing the availability of farmland trees >> need for intervention to avoid timber shortage
  28. 28. What are the entry points for AFS? On –farm timber production Analysis of barriers Tenure and use right restriction In particular the prohibition to sell, that is the impossibility of fully benefit of their use right on trees growing on their customarily owned land is perceived as a barrier to get involved in planting and better managing timber trees. Tenure insecurity becomes an issue in relation to the time needed by the trees to grow and become exploitable. Low profitability Farmers feel they have a low power of negotiation and get low returns for a valuable product. Not aware of the economical value of the timber they consider the low price justified by the lack of investment in production. Technical restrictions: lack of management skills and information Farmers’ knowledge about managing timber trees regeneration and growth is limited to very basic techniques and fully depend on natural regeneration.
  29. 29. What are the entry points for AFS? On –farm timber production Opportunities and the way forwards There is potential for indigenous timber species to be associated with smallholder crop production. Natural regeneration should be integrated by domestication and planting with the development of related technical protocols. Farmers’ knowledge about tree management and tree properties should be complemented with technical knowledge on crop-trees complementation. Adapted management units should be identified and inventory and monitoring systems developed. The system has to be integrated in the design of agricultural intensification options considering spatial distribution. Main barriers such as lack of rights and delayed benefits to farmers should be addressed with benefit sharing mechanisms that favor short term payback and market information systems on domestic and international timber prices, to increase farmers’ awareness of timber value. In the long term, reforms to reinforce tree ownership by farmers, and control over timber resources.
  30. 30. THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR ATTENTION !!!! MERCI!!!! GRAZIE!!! ASANTE SANA!!!!
  31. 31. LULC: DEGRADATION AND AGRICULTURAL INTENSIFICATIONComplex mosaics evolve from tree-rich to tree-poor systemsvertical: cocoa agroforestshorizontal: shortening of fallows and expansion of homogeneous agriculturalmatrices;Fine grained mosaic dynamics are difficult to monitor... and not considered ingeneral debate about tropical deforestation / degradation and land usechange;
  32. 32. trees species richness and diversity assessment per land use typefactors affecting the pattern of abundance of woody species: 1. test of the influence of plot and landscape sets using RDA 2. significant sets arranged in a hierarchy, on the basis of a variance partitioning procedure
  33. 33. preliminary results3. Carbon and species diversity indicators• Mature Cocoa farms and Long fallow intercrop stock a high amount of carbon• Cocoa and Long fallow intercrop present high tree species diversity values Land USE Carbon T/ha Diversity cocoa1 55.07 0.23 cocoa2 99.21 0.37 cocoa3 93.63 0.37 cocoa4 115.94 0.36 YF 34.43 0.14 MF 41.57 0.18 OF 101.47 0.41 SF 130.81 0.41 LF 152.91 0.54 DF 204.81 0.57
  34. 34. ANY ROLE for REDD+ in small-holder farmerscontext? Depends on what is eligible and on the adopted national forest definition. CARBON ENHANCEMENT (RESTORATION) and AVOIDED DEFORESTATION in identified priority areas Cameroon National forest definition "Forest is a tract of land with a minimal surface of 0.1 hectare, with tree canopy cover of more than 30% (or with an equivalent stand density). The trees or woody vegetation should be able to reach a minimum height of 5 m.”
  35. 35. methodological challenges for the next steps• Coupled biodiversity inventory and carbon stock measurement• Uncertainty in carbon estimates due to lack of suitable allometric equations• What biodiversity and which indicator or combination of indicators are suitable?• At what spatial scale?

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