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Airfield Ground LightingAerodrome Introduction, AGL & Power Supply
Prepared by: Ahmad Sajjad Safi, CNS Instructor & Chief ...
Introduction to these slides
• Part 1 of this chapter consist of General information about airport.
• Part 2 of the chapte...
Part 1- General Information
• What is Airport?
• Landside & Airside
• Runway
• Taxiway
• Ramp
• Apron
• Terminal
• ATC Tow...
What is Airport?
• Airport is a defined area on land or water where passengers connect from
ground transportation to air t...
Landside & Airside
Airports are divided into landside and airside.
• Landside includes parking lots, public transport and ...
Runway
• A runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for
the landing and takeoff of aircraft". Ru...
Sections of a runway
• The runway thresholds are markings across the runway that denote the
beginning and end of the desig...
•Blast pads, also known as overrun areas or stop-ways, are often constructed
just before the start of a runway where jet b...
• Displaced thresholds may be used for taxiing, takeoff, and landing
rollout, but not for touchdown. A displaced threshold...
Runway markings
10
Types of Runway
There are three types of runway
• Visual Runway
• Non-Precession Instrument Runway
• Precession Instrument...
Types of Runway
• Visual runways are used at small airstrips
and are usually just a strip of grass, gravel,
ice, asphalt, ...
Types of Runway
• Non-precision instrument runways
are often used at small- to medium-
size airports. These runways,
depen...
Types of Runway
• Precision instrument
runways, which are found at
medium- and large-size
airports, consist of a blast
pad...
Taxiway
• A taxiway is a path for aircraft at an airport connecting
runways with aprons, hangars, terminals and other faci...
Ramp
• The area where aircraft park next to a terminal to load passengers
and baggage is known as a ramp.
16
Apron
• Parking areas for aircraft away from terminals are called aprons.
17
Terminal
• Passengers on commercial
flights access airside areas
through terminals, where
they can purchase tickets,
clear...
ATC Tower
• The majority of the world's airports are non-towered, with no air traffic control
presence. However, at partic...
Airfield Ground Lighting
Second Part
Reference: Arthur S. Schai,
Thanks for their assistance.
Aerodrome Manual
& Wikipedia...
AGL Introduction
• The first runway lighting appeared in 1930 at Cleveland Municipal Airport
Ohio.
• A line of lights on a...
AGL Introduction
• Very soon, we will have the ability to land aircraft under category III
conditions. Already, some comme...
Early In-Pavement Lights
• The Alfaka light was an early attempt at in-pavement lighting. The Alfaka light
was housed in a...
Early Installations
• Before monolithic paving
techniques, however, inset light
fixtures were installed by coring a
shallo...
New Installation Techniques
In 1967, Reinard Brandley, Consulting Engineer for the City of Sacramento,
California, took a ...
New Installation Techniques
The space-shuttle runway built by NASA at Kennedy Space Center at Cape
Canaveral, Florida, in ...
Various Lights and Their Functions
All of the inset lights mentioned in Table A (on page 16) have specific uses and all us...
Various Lights and Their Functions
At times, a secondary color accompanies the regular color to convey a special
message. ...
Problems Posed By Water and Moisture
The truism that water and electricity don't mix holds for inset lighting.
Since airpo...
Other Points of Concern
Inset lights and the light bases that support them, must be as strong and durable
as the pavement ...
Planning and Designing the System
Experience shows that there is no standard way to build an airport. Each project
include...
Paving Materials and Techniques
The cement most commonly used is Portland Cement. This is mixed with fine and
coarse aggre...
MonolithicInstallation of Light
Laying the Conduit: Carefully dig a chase into the compacted base between the light
bases,...
MonolithicInstallation of Light
• Completing the Installation: Attach the light fixture to the light base with
stainless s...
Tests for Acceptance and Maintenance
• Light Fixtures
• Light Bases and Hardware
• Pavement
When the installation is compl...
Control of Lighting system
• Typically the lights are controlled by a control tower, a flight service
station or another d...
Part 2- Airfield Ground Lighting
• Control of Lighting system
• Factors Affecting Airport Lighting
• Lights which may enda...
Control of Lighting system
38
Factors Affecting Airport Lighting
• Airport classification
• Amount of traffic
• Availability of power
• Nature of aircra...
Lights Which May Endanger The Safety Of Aircraft
• A non-aeronautical ground light near an aerodrome which might endanger
...
Types of Light
• Elevated approach lights
• Elevated approach lights and their supporting structures
shall be frangible ex...
Light Intensity & Control
• In dusk or poor visibility conditions by day, lighting can be more effective than
marking.
• F...
Intensity of Runway Lighting
• Low intensity runway lights (LIRL) for Category 1
• Medium intensity runway lights (MIRL) f...
Emergency Lighting
• At an aerodrome provided with
runway lighting and without a
secondary power supply, sufficient
emerge...
Aeronautical beacons
• Where operationally necessary an
aerodrome beacon or an identification
beacon shall be provided at ...
Aeronautical beacons
Aerodrome beacon:
• The aerodrome beacon shall show either
colored flashes alternating with white fla...
Aeronautical beacons
Identification beacon
• An identification beacon at a land aerodrome
shall show at all angles of azim...
Approach Lighting
• Before runway begins- sequence of
high-intensity lighting are available
for helping pilots to check if...
• Simple Approach Lighting System: (White lights only) applies to
Non-Instrument (visual at night) (code 3 or 4)
Non-Preci...
50
51
Visual Approach Slope Indicator Systems
• A visual approach slope indicator system shall be provided to serve the approach...
T-VASIS and AT-VASIS
• The T-VASIS shall consist of twenty light units symmetrically disposed
about the runway center line...
T-VASIS and AT-VASIS
• a)when above the approach slope, see the wing bar(s) white, and
one, two or three fly-down lights, ...
Precision Approach Path Indicator
• PAPI and APAPI
• The PAPI system shall consist of a wing bar of 4 sharp transition mul...
PAPI and APAPI
• a) when on or close to the approach slope, see the two units nearest the
runway as red and the two units ...
PAPI and APAPI
57
Circling Guidance Lights
• Circling guidance lights shall be provided when
existing approach and runway lighting systems d...
Runway lead-in Lighting Systems
• A runway lead-in lighting system shall be
provided where it is desired to provide
visual...
Wing Bar Lights
• Applies to:
• Recommended for precision approach runways
when additional conspicuity is desired.
• Shall...
Runway Threshold Lights
• Applies to: Runways with edge lights; except on visual or non-precision
runways where the thresh...
Runway Edge Lights
• Applies to: Runways intended for night operations or for any precision
instrument runway.
• Runways w...
Runway Edge Lights
63
Runway End Lights
• Applies to: All runways equipped with
runway edge lights.
• Location: Placed at the runway ends and
no...
Runway Centre Lights
• Applies to: Precision runways (CAT II & III) & CAT I with high landing speeds
• Location: Along cen...
Runway Touchdown Zone Lights
• Applies to: Precision runways (CAT II &
III)
• Location: Extend longitudinally 900m
from th...
Runway Stop Bars
• Runway incursions may take place in all visibility or weather conditions. The
provision of stop bars at...
Taxiway Center Line Lights
• Applies to: Provide visual guidance during low visibility conditions
• Location: Should be sp...
Taxiway Edge Lights
• Applies to: Taxiway intended for use at night.
• Location: Taxiway edge lights shall be provided at ...
Runway Guard Lights
• Warn pilots, and drivers of vehicles when they are operating on
taxiways, that they are about to ent...
Apron & Hanger Lighting
• Apron floodlights shall be located so as to provide adequate illumination on all
apron service a...
Visual Docking Guidance System
• A visual docking guidance system shall be provided when it is
intended to indicate, by a ...
Aircraft Stand Maneuvering Guidance Lights
• Aircraft stand maneuvering guidance
lights shall be provided to facilitate
th...
Road-holding Position Light
• A road-holding position light shall be provided at each road-holding
position serving a runw...
Technical Inspections
• Airport lighting maintenance schedules
and airport lighting logbooks record
details of routine tec...
Inspection Checklist
• Installed correctly with proper elevation
• In line with other lights level and correctly
oriented
...
Power Supply
Third Part
Electricity, Generator, Solar & Wind Turbine
77
Electrical Supply
ELECTRICITY POWER TRANSMISSION is the bulk transfer of electrical energy, from
generating power plants t...
Standby Generation
• Stand-by generation equipment is provided to ensure continuity of power
should there be a failure in ...
Solar Energy
• Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the Sun harnessed using a
range of ever-evolving technologies
•...
Wind Turbine
• A wind turbine is a device that
converts kinetic energy from the wind
into electrical power. The term
appea...
End of the Lesson
Any Question?
Thanks for attending the Class.
Ahmad Sajjad Safi
Chief of Electro-Mechanics for Afghanist...
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Airfield ground lighting (AGL)

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This chapter contains basic knowledge about Airfield Ground Lighting, all aspects are defined simply for readers.

Airfield ground lighting (AGL)

  1. 1. Airfield Ground LightingAerodrome Introduction, AGL & Power Supply Prepared by: Ahmad Sajjad Safi, CNS Instructor & Chief Electro-Mechanic 1
  2. 2. Introduction to these slides • Part 1 of this chapter consist of General information about airport. • Part 2 of the chapter include the lighting system of airport. • Part 3 of these slides contain the power supply system. 2
  3. 3. Part 1- General Information • What is Airport? • Landside & Airside • Runway • Taxiway • Ramp • Apron • Terminal • ATC Tower 3
  4. 4. What is Airport? • Airport is a defined area on land or water where passengers connect from ground transportation to air transportation. • An airport is a location where aircraft such as airplanes, helicopters take off and land. Aircraft may also be stored or maintained at an airport. An airport should have runway for takeoffs and landings, buildings such as hangars and terminal buildings. • Airport may or may not be equipped with any navigational aids or markings. • The terms aerodrome, airfield, and airstrip may also be used to refer to airports. 4
  5. 5. Landside & Airside Airports are divided into landside and airside. • Landside includes parking lots, public transport and access roads. • Airside includes all areas accessible to aircraft, including runways, taxiways and ramps. • Passage between landside and airside is tightly controlled at all airports. • To access airside, you must go through Passport Control and Security, this applies to everyone, including staff. • Air Side Consist of: Runway, Taxiway, Apron, Ramp, Hangers & ATC Tower. 5
  6. 6. Runway • A runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft". Runways may be a man-made surface (often asphalt, concrete, or a mixture of both) or a natural surface (grass, dirt, gravel, ice, or salt). • Naming of Runway: Runways are named by a number between 01 and 36, which is generally the magnetic azimuth of the runway's heading. • Runway dimensions: vary from as small as 245 m long and 8 m wide in smaller general aviation airports, to 5,500 m long and 80 m wide at large international airports. 6
  7. 7. Sections of a runway • The runway thresholds are markings across the runway that denote the beginning and end of the designated space for landing and takeoff under non-emergency conditions. • The runway is the surface from threshold to threshold, which typically features threshold markings, numbers, and centerlines, but not overrun areas at both ends. 7
  8. 8. •Blast pads, also known as overrun areas or stop-ways, are often constructed just before the start of a runway where jet blast produced by large planes during the takeoff roll could otherwise erode the ground and eventually damage the runway. Overrun areas are also constructed at the end of runways as emergency space to slowly stop planes that overrun the runway on a landing gone wrong, or to slowly stop a plane on a rejected takeoff or a takeoff gone wrong. Blast pads are often not as strong as the main paved surface of the runway and are marked with yellow chevrons. Planes are not allowed to taxi, take off or land on blast pads, except in an emergency. Sections of a runway 8
  9. 9. • Displaced thresholds may be used for taxiing, takeoff, and landing rollout, but not for touchdown. A displaced threshold often exists because obstacles just before the runway, runway strength, or noise restrictions may make the beginning section of runway unsuitable for landings. It is marked with white paint arrows that lead up to the beginning of the landing portion of the runway. Sections of a runway 9
  10. 10. Runway markings 10
  11. 11. Types of Runway There are three types of runway • Visual Runway • Non-Precession Instrument Runway • Precession Instrument Runway 11
  12. 12. Types of Runway • Visual runways are used at small airstrips and are usually just a strip of grass, gravel, ice, asphalt, or concrete. Although there are usually no markings on a visual runway, they may have threshold markings, designators, and centerlines. • Additionally, they do not provide an instrument-based landing procedure; pilots must be able to see the runway to use it. Also, radio communication may not be available and pilots must be self-reliant. 12
  13. 13. Types of Runway • Non-precision instrument runways are often used at small- to medium- size airports. These runways, depending on the surface, may be marked with threshold markings, designators, centerlines, and aiming point. • They provide horizontal position guidance to planes on instrument approach via Non-directional beacon, VHF omnidirectional range, Global Positioning System, etc. 13
  14. 14. Types of Runway • Precision instrument runways, which are found at medium- and large-size airports, consist of a blast pad/stop-way, threshold, designator, centerline, aiming point, touchdown zone marks. • Precision runways provide both horizontal and vertical guidance for instrument approaches. 14
  15. 15. Taxiway • A taxiway is a path for aircraft at an airport connecting runways with aprons, hangars, terminals and other facilities. • Busy airports typically construct high-speed or rapid-exit taxiways to allow aircraft to leave the runway at higher speeds. 15
  16. 16. Ramp • The area where aircraft park next to a terminal to load passengers and baggage is known as a ramp. 16
  17. 17. Apron • Parking areas for aircraft away from terminals are called aprons. 17
  18. 18. Terminal • Passengers on commercial flights access airside areas through terminals, where they can purchase tickets, clear security check, or claim luggage and board aircraft through gates. 18
  19. 19. ATC Tower • The majority of the world's airports are non-towered, with no air traffic control presence. However, at particularly busy airports, or airports with other special requirements, there is an air traffic control (ATC) system whereby controllers direct aircraft movements via radio or other communications links. • This coordinated oversight facilitates safety and speed in complex operations. 19
  20. 20. Airfield Ground Lighting Second Part Reference: Arthur S. Schai, Thanks for their assistance. Aerodrome Manual & Wikipedia 20
  21. 21. AGL Introduction • The first runway lighting appeared in 1930 at Cleveland Municipal Airport Ohio. • A line of lights on an airfield or elsewhere to guide aircraft in taking off or coming in to land or an illuminated runway is sometimes also known as a Flare Path. • Lighting is used at airports that allow night landings. Seen from the air. • To achieve uniformity and to guide pilots for unfamiliar airports, colours and general arrangement of airport lights are standardized. • Airport lights are kept clean, well-maintained, checked regularly for faulty bulbs and replacement. • Provision of emergency power supplies, which can take over in seconds in case of any power failure. 21
  22. 22. AGL Introduction • Very soon, we will have the ability to land aircraft under category III conditions. Already, some commercial, military and space vehicles are equipped with "fly by wire" systems that permit landings under zero visibility. But practical limitations such as cost, universal availability and need for human backup will make visual aids necessary to aviation for many years. • Among the key landing and ground- movement visual aids are those located in the pavement of runways and taxiways. These lighted aids are needed for landing, rollout, take-off, ground movement, traffic control and high-speed exits from runways and apron guidance for docking. • During the fifteen years in which this kind of lighting was being installed, techniques were developed to make its installation compatible with paving requirements yet without compromising the integrity and function of the lights. 22
  23. 23. Early In-Pavement Lights • The Alfaka light was an early attempt at in-pavement lighting. The Alfaka light was housed in an opening in the runway covered by a steel grate. Below the grate, par- lamp fixtures were set at an angle that made their light visible to a pilot during landing. In low- visibility conditions the light indicated the area of runway the aircraft should contact. • The Alfaka light developed visibility problems due to accumulated water and snow and it was expensive to install and maintain. These drawbacks led to the development of individual semi- flush lighting fixtures. The first semi- flush lights were epoxied into the pavement and were called "pancake lights." They consisted of a metal body containing quartz- iodide lamps placed in a metal container. The lamps were protected by a heavy metal cover that contained an aperture through which the light escaped. Pancake lights, though relatively inexpensive lacked the quality of light emission provided by a lens system. 23
  24. 24. Early Installations • Before monolithic paving techniques, however, inset light fixtures were installed by coring a shallow opening in the existing pavement and then bonding the fixture to the pavement with an epoxy or polyester adhesive. Kerfs wide enough to accommodate the wires were sawed into the pavement and the conductors were laid in and covered with the epoxy or polyester material. 24
  25. 25. New Installation Techniques In 1967, Reinard Brandley, Consulting Engineer for the City of Sacramento, California, took a critical step toward establishing modern installation methods. When planning to install centerline lighting, Brandley decided that the time had come to switch to a conduit system—a system much more dependable than one whose conductors were buried in saw cuts at the surface. In view of this, Brandley designed Sacramento Airport with a conduit buried in the compacted subbase. After the flexible runway was paved, cores were made at the inset light stations. The cores were about three feet in diameter and they were drilled to the subbase, exposing the steel conduit. This was cut within the hole and connected to a steel transformer base. The base was supported by a jig to make the centerline light flush with the surface and to insure the proper azimuth. The opening below and around the base was back- filled with an expanding cement concrete of adequate strength. Compared to a glue- in system, this new system demonstrated greater reliability and reduction in lamp outages and maintenance costs. 25
  26. 26. New Installation Techniques The space-shuttle runway built by NASA at Kennedy Space Center at Cape Canaveral, Florida, in 1975, is a prime example of the combination of skills that contribute to modern installation methods. This runway reveals the effectiveness of an integrated conduit system developed by sound engineering experience, trial and error and cooperation between Civil, Electrical and Illuminating Engineers, as well as participating contractors, operators and regulatory bodies. Through such coordinating of energies, installations have been made in P.C.C. pavement monolithically, using either slip form or standard forming methods. Light bases and conduits have been successfully placed in post-tensioned and pre-stressed. In addition, methods have been devised to utilize new flexible materials and surfaces successfully. 26
  27. 27. Various Lights and Their Functions All of the inset lights mentioned in Table A (on page 16) have specific uses and all use different colors to signify their purpose. The colors are obtained by using absorption filters or lenses. The emissivity of each color varies. This highest value is white (100%), followed by yellow or amber (55%), red (23%), green (21 %) and blue (3%). Using dichroic filters can increase these values for certain colors. White lights are used for signals that have the longest range, such as the runway centerline, runway edge, touchdown zone and approach lights. Taxiway centerline, high-speed-exit and threshold lights are all green. Taxiway-edge lights are blue. The universal codes – red for "danger-do not go" and yellow for "caution" are followed. Threshold-end lights facing upwind signal that the end of usable runway is approaching. Yellow hold-bars warn of impending intersections. In the United States, red hold-bars are not used unless the red can be switched to green or off. Variations exist such as using yellow at the intersection of taxiway centerlines. Helicopter pads and apron boundaries are sometimes marked by yellow lights. Turn-offs from runways onto taxiways are usually designated by a double blue edge light, but an amber light at this location is sometimes used. Dead ends and forbidden entry are always shown in red. 27
  28. 28. Various Lights and Their Functions At times, a secondary color accompanies the regular color to convey a special message. For example, runway centerline lights set 2000 feet before the runway's end are alternate red and white and then all red for the last 1000 feet. Similarly, edge lights are amber for the last 2000 feet of the runway, signifying to pilots that usable runway is running short. Approach lights use bars of red lights to signal the closeness of the threshold in Category II and III configurations. Flashing lights (sometimes called "wig wag" lights) are seldom used, but when they are, they alert an aircraft operator to a special condition. These are usually amber and should not be confused with sequenced, white, high- intensity discharge lights used on approach and runway end identifier lights (REILS). The latter are sometimes installed as inset fixtures if the threshold is displaced. Lights can be unidirectional, bi-directional and omnidirectional. Touchdown- zone lights are always unidirectional, as are approach lights. 28
  29. 29. Problems Posed By Water and Moisture The truism that water and electricity don't mix holds for inset lighting. Since airport pavement is subject to many sources of moisture, the developers of monolithic systems needed to prevent water and water vapor from making contact with the electrical conductors, contacts and connections. In addition, the lamps used in the fixtures may be damaged by water that touches their hot surfaces. 29
  30. 30. Other Points of Concern Inset lights and the light bases that support them, must be as strong and durable as the pavement of which they are a part. A variety of stresses affect both the pavement and the lights: stresses imposed by dynamic impact; by static, torsional and hydraulic loads; by temperature differentials; and by abrasion and corrosion. Although designing the lights and bases to resist these stresses is fairly simple, periodic inspection and maintenance are still critical in preventing failure or diminished performance. Some soils are more corrosive than seawater. An overall coating of coal tar emulsion properly used and installed will give protection in those kinds of soils. 30
  31. 31. Planning and Designing the System Experience shows that there is no standard way to build an airport. Each project includes its own individual variables. Some of these are: • The type of paving material to use • Anticipated loads and traffic • The kind of subsoil • The kind of subbase to use • The need for special treatment of the subsoil • Water conditions at the site • Other environmental conditions • The need for concurrent operations during construction • Funds available Only the consultant familiar with all the variables of a given airport can properly design the project. Once the specific design is produce appropriate methods can be followed to successfully install the in-pavement lighting system. 31
  32. 32. Paving Materials and Techniques The cement most commonly used is Portland Cement. This is mixed with fine and coarse aggregate and with water. Sometimes, the mixture may include additives such as antifreeze, air entrainment resins and retarding agents. The real strength of P.C.C. comes from the aggregate, which in turn is held in a matrix of cement. Other types of cements offer special properties, such as reduced time required to reach a usable compressive strength. These are called high early strength cements. When time is crucial, the fastest of this Magnesium Phosphate Cement, is an alternative to lengthy shutdown time. Calcium Aluminate Cement is another high early-strength mixture, but it is slower in reaching the desired strength. 32
  33. 33. MonolithicInstallation of Light Laying the Conduit: Carefully dig a chase into the compacted base between the light bases, as shown on the construction drawings and as located by the surveyor. Marking Reference Points: Lights may be positioned either parallel to the centerline of the pavement or at an angle to it. A parallel pattern is for centerline lights that run in a straight line; other patterns are for lights on a curve, or for hold bars perpendicular to the centerline. The surveyor will mark a reference points. Placing the Jigs and the Light Bases: The light base is centered precisely on the light's location. At this point, make an excavation about 3 feet in diameter and at least 6 in. deeper than the bottom of the light base. Connecting the Light Bases: If the base has a threaded hub, use a nipple and coupling to make the connection to the light base inside the excavated hole. Steel and other rigid conduits require a waterproof, flexible connection. Anchoring the Light Base: When the jig and base assembly has been checked for alignment and the light base is set at the proper azimuth, elevation and slope. 33
  34. 34. MonolithicInstallation of Light • Completing the Installation: Attach the light fixture to the light base with stainless steel bolts and anti-rotation lock washers, using a torque recommended by the manufacturer of the light base. Provide a thin layer of self- leveling silicone sealer between the spacer or flange ring and the light base flange. You can use the plywood cover supplied with the light base on top of the spacer or flange ring as a temporary cover. If you expect a long delay before the light fixture is installed, use a steel cover equal in dimensions and strength to the light fixture. • Achieving the Right Density: The asphalt in the chase must have the same density as the pavement surrounding it. The installer must use empirical, on-the- spot methods to determine how best to achieve proper density. • Lights Too Dim: If a light seems dim after being energized, check the elevation of the light fixture relative to the pavement's surface. If the pavement interferes with the light beam, the light is too low. Insert a spacer ring thick enough to raise the light level to the surface, or at least closer to the surface. 34
  35. 35. Tests for Acceptance and Maintenance • Light Fixtures • Light Bases and Hardware • Pavement When the installation is complete, inspection and testing must be performed to establish whether the system will function as designed for its expected life. If a heavy fixture in a runway becomes loose due to faulty installation or inadequate maintenance and severely damages an aircraft, it obviously is a safety hazard. Corrosion is a serious problem confronting the successful operation of an inset lighting system. While the specifications of metal components allow for extended use, care in installation-and maintenance is necessary. Check the pavement for flatness. Visually noting short waves and hollows is fairly easy, but you'll need an optical level to detect longer ones. 35
  36. 36. Control of Lighting system • Typically the lights are controlled by a control tower, a flight service station or another designated authority. Some airports/airfields (particularly uncontrolled ones) are equipped with pilot-controlled lighting, so that pilots can temporarily turn on the lights when the relevant authority is not available. This avoids the need for automatic systems or staff to turn the lights on at night or in other low visibility situations. This also avoids the cost of having the lighting system on for extended periods. Smaller airports may not have lighted runways or runway markings. Particularly at private airfields for light planes, there may be nothing more than a windsock beside a landing strip. 36
  37. 37. Part 2- Airfield Ground Lighting • Control of Lighting system • Factors Affecting Airport Lighting • Lights which may endanger the safety of aircraft • Types of Light • Light intensity and control • Emergency lighting • Aeronautical beacons • Approach Lighting 37
  38. 38. Control of Lighting system 38
  39. 39. Factors Affecting Airport Lighting • Airport classification • Amount of traffic • Availability of power • Nature of aircraft using the airport • Type of night operation plans • Type of landing surfaces provided • Weather condition, etc. 39
  40. 40. Lights Which May Endanger The Safety Of Aircraft • A non-aeronautical ground light near an aerodrome which might endanger the safety of aircraft shall be extinguished, screened or otherwise modified so as to eliminate the source of danger. 40
  41. 41. Types of Light • Elevated approach lights • Elevated approach lights and their supporting structures shall be frangible except that, in that portion of the approach lighting system beyond 300 m from the threshold. • Elevated lights • Elevated runway, stopway and taxiway lights shall be frangible. Their height shall be sufficiently low to preserve clearance for propellers and for the engine pods of jet aircraft. • Surface lights • Light fixtures inset in the surface of runways, stopways, taxiways and aprons shall be so designed and fitted as to withstand being run over by the wheels of an aircraft without damage either to the aircraft or to the lights themselves. 41
  42. 42. Light Intensity & Control • In dusk or poor visibility conditions by day, lighting can be more effective than marking. • For lights to be effective in such conditions or in poor visibility by night, they must be of adequate intensity. • To obtain the required intensity, it will usually be necessary to make the light directional, in which case the arcs over which the light shows will have to be adequate and so orientated as to meet the operational requirements. 42
  43. 43. Intensity of Runway Lighting • Low intensity runway lights (LIRL) for Category 1 • Medium intensity runway lights (MIRL) for Category 2 • High intensity runway lights (HIRL) for Category 3 43
  44. 44. Emergency Lighting • At an aerodrome provided with runway lighting and without a secondary power supply, sufficient emergency lights shall be conveniently available for installation on at least the primary runway in the event of failure of the normal lighting system. • All lights may be variable white or as close to variable white as practicable. 44
  45. 45. Aeronautical beacons • Where operationally necessary an aerodrome beacon or an identification beacon shall be provided at each aerodrome intended for use at night. • The Aeronautical beacons shall be located on or adjacent to the aerodrome in an area of low ambient background lighting. 45
  46. 46. Aeronautical beacons Aerodrome beacon: • The aerodrome beacon shall show either colored flashes alternating with white flashes, or white flashes only. The frequency of total flashes shall be from 20 to 30 per minute. • not shielded by objects in significant directions and does not dazzle a pilot approaching to land. • Needed when: aircraft navigate predominantly by visual means; • reduced visibilities are frequent; or t is difficult to locate the aerodrome from the air due to surrounding lights or terrain. 46
  47. 47. Aeronautical beacons Identification beacon • An identification beacon at a land aerodrome shall show at all angles of azimuth. The vertical light • distribution shall extend upwards from an elevation of not more than 1° to an elevation determined by CAA. • An identification beacon shall show flashing- green at a land aerodrome. • The identification characters shall be transmitted in the International Morse Code. • The speed of transmission shall be between six and eight words per minute. 47
  48. 48. Approach Lighting • Before runway begins- sequence of high-intensity lighting are available for helping pilots to check if the aircraft is centered correctly or not. • Gives way to touchdown zone lights from threshold of the runway. • Normally mounted on pedestals- varying heights-to accommodate any irregularities in ground- ensuring the lights themselves are in level. 48
  49. 49. • Simple Approach Lighting System: (White lights only) applies to Non-Instrument (visual at night) (code 3 or 4) Non-Precision runway is used only in good vis to provide sufficient guidance. • Precision Approach (CAT I) Lighting System: (white lights only) applies to Precision approach runway (CAT I) configuration. • Precision Approach (CAT II & III): (Uses red and white lighting) applies to Precision approach runway (CAT II & III) Approach Lighting 49
  50. 50. 50
  51. 51. 51
  52. 52. Visual Approach Slope Indicator Systems • A visual approach slope indicator system shall be provided to serve the approach to a runway whether or not • the runway is served by other visual approach aids or by non-visual aids, • T-VASIS and AT-VASIS 52
  53. 53. T-VASIS and AT-VASIS • The T-VASIS shall consist of twenty light units symmetrically disposed about the runway center line in the form of two wing bars of four light units each, with bisecting longitudinal lines of six lights. • The AT-VASIS shall consist of ten light units arranged on one side of the runway in the form of a single wing bar of four light units with a bisecting longitudinal line of six lights. 53
  54. 54. T-VASIS and AT-VASIS • a)when above the approach slope, see the wing bar(s) white, and one, two or three fly-down lights, the more fly-down lights being visible the higher the pilot is above the approach slope; • b) when on the approach slope, see the wing bar(s) white; and • c) when below the approach slope, see the wing bar(s) and one, two or three fly-up lights white, the more fly-up lights being visible the lower the pilot is below the approach slope; and when well below the approach slope, see the wing bar(s) and the three fly-up lights red. 54
  55. 55. Precision Approach Path Indicator • PAPI and APAPI • The PAPI system shall consist of a wing bar of 4 sharp transition multi-lamp (or paired single lamp) units equally spaced. The system shall be located on the left side of the runway unless it is physically impracticable to do so. • The APAPI system shall consist of a wing bar of 2 sharp transition multi-lamp (or paired single lamp)units. • The system shall be located on the left side of the runway unless it is physically impracticable to do so. 55
  56. 56. PAPI and APAPI • a) when on or close to the approach slope, see the two units nearest the runway as red and the two units farthest from the runway as white; • b) when above the approach slope, see the one unit nearest the runway as red and the three units farthest from the runway as white; and when further above the approach slope, see all the units as white; and • c) when below the approach slope, see the three units nearest the runway as red and the unit farthest from the runway as white; and when further below the approach slope, see all the units as red. 56
  57. 57. PAPI and APAPI 57
  58. 58. Circling Guidance Lights • Circling guidance lights shall be provided when existing approach and runway lighting systems do not satisfactorily permit identification of the runway and/or approach area to a circling aircraft in the conditions for which it is intended the runway be used for circling approaches. • The flashing lights shall be white • a)lights indicating the extended center line of the runway and/or parts of any approach lighting system; or • b) lights indicating the position of the runway threshold; or • c) lights indicating the direction or location of the runway; 58
  59. 59. Runway lead-in Lighting Systems • A runway lead-in lighting system shall be provided where it is desired to provide visual guidance along a specific approach path, for reasons such as avoiding hazardous terrain or for purposes of noise abatement. • At least three flashing white lights in a linear configuration. 59
  60. 60. Wing Bar Lights • Applies to: • Recommended for precision approach runways when additional conspicuity is desired. • Shall be provided for visual and non-precision runways when runway threshold lights are required. • Location: • At least five lights extending at least 10m outward at a right angle to the edge lights, with the innermost light in line with the edge light. • Characteristics: • Showing green in the direction of the approach. 60
  61. 61. Runway Threshold Lights • Applies to: Runways with edge lights; except on visual or non-precision runways where the threshold is displaced and wing bar lights are provided. • Location: At the extremity or runway ends (not more than 3m out). • Visual or non-precision rwy = minimum 6 lights. • Precision Runways = at least the number of lights required for 3m spacing between both sets of edge lights. 61
  62. 62. Runway Edge Lights • Applies to: Runways intended for night operations or for any precision instrument runway. • Runways with an operating minimums during the day below 800m RVR. • Location: Two parallel rows, full length of runway and equidistant from the centerline. • Not more than 3m from edge. • Uniformly spaced 60m on instrument runways and not more than 100m on visual runways. • Characteristics: White in color • Lights between the beginning of the runway and displaced threshold shall show red in the approach direction. • The last 600m or one-third of the runway, whichever is less, may show yellow towards the departing aircraft (caution zone). 62
  63. 63. Runway Edge Lights 63
  64. 64. Runway End Lights • Applies to: All runways equipped with runway edge lights. • Location: Placed at the runway ends and not more than 3m off the end. • Should consist of at least 6 lights. • CAT III spacing should not exceed 6m. • Characteristics: Shall show red back towards the runway and shall show green for approaching aircraft. 64
  65. 65. Runway Centre Lights • Applies to: Precision runways (CAT II & III) & CAT I with high landing speeds • Location: Along centerline, all offset 60cm if needed • Characteristics: White from runway threshold to within 900m from runway end Alternating red & white from 900m to 300m from the runway end. • Red last 300m. 65
  66. 66. Runway Touchdown Zone Lights • Applies to: Precision runways (CAT II & III) • Location: Extend longitudinally 900m from threshold • Lights spaced the same as the touchdown zone markings. • Longitudinal spacing 30m in low visibility or 60m in good visibility. • Characteristics: Lights are white aimed in the direction of the approaching aircraft 66
  67. 67. Runway Stop Bars • Runway incursions may take place in all visibility or weather conditions. The provision of stop bars at runway holding positions and their use at night in low visibility conditions. • Stop bars shall consist of lights spaced at intervals of 3 m across the taxiway, showing red in the intended direction(s) of approach to the intersection or runway-holding position. 67
  68. 68. Taxiway Center Line Lights • Applies to: Provide visual guidance during low visibility conditions • Location: Should be spaced at uniform longitudinal intervals of not more than 60 m. The lights on a curve should be spaced at intervals less than 60 m so that a clear indication of the curve is provided. • Characteristics: Taxiway centerline lights shall be provided on an exit taxiway, deicing/ anti-icing facility and apron intended for use at night in RVR conditions less than a value of 350 • Lights are fixed and green in color on exit taxiways lights alternate green and yellow from runway centerline to edge of ILS/MLS critical area or inner transitional surface. 68
  69. 69. Taxiway Edge Lights • Applies to: Taxiway intended for use at night. • Location: Taxiway edge lights shall be provided at the edges of a runway turn pad, holding bay, de-icing/anti-icing facility, apron, etc. • Characteristics: Standard taxi-route should be spaced at uniform longitudinal intervals of not more than 60 m. • The lights on a curve should be spaced at intervals less than 60 m so that a clear indication of the curve is provided. Shall be fixed lights showing blue. 69
  70. 70. Runway Guard Lights • Warn pilots, and drivers of vehicles when they are operating on taxiways, that they are about to enter an active runway. • Runway guard lights, shall consist of two pairs of yellow lights. 70
  71. 71. Apron & Hanger Lighting • Apron floodlights shall be located so as to provide adequate illumination on all apron service areas, with a minimum of glare to pilots of aircraft in flight and on the ground, aerodrome and apron controllers, and personnel on the apron. • The arrangement and aiming of floodlights shall be such that an aircraft stand receives light from two or more directions to minimize shadows. 71
  72. 72. Visual Docking Guidance System • A visual docking guidance system shall be provided when it is intended to indicate, by a visual aid, the precise positioning of an aircraft on an aircraft stand and other alternative means. • Precision required for maneuvering into the parking position due to aircraft servicing installation, passenger loading bridges. • The system shall provide both azimuth and stopping guidance. 72
  73. 73. Aircraft Stand Maneuvering Guidance Lights • Aircraft stand maneuvering guidance lights shall be provided to facilitate the positioning of an aircraft on an aircraft stand on a paved apron intended for use in poor visibility conditions. • Guidance lights shall be fixed yellow lights. • The lights indicating a stop position shall be fixed, unidirectional lights, showing red. 73
  74. 74. Road-holding Position Light • A road-holding position light shall be provided at each road-holding position serving a runway when it is intended that the runway will be used in runway visual range conditions less than a value of 350 m. • A controllable red (stop)/green (go) traffic light. • Located adjacent to the holding position marking 1.5 m from one edge of the road. 74
  75. 75. Technical Inspections • Airport lighting maintenance schedules and airport lighting logbooks record details of routine technical inspections and maintenance of the airport lighting system. • These records are held by the Airport Lighting Team Leader. • The technical officer power generation retains generator maintenance schedules for power generating equipment. These are held in the electrical workshop. • Generator logbooks showing details of inspections and maintenance carried out are held in each power house. 75
  76. 76. Inspection Checklist • Installed correctly with proper elevation • In line with other lights level and correctly oriented • Configured and operating in accordance with SMGCS plan • Over 90% of lights operational • No 2 lights in a row inoperative • Lenses clean and undamaged • Lights not obscured by snow/ice & no water in fixtures • Proper current & intensity steps functioning 76
  77. 77. Power Supply Third Part Electricity, Generator, Solar & Wind Turbine 77
  78. 78. Electrical Supply ELECTRICITY POWER TRANSMISSION is the bulk transfer of electrical energy, from generating power plants to substations located in Airports. Transfer of electrical power from Generating Stations to the industrial, commercial or residential consumers is as important as power generation. 78
  79. 79. Standby Generation • Stand-by generation equipment is provided to ensure continuity of power should there be a failure in the main external supply. • The objective in providing stand-by power is to enable all operational lighting including runway, taxiway, apron, fire stations and TVASIS and nose in guidance systems to continue operation at an acceptable level of service and efficiency while maintaining safety standards and providing adequate security. • Two mobile generating sets (50 kW and 250 kW) are available to provide. Additional support at times when permanently installed generating sets may be unavailable. 79
  80. 80. Solar Energy • Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the Sun harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies • Solar power is the conversion of sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), or indirectly using concentrated solar power (CSP). CSP systems use lenses or mirrors and tracking systems to focus a large area of sunlight into a small beam. 80
  81. 81. Wind Turbine • A wind turbine is a device that converts kinetic energy from the wind into electrical power. The term appears to have migrated from parallel hydroelectric technology (rotary propeller). The technical description for this type of machine is an aerofoil-powered generator. 81
  82. 82. End of the Lesson Any Question? Thanks for attending the Class. Ahmad Sajjad Safi Chief of Electro-Mechanics for Afghanistan Airports. Sajjad.safi@acaa.gov.af 82
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This chapter contains basic knowledge about Airfield Ground Lighting, all aspects are defined simply for readers.

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