First week of human development

First Week of Human
Development
Prepared by: Dr. Ahmed Mead
MD. UST
PhD. CANDIDATE. OMU
GENERAL HEALTH SCIENCE
Histology and Embryology(MEDICINE)
Human development begins at fertilization when a
sperm fuses with an oocyte to form a single cell,
a zygote.
The zygote, just visible to the unaided eye, contains
chromosomes and genes (units of genetic
information) that are derived from the mother
and father.
The zygote divides many times and becomes
progressively transformed into a multicellular
human being through cell division, migration,
growth, and differentiation.
GAMETOGENESIS
Gametogenesis (gamete formation) is the
process of formation and development of
specialized generative cells, gametes (oocytes
or sperms).
MEIOSIS
Meiosis is a special type of cell division that
involves two meiotic cell divisions; it takes
place in germ cells only.
The first meiotic division is a reduction division
because the chromosome number is reduced
from diploid to haploid by pairing of
homologous chromosomes in prophase and
their segregation at anaphase.
The second meiotic division follows the first
division without a normal interphase (i.e.,
without an intervening step of DNA
replication).
MEIOSIS
SPERMATOGENESIS
Spermatogenesis is the sequence of events by
which spermatogonia are transformed into
mature sperms.
Spermatogonia are transformed into primary
spermatocytes, the largest germ cells in the
seminiferous tubules. Each primary spermatocyte
subsequently undergoes a reduction division. the
first meiotic division form two haploid secondary
spermatocytes, which are approximately half the
size of primary spermatocytes.
SPERMATOGENESIS
Subsequently, the secondary spermatocytes
undergo a second meiotic division to form four
haploid spermatids, which are approximately half
the size of secondary spermatocytes. The
spermatids are gradually transformed into four
mature sperms by a process known as
spermiogenesis. The entire process of
spermatogenesis, which includes spermiogenesis,
takes approximately 2 months. When
spermiogenesis is complete, the sperms enter the
seminiferous tubules.
First week of human development
First week of human development
OOGENESIS
Oogenesis is the sequence of events by which
oogonia are transformed into mature oocytes.
This maturation of the oocytes begins before
birth and is completed after puberty.
Prenatal Maturation of Oocytes
During early fetal life, oogonia proliferate by
mitosis, a special type of cell division.
Oogonia (primordial female sex cells) enlarge
to form primary oocytes before birth.
As the primary oocytes
form, connective tissue
cells surround them and
form a single layer of
flattened, follicular
cells.
Prenatal Maturation of Oocytes
The primary oocyte
enclosed by this layer of
cells constitutes a
primordial follicle
Prenatal Maturation of Oocytes
As the primary oocyte
enlarges during puberty,
the follicular epithelial
cells become cuboidal in
shape and then columnar,
forming a primary
follicle.
The primary oocyte soon
becomes surrounded by
a covering of amorphous
acellular glycoprotein
material, the zona
pellucida
Prenatal Maturation of Oocytes
Postnatal Maturation of Oocytes
Beginning during puberty, usually one follicle
matures each month and ovulation occurs,
except when oral contraceptives are used.
No primary oocytes form after birth, in contrast
to the continuous production of primary
spermatocytes .
Postnatal Maturation of Oocytes
The primary oocytes remain dormant in the
ovarian follicles until puberty. As a follicle
matures, the primary oocyte increases in size
and shortly before ovulation, completes the
first meiotic division to give rise to a
secondary oocyte and the first polar body.
Postnatal Maturation of Oocytes
Unlike the corresponding stage of
spermatogenesis, however, the division of
cytoplasm is unequal. The secondary oocyte
receives almost all the cytoplasm, and the first
polar body receives very little. This polar
body is a small, nonfunctional cell.
Postnatal Maturation of Oocytes
There are approximately 2 million primary
oocytes in the ovaries of a newborn female,
but most regress during childhood so that by
adolescence no more than 40,000 remain. Of
these, only approximately 400 become
secondary oocytes and are expelled at
ovulation during the reproductive period.
Postnatal Maturation of Oocytes
Few of these oocytes, if any, are fertilized and
become mature. The number of oocytes that
ovulate is greatly reduced in women who take
oral contraceptives because the hormones in
them prevent ovulation from occurring.
The uterus is a thick-
walled, pear-shaped
muscular organ,
averaging 7 to 8 cm in
length, 5 to 7 cm in
width at its superior
part, and 2 to 3 cm in
wall thickness.
Uterus
The uterus consists of
two major parts:
the body, the superior two
thirds.
the cervix, the cylindrical
inferior one third.
Uterus
The walls of the body of
the uterus consist of
three layers:
• Perimetrium, the thin
external layer
• Myometrium, the thick
smooth muscle layer
• Endometrium, the thin
internal layer
Uterus
The uterine tubes,
approximately 10 cm
long and 1 cm in
diameter, extend
laterally from the horns
of the uterus.
Each tube opens at its
proximal end into the
horn of the uterus and
into the peritoneal
cavity at its distal end.
Uterine Tubes
For descriptive purposes,
the uterine tube is
divided into four parts:
infundibulum
ampulla
isthmus
uterine part.
Uterine Tubes
The tubes carry oocytes from the ovaries and
sperms entering from the uterus to reach the
fertilization site in the ampulla.
The uterine tube also conveys the cleaving
zygote to the uterine cavity.
Uterine Tubes
The ovaries are almond-
shaped reproductive
glands located close to
the lateral pelvic walls
on each side of the
uterus that produce
oocytes.
Ovaries
The ovaries also produce
estrogen and
progesterone, the
hormones responsible
for the development of
secondary sex
characteristics and
regulation of pregnancy.
Ovaries
Commencing at puberty, females undergo
reproductive cycles (sexual cycles), involving
activities of the hypothalamus of the brain,
pituitary gland, ovaries, uterus, uterine tubes,
vagina, and mammary glands.
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLES
First week of human development
These monthly cycles prepare the reproductive
system for pregnancy.
The gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulates
the release of two hormones produced by this
gland that act on the ovaries:
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLES
• Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates
the development of ovarian follicles and the
production of estrogen by the follicular cells.
• Luteinizing hormone (LH) serves as the
“trigger” for ovulation (release of secondary
oocyte) and stimulates the follicular cells and
corpus luteum to produce progesterone.
These hormones also induce growth of the
ovarian follicles and the endometrium.
FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLES
OVARIAN CYCLE
FSH and LH produce cyclic changes in the ovaries—
the ovarian cycle—development of follicles,
ovulation, and corpus luteum formation.
During each cycle, FSH promotes growth of several
primordial follicles into 5 to 12 primary follicles;
however, only one primary follicle usually
develops into a mature follicle and ruptures
through the surface of the ovary, expelling its
oocyte.
Development of an ovarian
follicle is characterized by:
• Growth and differentiation
of primary oocyte
• Proliferation of follicular
cells
• Formation of zona pellucida
• Development of the theca
folliculi
Follicular Development
Around midcycle, the
ovarian follicle, under the
influence of FSH and LH,
undergoes a sudden
growth spurt, producing
a cystic swelling or bulge
on the surface of the
ovary. A small avascular
spot, the stigma, soon
appears on this swelling.
Ovulation
Before ovulation, the
secondary oocyte and
some cells of the
cumulus oophorus
detach from the interior
of the distended follicle.
Ovulation
Ovulation is triggered by a
surge of LH production.
Ovulation usually follows the
LH peak by 12 to 24 hours.
The LH surge, elicited by the
high estrogen level in the
blood, appears to cause the
stigma to balloon out,
forming a vesicle.
The stigma soon ruptures,
expelling the secondary
oocyte with the follicular
fluid.
Ovulation
The expelled secondary
oocyte is surrounded by
the zona pellucida and
one or more layers of
follicular cells, which
are radially arranged as
the corona radiata,
forming the oocyte-
cumulus complex.
Ovulation
Corpus Luteum
Shortly after ovulation,
the walls of the ovarian
follicle and theca
folliculi collapse and are
thrown into folds.
Under LH influence,
they develop into a
glandular structure, the
corpus luteum.
MENSTRUAL CYCLE
The menstrual cycle is the
time during which the
oocyte matures, is
ovulated, and enters the
uterine tube. The
hormones produced by
the ovarian follicles and
corpus luteum (estrogen
and progesterone)
produce cyclic changes in
the endometrium.
These monthly changes in
the internal layer of the
uterus constitute the
endometrial cycle,
commonly referred to
as the menstrual cycle
or period because
menstruation (flow of
blood from the uterus)
is an obvious event.
MENSTRUAL CYCLE
Phases of the Menstrual Cycle
Changes in the estrogen and progesterone levels
cause cyclic changes in the structure of the
female reproductive tract, notably the
endometrium. The menstrual cycle is a
continuous process; each phase gradually
passes into the next one.
1-Menstrual phase.
The functional layer of the
uterine wall is sloughed off
and discarded with the
menstrual flow, called
menses (monthly bleeding),
which usually lasts 4 to 5
days. The blood discharged
through the vagina is
combined with small pieces
of endometrial tissue. After
menstruation, the eroded
endometrium is thin.
Phases of the Menstrual Cycle
2-Proliferative phase.
This phase, lasting
approximately 9 days,
coincides with growth of
ovarian follicles and is
controlled by estrogen
secreted by these follicles.
There is a two- to three-fold
increase in the thickness of
the endometrium and in its
water content during this
phase of repair and
proliferation.
Phases of the Menstrual Cycle
Phases of the Menstrual Cycle
3-Luteal phase.
The luteal (secretory phase),
lasting approximately 13
days, coincides with the
formation, functioning,
and growth of the corpus
luteum.
The progesterone produced
by the corpus luteum
stimulates the glandular
epithelium to secrete a
glycogen-rich material.
1-Oocyte Transport
The secondary oocyte is
expelled at ovulation
from the ovarian follicle
with the escaping
follicular fluid.
TRANSPORTATION OF GAMETES
1-Oocyte Transport
During ovulation, the
fimbriated end of the
uterine tube becomes
closely applied to the
ovary. The finger-like
processes of the tube,
fimbriae, move back and
forth over the ovary.
TRANSPORTATION OF GAMETES
1-Oocyte Transport
The sweeping action of the
fimbriae and fluid
currents produced by the
cilia of the mucosal cells
of the fimbriae “sweep”
the secondary oocyte
into the funnel-shaped
infundibulum of the
uterine tube.
TRANSPORTATION OF GAMETES
1-Oocyte Transport
The oocyte then passes into
the ampulla of the tube,
mainly as the result of
peristalsis (movements of
the wall of the tube
characterized by alternate
contraction and
relaxation), which causes
the oocyte to pass toward
the uterus.
TRANSPORTATION OF GAMETES
2-Sperm Transport
The reflex ejaculation of semen may be divided into two
phases:
• Emission: Semen is delivered to the prostatic part of
the urethra through the ejaculatory ducts after
peristalsis of the ductus deferens; emission is a
sympathetic response.
• Ejaculation: Semen is expelled from the urethra
through the external urethral orifice; this results from
closure of the vesical sphincter at the neck of the
bladder, contraction of urethral muscle, and
contraction of the bulbospongiosus muscles.
TRANSPORTATION OF GAMETES
First week of human development
MATURATION OF SPERMS
Freshly ejaculated sperms are unable to fertilize
oocytes. Sperms must undergo a period of
conditioning, or capacitation, lasting
approximately 7 hours. During this period, a
glycoprotein coat and seminal proteins are
removed from the surface of the sperm
acrosome.
MATURATION OF SPERMS
The acrosome of the
capacitated sperm
binds to a
glycoprotein (ZP3)
on the zona
pellucida.
MATURATION OF SPERMS
VIABILITY OF GAMETES
Studies on early stages of development indicate
that human oocytes are usually fertilized
within 12 hours after ovulation. In vitro
observations have shown that the oocyte
cannot be fertilized after 24 hours and that it
degenerates shortly thereafter. Most human
sperms probably do not survive for more than
48 hours in the female genital tract.
After ejaculation, sperms are stored in folds of
the mucosa of the cervix and are gradually
released into the cervical canal and pass
through the uterus into the uterine tubes. The
short-term storage of sperms in the cervix
provides a gradual release of sperms and
thereby increases the chances of fertilization.
Sperms and oocytes can be frozen and stored
for many years and can be used for in vitro
fertilization.
VIABILITY OF GAMETES
SEQUENCE OF FERTILIZATION
The usual site of
fertilization is in the
ampulla of the uterine
tube.
Although fertilization may
occur in other parts of
the tube, it does not
occur in the body of the
uterus.
Fertilization is a complex
sequence of coordinated
molecular events that
begins with contact
between a sperm and an
oocyte, and ends with
the intermingling of
maternal and paternal
chromosomes at
metaphase of the first
mitotic division of the
zygote, a unicellular
embryo.
SEQUENCE OF FERTILIZATION
Phases of Fertilization
Fertilization is a sequence
of coordinated events.
Phases of Fertilization
 Passage of a sperm
through the corona
radiata.
Dispersal of the follicular
cells of the corona radiata
surrounding the oocyte
and zona pellucida
appears to result mainly
from the action of the
enzyme hyaluronidase
released from the
acrosome of the sperm.
 Penetration of the
zona pellucida.
Passage of a sperm
through the zona
pellucida is the
important phase in
the initiation of
fertilization.
Phases of Fertilization
 Once the sperm
penetrates the zona
pellucida, a zona
reaction, a change in
the properties of the
zona pellucida,
occurs that makes it
impermeable to
other sperms.
Phases of Fertilization
 Fusion of cell membranes
of the oocyte and sperm.
The plasma or cell
membranes of the oocyte
and sperm fuse and break
down at the area of fusion.
The head and tail of the
sperm enter the cytoplasm
of the oocyte, but the
sperm’s cell membrane
(plasma membrane) and
mitochondria remains
behind.
Phases of Fertilization
 Completion of the
second meiotic division
of oocyte and formation
of female pronucleus.
Penetration of the oocyte
by a sperm activates the
oocyte into completing
the second meiotic
division and forming a
mature oocyte and a
second polar body.
Phases of Fertilization
 Formation of the male
pronucleus.
Within the cytoplasm of
the oocyte, the nucleus of
the sperm enlarges to
form the male pronucleus
and the tail of the sperm
degenerates.
Morphologically, the male
and female pronuclei are
indistinguishable.
Phases of Fertilization
 As the pronuclei fuse
into a single diploid
aggregation of
chromosomes, the ootid
becomes a zygote.
The chromosomes in the
zygote become arranged
on a cleavage spindle in
preparation for cleavage
of the zygote
Phases of Fertilization
 The zygote is genetically
unique because half of its
chromosomes came from
the mother and half from
the father.
Meiosis allows
independent assortment
of maternal and paternal
chromosomes among the
germ cells.
Phases of Fertilization
CLEAVAGE OF ZYGOTE
Cleavage consists of
repeated mitotic
divisions of the zygote,
resulting in a rapid
increase in the number
of cells (blastomeres).
These embryonic cells
become smaller with
each successive
cleavage division.
CLEAVAGE OF ZYGOTE
Cleavage occurs as the
zygote passes along the
uterine tube toward the
uterus.
During cleavage, the
zygote is within the
zona pellucida.
CLEAVAGE OF ZYGOTE
CLEAVAGE OF ZYGOTE
Division of the zygote into
blastomeres begins
approximately 30 hours
after fertilization.
Subsequent cleavage
divisions follow one
another, forming
progressively smaller
blastomeres.
CLEAVAGE OF ZYGOTE
After the nine-cell stage,
the blastomeres change
their shape and tightly
align themselves against
each other to form a
compact ball of cells.
CLEAVAGE OF ZYGOTE
This phenomenon,
compaction, is probably
mediated by cell-surface-
adhesion glycoproteins.
Compaction permits
greater cell-to-cell
interaction and is a
prerequisite for
segregation of the
internal cells that form
the inner cell mass or
embryoblast of the
blastocyst.
CLEAVAGE OF ZYGOTE
When there are 12 to 32
blastomeres, the
developing human is
called a morula.
Internal cells of the
morula are surrounded
by trophoblastic cells.
The morula forms
approximately 3 days
after fertilization as it
enters the uterus.
FORMATION OF BLASTOCYST
Shortly after the morula
enters the uterus
(approximately 4 days
after fertilization), a fluid-
filled space, the
blastocystic cavity,
appears inside the morula
(Fig. 2-16E).
The fluid passes from the
uterine cavity through the
zona pellucida to form
this space.
FORMATION OF BLASTOCYST
As fluid increases in the
blastocystic cavity, it
separates the blastomeres
into two parts:
• A thin, outer cell layer, the
trophoblast, which gives
rise to the embryonic part of
the placenta
• A group of centrally located
blastomeres, the
embryoblast (inner cell
mass), which gives rise to
the embryo
Approximately 6 days
after fertilization (day
20 of a 28-day
menstrual cycle), the
blastocyst attaches to
the endometrial
epithelium, usually
adjacent to the
embryonic pole.
FORMATION OF BLASTOCYST
As soon as it attaches to
the endometrial
epithelium, the
trophoblast proliferates
rapidly and
differentiates into two
layers:
• An inner layer of
cytotrophoblast
• An outer layer of
syncytiotrophoblast
FORMATION OF BLASTOCYST
At approximately 6 days, the
finger-like processes of
syncytiotrophoblast
extend through the
endometrial epithelium
and invade the
connective tissue. By the
end of the first week, the
blastocyst is superficially
implanted in the compact
layer of the endometrium
and is deriving its
nourishment from the
eroded maternal tissues.
FORMATION OF BLASTOCYST
The highly invasive
syncytiotrophoblast
expands quickly
adjacent to the
embryoblast, the area
known as the
embryonic pole.
FORMATION OF BLASTOCYST
The syncytiotrophoblast produces
enzymes that erode the
maternal tissues, enabling the
blastocyst to “burrow” into the
endometrium. At approximately
7 days, a layer of cells, the
hypoblast (primary endoderm),
appears on the surface of the
embryoblast facing the
blastocystic cavity. Comparative
embryologic data suggest that
the hypoblast arises by
delamination of blastomeres
from the embryoblast.
FORMATION OF BLASTOCYST
First week of human development
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First week of human development

  • 1. First Week of Human Development Prepared by: Dr. Ahmed Mead MD. UST PhD. CANDIDATE. OMU GENERAL HEALTH SCIENCE Histology and Embryology(MEDICINE)
  • 2. Human development begins at fertilization when a sperm fuses with an oocyte to form a single cell, a zygote. The zygote, just visible to the unaided eye, contains chromosomes and genes (units of genetic information) that are derived from the mother and father. The zygote divides many times and becomes progressively transformed into a multicellular human being through cell division, migration, growth, and differentiation.
  • 3. GAMETOGENESIS Gametogenesis (gamete formation) is the process of formation and development of specialized generative cells, gametes (oocytes or sperms).
  • 4. MEIOSIS Meiosis is a special type of cell division that involves two meiotic cell divisions; it takes place in germ cells only. The first meiotic division is a reduction division because the chromosome number is reduced from diploid to haploid by pairing of homologous chromosomes in prophase and their segregation at anaphase.
  • 5. The second meiotic division follows the first division without a normal interphase (i.e., without an intervening step of DNA replication). MEIOSIS
  • 6. SPERMATOGENESIS Spermatogenesis is the sequence of events by which spermatogonia are transformed into mature sperms. Spermatogonia are transformed into primary spermatocytes, the largest germ cells in the seminiferous tubules. Each primary spermatocyte subsequently undergoes a reduction division. the first meiotic division form two haploid secondary spermatocytes, which are approximately half the size of primary spermatocytes.
  • 7. SPERMATOGENESIS Subsequently, the secondary spermatocytes undergo a second meiotic division to form four haploid spermatids, which are approximately half the size of secondary spermatocytes. The spermatids are gradually transformed into four mature sperms by a process known as spermiogenesis. The entire process of spermatogenesis, which includes spermiogenesis, takes approximately 2 months. When spermiogenesis is complete, the sperms enter the seminiferous tubules.
  • 10. OOGENESIS Oogenesis is the sequence of events by which oogonia are transformed into mature oocytes. This maturation of the oocytes begins before birth and is completed after puberty.
  • 11. Prenatal Maturation of Oocytes During early fetal life, oogonia proliferate by mitosis, a special type of cell division. Oogonia (primordial female sex cells) enlarge to form primary oocytes before birth.
  • 12. As the primary oocytes form, connective tissue cells surround them and form a single layer of flattened, follicular cells. Prenatal Maturation of Oocytes
  • 13. The primary oocyte enclosed by this layer of cells constitutes a primordial follicle Prenatal Maturation of Oocytes
  • 14. As the primary oocyte enlarges during puberty, the follicular epithelial cells become cuboidal in shape and then columnar, forming a primary follicle. The primary oocyte soon becomes surrounded by a covering of amorphous acellular glycoprotein material, the zona pellucida Prenatal Maturation of Oocytes
  • 15. Postnatal Maturation of Oocytes Beginning during puberty, usually one follicle matures each month and ovulation occurs, except when oral contraceptives are used. No primary oocytes form after birth, in contrast to the continuous production of primary spermatocytes .
  • 16. Postnatal Maturation of Oocytes The primary oocytes remain dormant in the ovarian follicles until puberty. As a follicle matures, the primary oocyte increases in size and shortly before ovulation, completes the first meiotic division to give rise to a secondary oocyte and the first polar body.
  • 17. Postnatal Maturation of Oocytes Unlike the corresponding stage of spermatogenesis, however, the division of cytoplasm is unequal. The secondary oocyte receives almost all the cytoplasm, and the first polar body receives very little. This polar body is a small, nonfunctional cell.
  • 18. Postnatal Maturation of Oocytes There are approximately 2 million primary oocytes in the ovaries of a newborn female, but most regress during childhood so that by adolescence no more than 40,000 remain. Of these, only approximately 400 become secondary oocytes and are expelled at ovulation during the reproductive period.
  • 19. Postnatal Maturation of Oocytes Few of these oocytes, if any, are fertilized and become mature. The number of oocytes that ovulate is greatly reduced in women who take oral contraceptives because the hormones in them prevent ovulation from occurring.
  • 20. The uterus is a thick- walled, pear-shaped muscular organ, averaging 7 to 8 cm in length, 5 to 7 cm in width at its superior part, and 2 to 3 cm in wall thickness. Uterus
  • 21. The uterus consists of two major parts: the body, the superior two thirds. the cervix, the cylindrical inferior one third. Uterus
  • 22. The walls of the body of the uterus consist of three layers: • Perimetrium, the thin external layer • Myometrium, the thick smooth muscle layer • Endometrium, the thin internal layer Uterus
  • 23. The uterine tubes, approximately 10 cm long and 1 cm in diameter, extend laterally from the horns of the uterus. Each tube opens at its proximal end into the horn of the uterus and into the peritoneal cavity at its distal end. Uterine Tubes
  • 24. For descriptive purposes, the uterine tube is divided into four parts: infundibulum ampulla isthmus uterine part. Uterine Tubes
  • 25. The tubes carry oocytes from the ovaries and sperms entering from the uterus to reach the fertilization site in the ampulla. The uterine tube also conveys the cleaving zygote to the uterine cavity. Uterine Tubes
  • 26. The ovaries are almond- shaped reproductive glands located close to the lateral pelvic walls on each side of the uterus that produce oocytes. Ovaries
  • 27. The ovaries also produce estrogen and progesterone, the hormones responsible for the development of secondary sex characteristics and regulation of pregnancy. Ovaries
  • 28. Commencing at puberty, females undergo reproductive cycles (sexual cycles), involving activities of the hypothalamus of the brain, pituitary gland, ovaries, uterus, uterine tubes, vagina, and mammary glands. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLES
  • 30. These monthly cycles prepare the reproductive system for pregnancy. The gonadotropin-releasing hormone stimulates the release of two hormones produced by this gland that act on the ovaries: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLES
  • 31. • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates the development of ovarian follicles and the production of estrogen by the follicular cells. • Luteinizing hormone (LH) serves as the “trigger” for ovulation (release of secondary oocyte) and stimulates the follicular cells and corpus luteum to produce progesterone. These hormones also induce growth of the ovarian follicles and the endometrium. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLES
  • 32. OVARIAN CYCLE FSH and LH produce cyclic changes in the ovaries— the ovarian cycle—development of follicles, ovulation, and corpus luteum formation. During each cycle, FSH promotes growth of several primordial follicles into 5 to 12 primary follicles; however, only one primary follicle usually develops into a mature follicle and ruptures through the surface of the ovary, expelling its oocyte.
  • 33. Development of an ovarian follicle is characterized by: • Growth and differentiation of primary oocyte • Proliferation of follicular cells • Formation of zona pellucida • Development of the theca folliculi Follicular Development
  • 34. Around midcycle, the ovarian follicle, under the influence of FSH and LH, undergoes a sudden growth spurt, producing a cystic swelling or bulge on the surface of the ovary. A small avascular spot, the stigma, soon appears on this swelling. Ovulation
  • 35. Before ovulation, the secondary oocyte and some cells of the cumulus oophorus detach from the interior of the distended follicle. Ovulation
  • 36. Ovulation is triggered by a surge of LH production. Ovulation usually follows the LH peak by 12 to 24 hours. The LH surge, elicited by the high estrogen level in the blood, appears to cause the stigma to balloon out, forming a vesicle. The stigma soon ruptures, expelling the secondary oocyte with the follicular fluid. Ovulation
  • 37. The expelled secondary oocyte is surrounded by the zona pellucida and one or more layers of follicular cells, which are radially arranged as the corona radiata, forming the oocyte- cumulus complex. Ovulation
  • 38. Corpus Luteum Shortly after ovulation, the walls of the ovarian follicle and theca folliculi collapse and are thrown into folds. Under LH influence, they develop into a glandular structure, the corpus luteum.
  • 39. MENSTRUAL CYCLE The menstrual cycle is the time during which the oocyte matures, is ovulated, and enters the uterine tube. The hormones produced by the ovarian follicles and corpus luteum (estrogen and progesterone) produce cyclic changes in the endometrium.
  • 40. These monthly changes in the internal layer of the uterus constitute the endometrial cycle, commonly referred to as the menstrual cycle or period because menstruation (flow of blood from the uterus) is an obvious event. MENSTRUAL CYCLE
  • 41. Phases of the Menstrual Cycle Changes in the estrogen and progesterone levels cause cyclic changes in the structure of the female reproductive tract, notably the endometrium. The menstrual cycle is a continuous process; each phase gradually passes into the next one.
  • 42. 1-Menstrual phase. The functional layer of the uterine wall is sloughed off and discarded with the menstrual flow, called menses (monthly bleeding), which usually lasts 4 to 5 days. The blood discharged through the vagina is combined with small pieces of endometrial tissue. After menstruation, the eroded endometrium is thin. Phases of the Menstrual Cycle
  • 43. 2-Proliferative phase. This phase, lasting approximately 9 days, coincides with growth of ovarian follicles and is controlled by estrogen secreted by these follicles. There is a two- to three-fold increase in the thickness of the endometrium and in its water content during this phase of repair and proliferation. Phases of the Menstrual Cycle
  • 44. Phases of the Menstrual Cycle 3-Luteal phase. The luteal (secretory phase), lasting approximately 13 days, coincides with the formation, functioning, and growth of the corpus luteum. The progesterone produced by the corpus luteum stimulates the glandular epithelium to secrete a glycogen-rich material.
  • 45. 1-Oocyte Transport The secondary oocyte is expelled at ovulation from the ovarian follicle with the escaping follicular fluid. TRANSPORTATION OF GAMETES
  • 46. 1-Oocyte Transport During ovulation, the fimbriated end of the uterine tube becomes closely applied to the ovary. The finger-like processes of the tube, fimbriae, move back and forth over the ovary. TRANSPORTATION OF GAMETES
  • 47. 1-Oocyte Transport The sweeping action of the fimbriae and fluid currents produced by the cilia of the mucosal cells of the fimbriae “sweep” the secondary oocyte into the funnel-shaped infundibulum of the uterine tube. TRANSPORTATION OF GAMETES
  • 48. 1-Oocyte Transport The oocyte then passes into the ampulla of the tube, mainly as the result of peristalsis (movements of the wall of the tube characterized by alternate contraction and relaxation), which causes the oocyte to pass toward the uterus. TRANSPORTATION OF GAMETES
  • 49. 2-Sperm Transport The reflex ejaculation of semen may be divided into two phases: • Emission: Semen is delivered to the prostatic part of the urethra through the ejaculatory ducts after peristalsis of the ductus deferens; emission is a sympathetic response. • Ejaculation: Semen is expelled from the urethra through the external urethral orifice; this results from closure of the vesical sphincter at the neck of the bladder, contraction of urethral muscle, and contraction of the bulbospongiosus muscles. TRANSPORTATION OF GAMETES
  • 51. MATURATION OF SPERMS Freshly ejaculated sperms are unable to fertilize oocytes. Sperms must undergo a period of conditioning, or capacitation, lasting approximately 7 hours. During this period, a glycoprotein coat and seminal proteins are removed from the surface of the sperm acrosome.
  • 53. The acrosome of the capacitated sperm binds to a glycoprotein (ZP3) on the zona pellucida. MATURATION OF SPERMS
  • 54. VIABILITY OF GAMETES Studies on early stages of development indicate that human oocytes are usually fertilized within 12 hours after ovulation. In vitro observations have shown that the oocyte cannot be fertilized after 24 hours and that it degenerates shortly thereafter. Most human sperms probably do not survive for more than 48 hours in the female genital tract.
  • 55. After ejaculation, sperms are stored in folds of the mucosa of the cervix and are gradually released into the cervical canal and pass through the uterus into the uterine tubes. The short-term storage of sperms in the cervix provides a gradual release of sperms and thereby increases the chances of fertilization. Sperms and oocytes can be frozen and stored for many years and can be used for in vitro fertilization. VIABILITY OF GAMETES
  • 56. SEQUENCE OF FERTILIZATION The usual site of fertilization is in the ampulla of the uterine tube. Although fertilization may occur in other parts of the tube, it does not occur in the body of the uterus.
  • 57. Fertilization is a complex sequence of coordinated molecular events that begins with contact between a sperm and an oocyte, and ends with the intermingling of maternal and paternal chromosomes at metaphase of the first mitotic division of the zygote, a unicellular embryo. SEQUENCE OF FERTILIZATION
  • 58. Phases of Fertilization Fertilization is a sequence of coordinated events.
  • 59. Phases of Fertilization  Passage of a sperm through the corona radiata. Dispersal of the follicular cells of the corona radiata surrounding the oocyte and zona pellucida appears to result mainly from the action of the enzyme hyaluronidase released from the acrosome of the sperm.
  • 60.  Penetration of the zona pellucida. Passage of a sperm through the zona pellucida is the important phase in the initiation of fertilization. Phases of Fertilization
  • 61.  Once the sperm penetrates the zona pellucida, a zona reaction, a change in the properties of the zona pellucida, occurs that makes it impermeable to other sperms. Phases of Fertilization
  • 62.  Fusion of cell membranes of the oocyte and sperm. The plasma or cell membranes of the oocyte and sperm fuse and break down at the area of fusion. The head and tail of the sperm enter the cytoplasm of the oocyte, but the sperm’s cell membrane (plasma membrane) and mitochondria remains behind. Phases of Fertilization
  • 63.  Completion of the second meiotic division of oocyte and formation of female pronucleus. Penetration of the oocyte by a sperm activates the oocyte into completing the second meiotic division and forming a mature oocyte and a second polar body. Phases of Fertilization
  • 64.  Formation of the male pronucleus. Within the cytoplasm of the oocyte, the nucleus of the sperm enlarges to form the male pronucleus and the tail of the sperm degenerates. Morphologically, the male and female pronuclei are indistinguishable. Phases of Fertilization
  • 65.  As the pronuclei fuse into a single diploid aggregation of chromosomes, the ootid becomes a zygote. The chromosomes in the zygote become arranged on a cleavage spindle in preparation for cleavage of the zygote Phases of Fertilization
  • 66.  The zygote is genetically unique because half of its chromosomes came from the mother and half from the father. Meiosis allows independent assortment of maternal and paternal chromosomes among the germ cells. Phases of Fertilization
  • 67. CLEAVAGE OF ZYGOTE Cleavage consists of repeated mitotic divisions of the zygote, resulting in a rapid increase in the number of cells (blastomeres). These embryonic cells become smaller with each successive cleavage division.
  • 69. Cleavage occurs as the zygote passes along the uterine tube toward the uterus. During cleavage, the zygote is within the zona pellucida. CLEAVAGE OF ZYGOTE
  • 70. CLEAVAGE OF ZYGOTE Division of the zygote into blastomeres begins approximately 30 hours after fertilization. Subsequent cleavage divisions follow one another, forming progressively smaller blastomeres.
  • 71. CLEAVAGE OF ZYGOTE After the nine-cell stage, the blastomeres change their shape and tightly align themselves against each other to form a compact ball of cells.
  • 72. CLEAVAGE OF ZYGOTE This phenomenon, compaction, is probably mediated by cell-surface- adhesion glycoproteins. Compaction permits greater cell-to-cell interaction and is a prerequisite for segregation of the internal cells that form the inner cell mass or embryoblast of the blastocyst.
  • 73. CLEAVAGE OF ZYGOTE When there are 12 to 32 blastomeres, the developing human is called a morula. Internal cells of the morula are surrounded by trophoblastic cells. The morula forms approximately 3 days after fertilization as it enters the uterus.
  • 74. FORMATION OF BLASTOCYST Shortly after the morula enters the uterus (approximately 4 days after fertilization), a fluid- filled space, the blastocystic cavity, appears inside the morula (Fig. 2-16E). The fluid passes from the uterine cavity through the zona pellucida to form this space.
  • 75. FORMATION OF BLASTOCYST As fluid increases in the blastocystic cavity, it separates the blastomeres into two parts: • A thin, outer cell layer, the trophoblast, which gives rise to the embryonic part of the placenta • A group of centrally located blastomeres, the embryoblast (inner cell mass), which gives rise to the embryo
  • 76. Approximately 6 days after fertilization (day 20 of a 28-day menstrual cycle), the blastocyst attaches to the endometrial epithelium, usually adjacent to the embryonic pole. FORMATION OF BLASTOCYST
  • 77. As soon as it attaches to the endometrial epithelium, the trophoblast proliferates rapidly and differentiates into two layers: • An inner layer of cytotrophoblast • An outer layer of syncytiotrophoblast FORMATION OF BLASTOCYST
  • 78. At approximately 6 days, the finger-like processes of syncytiotrophoblast extend through the endometrial epithelium and invade the connective tissue. By the end of the first week, the blastocyst is superficially implanted in the compact layer of the endometrium and is deriving its nourishment from the eroded maternal tissues. FORMATION OF BLASTOCYST
  • 79. The highly invasive syncytiotrophoblast expands quickly adjacent to the embryoblast, the area known as the embryonic pole. FORMATION OF BLASTOCYST
  • 80. The syncytiotrophoblast produces enzymes that erode the maternal tissues, enabling the blastocyst to “burrow” into the endometrium. At approximately 7 days, a layer of cells, the hypoblast (primary endoderm), appears on the surface of the embryoblast facing the blastocystic cavity. Comparative embryologic data suggest that the hypoblast arises by delamination of blastomeres from the embryoblast. FORMATION OF BLASTOCYST