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Nouvelles formes de communication écrite - part1

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Nouvelles formes de communication écrite - part1

  1. 1. Les NFCE :1 pw1 sr la kestion Emilie Guimier de Neef France Télécom R&D Jean Véronis DELIC, Université de Provence
  2. 2. Du texto auIIème siècle ? Papyrus d’Egerton ΚΣ = ΚυριοΣ ΙΗ = ΙΗσουNomina sacra Caractéristiques du « texto »  abréviations codifées  appartenance à une tribu  ...voire à une « église » ;-)
  3. 3. και ιδον λεπρος προσελθων αντωλεγει διδασκαλε Ιη(σου)
  4. 4. Plan du tutoriel 1. Introduction (Jean) 2. Particularités linguistiques (Emilie) 3. Idées reçues (Jean) 4. Exemple de chaîne de traitement (Emilie)
  5. 5. 1. Introduction Que sont les NFCE ? Applications du TAL Terminologie Repères historiques Caractéristiques
  6. 6. Les NFCE Internet*  E-mail (du français malle) * Pas le Web  Listes de diffusion cf. Jacques Anis :  Forums « communication de  Chats masse qu’on pourrait assimiler à la publication électronique »  Messagerie instantanée Téléphonie mobile  SMS
  7. 7. Biblographie Anis, J. (Ed.) (1999). Internet, communication et langue française. Paris: Hermès. Anis, J. (2001). Parlez-vous texto ? Guide des nouveaux langages du réseau. Le cherche-midi éditeur Crystal, D. (2001). Language and the Internet. Cambridge University Press.
  8. 8. Traitement automatique Synthèse de la parole  malvoyants  métiers et situations « mains occupées » Repérage / extraction d’informations  veille / surveillance Traduction Classification, routage, anti-spam intelligent Composition  correction orthographique  écriture « intuitive » ou prédictive etc.
  9. 9. CMO Communication médiatisée par ordinateur  calque  « Computer-mediated communication »  mediatiser  anglais  to mediate = « servir d’intermédiaire »  français  mediatiser = « faire connaître à travers les médias » (angl. promote through the media)  « servir d’intermédiaire » = rare et restreint (jurid., philo)
  10. 10. CMO Communication médiée par ordinateur  médier  création lexicale  Panckurst, R. (1997). La communication ‘médiatisée’ par ordinateur ou la communication ‘médiée’ par ordinateur ? Terminologies nouvelles, 17, p. 56-58.  quelques attestations sur le Web dans d’autres domaines
  11. 11. CMO Google (30/05/2004)  Com. médiatisée par ordin. = 778 pages  Com. médiée par ordin. = 67 pages
  12. 12. CMO sur le fond :  comprend aussi  le Web  multimédia  travail collaboratif (Computer Supported Cooperative Work)  système d’enseignement (Computer supported collaborative learning systems)  mais pas les SMS ?  bien qu’il y ait probablement des ordinateurs impliqués quelque part...
  13. 13. CEMO Anglais  Computer-mediated written communication  18 attestations (Google) Français  Communication écrite médiatisée par ordinateur  8 attestations (Google)  Marcoccia, M. (2000) : La représentation du non verbal dans la communication écrite médiatisée par ordinateur, Communication & Organisation, 18 : 265-274  Communication écrite médiée par ordinateur  une seule attestation (Google)  Katriina Kurki (Helsinki): DEA?
  14. 14. Autre proposition Communication électronique scripturale (individualisée)  Jacques Anis  Anis, J. (2002) Communication électronique scripturale et formes langagières : chats et SMS. Actes des journées « Sécrire avec les outils daujourdhui », Université de Poitiers http://oav.univ-poitiers.fr/rhrt/2002/actes%202002/jacques%20anis.htm  éléctronique meilleur que par ordinateur (SMS)  individualisée exclut le Web  à moins que communication suffise? (le Web relevant de la publication ?)  un peu lourd...  Communication écrite électronique ?  mais peut-on ignorer le poids de l’anglais ?
  15. 15. Repères historiques 1840  1844 Samuel B. Morse "What hath god wrought! » .-..-. .-- .... .- - .... .- - .... --. --- -.. .-- .-. --- ..- --. .... - .-..-. 1950  1957 Spoutnik  1958 ARPA 1960  1964 Paul Baran (RAND) : vulnérabilité  1969 création d’Arpanet 1970  1971 création de l’e-mail (Ray Tomlinson, BBN)  1972 apparition du @  1972 Louis Pouzin, réseau Cyclades  1975 première mailing list sur Arpanet  1976 UUCP  1978 TCP/IP (inspiré de Cyclades...) /mort de Cyclades (douce France...)  1979 Usenet  1979 apparition de -)
  16. 16.  1980  1981 Bitnet  1981 Minitel (douce France)  1982 apparition de :-) and :-(  1984 Domain Name System (DNS)  1984 Newgroups modérés (Usenet)  1988 Internet Relay Chat (IRC) (Jarkko Oikarinen) 1990  1990 Internet  1991 World Wide Web (WWW) (CERN)  1992 Premier SMS (Vodafone, UK)  1996 instant messaging software ICQ (Mirabilis, Israël) 2000  2002 plus d’un milliard de SMS par jour  1984 2003 Interdiction du mot e-mail par le Ministère de la Culture (douce France)
  17. 17. Caractéristiques techniques Temporalité  (quasi) synchrone/asynchrone Taille  limitée/illimitée Clavier  riche/pauvre Durée de vie  persistant / éphémère etc.
  18. 18. Caractéristiques situationnelles Privé/public 1→1/1→N Anonyme / identifié Professionnel / non professionnel etc.
  19. 19. Tentative de classement limité illimitésynchrone chat messagerie instantanéeasynchrone clavier CO-SMS e-mail riche forums clavier MO-SMS pauvre listes CO = Computer-originated MO - Mobile-originated

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