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What is sociolinguistics?• Made up of two words socio society linguistics language• Relationship between the two ▫ How society affects language? ▫ How language affects society?• The interaction between the two creates changes language and the way we use language
Over time – Language birth• Tok Pisin ▫ Language of Papua New Guinea ▫ Combination of English & tribal languages in PNG• Languages can be revived ▫ Hebrew was revived to be the national language of Israel.
Over time – Language death• Languages evolve and disappear all of the time• English, French, Italian, and Spanish all evolved from Latin the language of ancient Rome. 10,000 years ago 20,000 languages Today 6,000 languages 3,000 languages are in Today danger of disappearing
Over time - VocabularyOld Words New WordsGroovy (1960s) Coolfloppy disk (no longer exists) cellular /mobile phone
Over time - meaningOriginal meanings Present meaningsJazz – to have sex Jazz – a kind of musicMaster & Mistress – titles used by Master – a person very skillful inservants something Mistress – a female loverBad – not good Slang meaning of both bad and sick isSick – to be ill great
Over time - Grammar First half of 1900’s TodayShall: I shall go to London next week.I shall go London next week. We shall go to London next week.We shall go to London next week. Shall we go to London next week.Who / Whom:Tom gave Sue the flowers.Who gave Sue the flowers? Who gave Sue the flowers?To whom did Tom give the flowers? Who did Tom give the flowers to?
Over time - pronunciation• The words such as leisure, pleasure, treasure, and measure have gone through two changes• [s] [z] [ʒ]
Between individuals• Ways to address ▫ Hey you ▫ Alan ▫ Alan Bessette ▫ Mr. Bessette ▫ Bessette-sensei ▫ Sir
Between individuals• How we address other people depends on• Age• Status• Power• Situation
Between individuals - gender Females Males Goal: Get control and showGoal: Maintain relationships independence Characteristics: dominateCharacteristics: tentative & inclusive conversations & interrupt more
Between cultures• In the case of a host offering a guest something to drink, how many times should the host offer? How many times should the guest refuse? ▫ Japan ? ▫ The United States? ▫ Denmark? ▫ Saudi Arabia?
Between countries• Is English one language or many languages? Australian English American English Pronunciation /die/ /day/ British English American English Vocabulary lorry truck British English American English Grammar I’ve two sisters. I’ve got two sisters.