# PHY 1301, Physics I 1 Course Learning Outcomes for

A

PHY 1301, Physics I 1 Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VII Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 7. Describe fundamental thermodynamic concepts. 7.1 Explain the various heat transfer mechanisms with practical examples. 7.2 Recognize the ideal gas law and apply it to daily life. 7.3 Describe the relationship between kinetic energy and the Kelvin temperature. Course/Unit Learning Outcomes Learning Activity 7.1 Unit Lesson Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Unit VII PowerPoint Presentation 7.2 Unit Lesson Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Unit VII PowerPoint Presentation 7.3 Unit Lesson Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Unit VII PowerPoint Presentation Required Unit Resources Chapter 13: The Transfer of Heat, pp. 360–379 Chapter 14: The Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic Theory, pp. 380–400 Unit Lesson UNIT VII STUDY GUIDE Heat Mechanism and Kinetic Theory PHY 1301, Physics I 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title The Three Methods to Transfer Heat The above image illustrates the three heat transfer methods. The sun heats the Earth by radiation, the surface of the Earth heats the air by conduction, and the warm air rises by convection. What is heat? Heat is energy that moves from a high-temperature object to a low-temperature object. Its unit is the Joule (J), but sometimes it is measured with the kilocalorie (kcal). The conversion factor between the two units is 1 kcal = 4186 J. The transfer of heat is processed by the following mechanisms. Conduction is the process in which heat is transferred through a material. The atoms or molecules in a hotter part of the material have greater energy than those in a colder part of the material, and thus the energy is transferred from the hotter place to the colder place. Notice that the bulk motion of the material has nothing to do with this process. You can easily find examples of conduction. A radiator in your house is one of them. If you put an object on the radiator, the object will become warmer. Another example is when you pour the brewed hot coffee into a cold cup; the heat from the hot coffee makes the cup itself hot. The heat Q conducted during a time t through a bar of length L and cross-sectional area A is expressed as Q = kA (dT) t / L. Here, k is thermal conductivity, and it depends on the substance; dT is the temperature difference between the higher temperature and the lower temperature of the bar. Convection is the process in which heat is transferred by the bulk motion of a fluid. According to the ideal gas law for constant pressure, the volume (V) is proportional to the temperature (T). V increases as T increases, and the density decreases within the constant mass. Warm air rises and cooler air goes down; this circulation makes the energy transported. The generated energy from the center of the sun is transported by convection near the photosphere. Cool gas sinks while bubbles of hot gas rise. There is a patchwork patte ...

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### PHY 1301, Physics I 1 Course Learning Outcomes for

• 1. PHY 1301, Physics I 1 Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VII Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to: 7. Describe fundamental thermodynamic concepts. 7.1 Explain the various heat transfer mechanisms with practical examples. 7.2 Recognize the ideal gas law and apply it to daily life. 7.3 Describe the relationship between kinetic energy and the Kelvin temperature. Course/Unit Learning Outcomes Learning Activity 7.1 Unit Lesson Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Unit VII PowerPoint Presentation 7.2
• 2. Unit Lesson Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Unit VII PowerPoint Presentation 7.3 Unit Lesson Chapter 13 Chapter 14 Unit VII PowerPoint Presentation Required Unit Resources Chapter 13: The Transfer of Heat, pp. 360–379 Chapter 14: The Ideal Gas Law and Kinetic Theory, pp. 380– 400 Unit Lesson UNIT VII STUDY GUIDE Heat Mechanism and Kinetic Theory PHY 1301, Physics I 2
• 3. UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title The Three Methods to Transfer Heat The above image illustrates the three heat transfer methods. The sun heats the Earth by radiation, the surface of the Earth heats the air by conduction, and the warm air rises by convection. What is heat? Heat is energy that moves from a high- temperature object to a low-temperature object. Its unit is the Joule (J), but sometimes it is measured with the kilocalorie (kcal). The conversion factor between the two units is 1 kcal = 4186 J. The transfer of heat is processed by the following mechanisms. Conduction is the process in which heat is transferred through a material. The atoms or molecules in a hotter part of the material have greater energy than those in a colder part of the material, and thus the energy is transferred from the hotter place to the colder place. Notice that the bulk motion of the material has nothing to do with this process. You can easily find examples of conduction. A radiator in your house is one of them. If you put an object on the radiator, the object will become warmer. Another example is when you pour the brewed hot coffee into a cold cup; the heat from the hot coffee makes the cup itself hot. The heat Q conducted during a time t through a bar of length L and cross-sectional area A is expressed as Q = kA (dT) t / L. Here, k is thermal conductivity, and it
• 4. depends on the substance; dT is the temperature difference between the higher temperature and the lower temperature of the bar. Convection is the process in which heat is transferred by the bulk motion of a fluid. According to the ideal gas law for constant pressure, the volume (V) is proportional to the temperature (T). V increases as T increases, and the density decreases within the constant mass. Warm air rises and cooler air goes down; this circulation makes the energy transported. The generated energy from the center of the sun is transported by convection near the photosphere. Cool gas sinks while bubbles of hot gas rise. There is a patchwork pattern of small (average diameter about 700 km), transient (average lifetime from 5 to 10 minutes) granules. The granulation is the visible consequence of the convection. Radiation is the process in which heat is transferred by light, electromagnetic waves. An electromagnetic wave consists of an oscillating magnetic and electric field moving at the speed of light, c = 300,000 km/s. This method does not need a material medium, unlike the two other methods. Every object absorbs and emits electromagnetic waves at the same time. When an object absorbs and emits radiation perfectly, it is called a blackbody. The emitted light by a blackbody is called blackbody radiation, and its spectrum is a continuum because interactions between severely packed atoms are so strong that all detailed spectral features do not remain. Also, they are in thermal equilibrium, so blackbody radiation only depends on its absolute temperature, not on the chemical composition of the object. After John Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetism appeared in 1864, many attempts were made to understand
• 5. blackbody radiation theoretically. None succeeded until in 1900 Max Planck postulated that electromagnetic energy can propagate only in discrete quanta, or photons, each with an energ German physicist then derived the spectral intensity relationship, or Planck radiation law, a log-log plot between intensity and temperature. These masterpieces are a combination of classical works by Wien’s law PHY 1301, Physics I 3 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title and Rayleigh-Jeans’ law (Nave, n.d.). Wien expressed the blackbody radiation is emitted by Wien’s displacement law: -3 / T [m]. Here, T is the surface temperature. For example, the continuum spectrum from our sun is approximately a blackbody, peaking at near 5800 K. The emitted maximum flux of a star determines the color with the maximum intensity of blackbody radiation formula. Meanwhile, Rayleigh-Jeans’ distribution works at high temperatures and long wavelengths, which have low frequencies (Nave, n.d.). It is
• 6. useful to obtain the brightness temperature in radio astronomy. For further explanation, please visit the webpage “Blackbody Intensity”. The Sun’s Influence on the Earth The sun’s violent activities such as erupting solar flares, coronal mass ejections, and solar winds are greatly influencing the Earth as well as the rest of the solar system. The sun is one of 200 billion stars that exist in the Milky Way galaxy. The size and mass of the sun are enormous. The size is about 1,390,000 km and the mass is 1.989 × 1030 kg. The sun possesses approximately 99.8% mass of the solar system. The surface of the sun is called the photosphere, a visible atmosphere with a depth of about 500 km, and its blackbody temperature is about 5800 K. There are violent regions that can affect the Earth’s environment, such as sunspots (11-year cycle), flares, and the corona. The sunspots look darker because the temperature is relatively lower, about 3800 K. They appear dark only against the bright sun and would still be brighter than the full moon when placed in the night sky! These spots are produced by magnetic field interactions, and the diameter of one is about 50,000 km. The magnetic field in the sunspots is about 1,000 times stronger than average. Hot gas ejected from the sun often follows the magnetic field line and traces out the loop structure of the magnetic field, called prominences. Sometimes we observe a brief eruption of hot, ionized gases from a sunspot group. This phenomenon is known as a solar flare. These magnetic storms are closely related to sunspot cycles. In 1 or 2 years after the maximum sunspots, non-repetitive magnetic
• 7. storms follow, and then a strong aurora can be observed. Meanwhile, just after the minimum of sunspots, repetitive magnetic storms come, and then a weak aurora appears. The above layer of the photosphere is called a chromosphere and has less dense gas with high temperature. We can detect visible UV and x-ray lines from highly ionized gases. Temperature increases gradually from about 4,500 K to 10,000 K, and then jumps to one million K. One distinctive feature is a spicule, which extends upward from the photosphere into the chromosphere along the boundaries of super granules. Spicules are filaments of cooler gas from the photosphere that rise up into the chromosphere. Each of them can last about 5 to 15 minutes. The above of chromosphere is called a corona. The corona extends up to a few million kilometers, and the temperature is about several million K with an extremely low density. Coronal gas is heated through motions of magnetic fields anchored in the photosphere below. X-ray images of the sun reveal coronal holes. These arise at the footpoints of the open field lines and are the origin of the solar wind. A coronal mass ejection is a much larger eruption that involves immense amounts of gas from the corona. We can see the corona during a solar eclipse. The sun has a strong magnetic field, and the magnetosphere or heliosphere extends out beyond the orbit of Pluto. The solar wind, the outflow of low-density charged particles (mostly electrons and protons), moves with a speed of 450 km/sec. An extreme magnetic phenomenon like an aurora on the Earth happens because of high energy particles from the solar wind and the flares. According to the solar wind research space probes such as Wind, ACE, and SOHO, there is a dynamically stable
• 8. position, about 1.6 × 106 km from the Earth. Moreover, the solar wind affects the tail parts of comets and the orbits of space probes. The output of solar energy is not always constant. There was a minimum period of sunspot activity in the late 17th century, called the Maunder Minimum. This period was strangely consistent with the cold period, or the Little Ice Age in northern Europe. It is estimated that solar energy has been increased by about 40% since the formation of the sun. The age of the sun is about 4.5 billion years old. About half of the hydrogen has been consumed since the birth of the sun, so there are about 5 billion years left until the sun dies. The solar wind can have a large influence on our planet, particularly in times of the active sun (near sunspot maximum) when the wind is strong and can contain bursts corresponding to flares and coronal mass ejections from the sun. The solar wind has a significant influence on our ionosphere, the Earth's magnetic field, on Earth's auroras, and on telecommunication systems. For example, there are reasons to believe that a burst of http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/mod6.html#c5 http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/earth/atmosphere.html http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/earth/magnetic.html http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/earth/aurora.html PHY 1301, Physics I 4 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE
• 9. Title particles from a coronal mass ejection detected 5 days earlier by SOHO may have killed the Telstar 401 communication satellite on January 11, 1997. Ideal Gas Law When a gas has a very low density (where the average distance between molecules of the gas are very large), it is called an ideal gas. The ideal gas law is the relationship between pressure, volume, and temperature. More exactly, the absolute pressure (P) of an ideal gas is proportional to the temperature and is inversely proportional to the volume (V). Here, R is the universal gas constant, and n is the number of moles. One gram-mole of a substance contains as many particles (atoms or molecules) as there are atoms in 12 grams of the isotope carbon-12. According to experiments, 12 grams of C-12 have 6.022 x 1023 atoms. The number of atoms per mole is called Avogadro’s number NA. The ratio between the universal gas constant R and the number of moles n is defined as Boltzman’s constant k. Please note, the product n and NA is the total number of particles. So, the product of pressure P and volume V is expressed as NkT. If the temperature is not changing, that is, T = constant, the pressure P is inversely proportional to the volume V of the gas: PV = constant. This is called Boyle’s law. See Figure 14.6 on p. 385 in the textbook. The
• 10. respiration through the lungs/alveoli allows the oxygen into and the carbon dioxide out from our bodies. When the lung volume increases by the contraction of the diaphragm and other respiratory muscles, the pressure of the lung decreases by Boyle’s Law (PV = constant), and this leads the inward air movement to the lung. If the pressure P is constant, the volume V is proportional to the temperature T: V / T = constant. This is called Charles’ law. Kinetic Theory of Gases The kinetic theory of gases illustrates the microscopic behavior of elementary particles, and it describes the macroscopic picture of the motion. We assume that the number of particles is very large. Also, the separation between particles is large. The motion of particles is assumed to be random with a constant speed. The kinetic theory states that the kinetic energy of the gas particles is proportional to the Kelvin temperature of the system. The Kelvin temperature is also proportional to the product of the mass of the particles and the square of the rms speed of the particles. The internal energy of the gas is also related to its Kelvin temperature. In this unit, we have explored the detailed mechanism of heat transfer methods with the behavior of the ideal gas. In addition, the kinetic theory and ideal gas law explain the various physical phenomena. In the next unit, we will utilize these concepts to understand thermodynamics laws.
• 11. Reference Nave, R. (n.d.). Blackbody intensity as a function of frequency. HyperPhysics. http://hyperphysics.phy- astr.gsu.edu/hbase/mod6.html#c5 Learning Activities (Nongraded) Nongraded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to submit them. If you have questions, contact your instructor for further guidance and information. 1. Solve questions 46 and 47 on p. 379 in the textbook. 2. Solve questions 66 and 67 on p. 400 in the textbook. PV = nRT = NkT Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VIIRequired Unit ResourcesUnit LessonThe Three Methods to Transfer HeatThe Sun’s Influence on the EarthIdeal Gas LawKinetic Theory of GasesReferenceLearning Activities (Nongraded) OSH 2305, Fleet and Driver Safety 1 Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VII Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:
• 12. 1. Summarize fleet safety management programs and practices. 1.1 Identify performance incentives to benefit a company’s fleet safety. 3. Describe fleet-safety-related responsibilities. 3.1 Discuss changes to improve a company’s fleet safety. 4. Apply hazard analysis and control techniques to fleet safety. 4.1 Discuss the compliance, safety, and accountability score of a company. 4.2 Recommend benchmarking and record-keeping systems for a company. Course/Unit Learning Outcomes Learning Activity 1.1 Unit Lesson Chapter 8, pp. 169–186 Unit VII Case Study 3.1 Unit Lesson Chapter 8, pp. 169–186 Article: “Benchmarking Health and Safety—Key Considerations” Unit VII Case Study
• 13. 4.1 Unit Lesson Chapter 1, pp. 7–8 Chapter 8, pp. 169–186 Unit VII Case Study 4.2 Unit Lesson Chapter 8, pp. 169–186 Article: “Benchmarking Health and Safety—Key Considerations” Article: “The Safety Ladder: Developing an Evidence-Based Safety Management Strategy for Small Road Transport Companies” Unit VII Case Study Required Unit Resources Chapter 1: DOT Regulations, pp. 7–8 Chapter 8: Benchmarking and Performance Criteria, pp. 169– 186 In order to access the following resources, click the links below. Nævestad, T.-O., Elvebakk, B., & Phillips, R. O. (2018). The safety ladder: Developing an evidence-based safety management strategy for small road transport companies. Transport Reviews, 38(3), 372–393. Retrieved from
• 14. https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://s earch.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc t=true&db=bsu&AN=128004193&site=ehost-live&scope=site Tilleard, A. (n.d.). Benchmarking health and safety—Key considerations. Retrieved from https://eazysafe.com/blog/safety-management/benchmarking- health-safety/ UNIT VII STUDY GUIDE Benchmarking Principles and Safety Initiatives https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://s earch.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bsu&AN=1280 04193&site=ehost-live&scope=site https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://s earch.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bsu&AN=1280 04193&site=ehost-live&scope=site https://eazysafe.com/blog/safety-management/benchmarking- health-safety/ OSH 2305, Fleet and Driver Safety 2 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title
• 15. Unit Lesson Introduction Management and benchmarking guru Dr. Peter Drucker once stated, “What gets measured gets managed” (Haight, 2015, p. 132). Benchmarking and performance indicators have long been utilized in measuring performance for companies within a variety of situations. Within fleet and company safety programs, choosing the correct metrics for the benchmarking process is the framework and foundation for effectively evaluating all activities and outcomes related to fleet safety. Some companies use industry benchmark data to spur themselves on to be the best in class. Unfortunately, there are other companies that notice that they are the best of a mediocre lot and are content with that. Safety should be recognized as a core value within a company. Accident statistics have long been analyzed to improve safety programs within fleets. Companies use these types of results in addition to accident reporting techniques to appraise overall safety performance standards and to decide where further improvements are needed. Accident statistics are recorded within many different industry segments such as the Federal Transit Administration, the American Trucking Associations, the American Public Transportation Association, and the American School Bus Council. Procedures Each fleet has different reporting features that are continuously analyzed by safety managers and leadership
• 16. within the company. Another important procedure is proper training on vehicle operations in alignment with well-communicated driver expectations and qualifications. In addition, procedures must be in place to quickly report and thoroughly investigate all accidents. Chapter 8 of the textbook contrasts the value of centralized versus decentralized reporting systems. With decentralized systems, a company could potentially have more of an advantage if an accident were to occur because management would be closer to the location to review the incident and provide detailed information in a timely manner. On the other hand, a more centralized system provides uniform responses, unified record keeping with daily data backups, and more consistent interpretation of chargeability regarding accidents, which is done from a main office as opposed to multiple offices located in multiple locations. The goal of benchmarking is to determine not only safe practices but also accident prevention. The individual responsible for conducting benchmarking must determine the types of reported incidents to be recorded for use by the company. Many companies record preventable versus unpreventable accidents and link that data to performance appraisals and/or bonus programs. Whatever benchmark is set for recording incidents, it is critical for a safety manager to properly record accidents and no-injury incidents and utilize this information to provide thorough training and proper vehicle maintenance for his or her drivers to prevent future on-the-job accidents. While there are some companies that are suspected of altering the accident records, full transparency and honesty is the best policy. One of the key procedures is the accident reporting procedure.
• 17. It is crucial that fleet drivers be instructed and held accountable to report all incidents immediately, including minor ones that might be tempting to hide. Drivers and supervisors must be taught what language to use and not use in the first report because this report could become an official court document. In addition, drivers and supervisors should be taught how to properly take photographs, including using reference points so that distances are easier to gauge. Finally, most companies have an accident kit, which is placed in each fleet vehicle. This kit includes the insurance card, a report form and pen, a bullet-point summary card of what to do and say or not say, and a disposable camera in case the driver does not have a cell phone with a camera feature. Most organizations also have a post-accident drug and alcohol testing protocol to follow. Accident Record-Keeping Systems Design and development of record-keeping systems can help assist a company in having the data necessary to conduct an accurate analysis of areas needing to be addressed. Begin by creating a successful accident record-keeping system that chooses meaningful data elements for recording. These elements can be the metrics that have the largest impact on the company’s safety program. These types of elements demonstrate OSH 2305, Fleet and Driver Safety 3 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE
• 18. Title the major parts of an accident—such as who was at fault, what vehicles were used, why the accident occurred, and where the accident occurred. The focus should be primarily on capturing all information regarding the accident, such as the number of vehicles involved, if there were any injuries and fatalities, and specific documentation as to the amount of damage that each involved vehicle sustained. According to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA, n.d.), employers who have more than 10 employees must keep a comprehensive record of all incidents that happen within the company. This includes any accidents within its fleets. The record of each incident must be kept on file for at least 5 years per OSHA regulations. Companies can use the following OSHA regulations as guidelines for creating accident record-keeping systems: -related fatality, including incidents involving fleet vehicles; -the-job injury that results in loss of consciousness or days off from work; -related or on-the-job injuries that require major medical treatment; work-related accident; and
• 19. -related injury cases (OSHA, n.d.). The most accurate benchmark that can be utilized by safety managers and senior management within a company is a careful analysis of past accidents that occurred within their own company. This should include a look at the implementation of improvements to facilitate a safer environment to evaluate effectiveness, with a constant eye on preventing incidents in the future. Reviewing incidents outside of a company can be beneficial but not as important as reviewing those that happen within the company. Incentive Programs for Safety A primary target for employers is to promote safety throughout their company environment. In order to facilitate effectiveness, employers need to keep employees interested. Given this, many companies use incentive programs to promote safety at their worksites and within their fleets. The positive results of incentive programs have been researched and linked to the reward theory and also to what is called the Hawthorne effect. The Hawthorne effect was established after a study was conducted between 1927 and 1932 involving the possible connection between the worksite environment (e.g., amount of lighting, color of paint on the walls) and productivity (Haight, 2015). Study results showed that while there was no established connection between a worksite environment and the productivity that resulted from it, it was demonstrated that productivity is a direct result of the employees’ perceptions because they felt more involved and because they saw management paying more attention to what they were doing. As a result, productivity went up
• 20. (Hindle, 2008). Companies have developed reward programs specifically to reward drivers for safe driving habits, such as keeping a clean driving record, keeping their vehicles clean, and avoiding accidents. By rewarding drivers for safe behavior, companies are building a culture of safety (Vergara, 2009). Employees often need incentives to raise their levels of productivity and align themselves with their company’s goals and objectives. While companies want to reduce accident statistics, there is also a need to increase communications with employees to ensure this takes place. These types of communications will help employees better understand safety program parameters. For example, how would the program be coordinated and implemented? What is the period in which employees can receive awards? What types of safety procedures do employees need to follow while operating fleet vehicles? How will drivers qualify for these safety awards? Fleet and terminal managers need to be sure to enforce their rules and safety regulations. Compliance is the primary goal as a company needs to demonstrate that it means business. Employees will most likely be compliant in their operations of fleet vehicles if they see the importance of doing so and notice results. Employees also want to see that if they are held accountable, management and frontline supervisors are also held accountable. Credibility is gained and maintained when drivers see demonstrated commitment and consistency instead of just talk. Conclusion
• 21. From benchmarking, effective metrics need to be established, and statistical analysis should take place involving this data to determine new and improved methods that can be used by companies to reduce future OSH 2305, Fleet and Driver Safety 4 UNIT x STUDY GUIDE Title on-the-job accidents. Companies can determine what data should be gathered to successfully report while also using the information to create a safety program that works for the fleet. In developing an individualized accident reporting system, the company can take accident and incident data and employ it in the current safety programs to improve training and hopefully mitigate future incidents. Safe driving recognition and incentive programs reinforce good driving performance (Vergara, 2009). Fleet performance should be determined through effective and efficient benchmarking practices and should demonstrate not only accountability for past accidents but responsibility in preventing future ones. References