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02 Construction Projects

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02 Construction Projects

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The presentation has prepared as per the syllabus of Mumbai University.
Go through the presentation, if you like it then share it with your friends and classmates.
Thank you :)

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02 Construction Projects

  1. 1. Construction Management By Akash Padole Department of Civil Engineering Construction Projects 1
  2. 2. Contains 2.1 Role of Construction industry in economic development of country 2.2 Unique features of construction industry. 2.3 Construction projects- Classification, Characteristics, Project life cycle etc. 2.4 Roles and responsibilities of various agencies associated with a Construction project. 2.5 Pre-requisites of commencing construction work such as sanctions, Approvals to be sought, and feasibility studies. 2.6 Site layout, organizing & mobilizing the site Akash Padole 2
  3. 3. Role of Industry in the Economic Development • The industries in India can be classified into : – Organized industries – Unorganized industries • Both type of industries are important for large country with a huge size of population and plays an important role in the economy of the country. Akash Padole 3
  4. 4. ❖Examples of organized and un organized industries: • The Organized industries include: Steel and Petroleum industry Textiles, Cement, fertilizer industry, Tea, Sugar industry, Plywood industry, etc. • The Unorganized industries include: The small and cottage industry, etc. Akash Padole 4
  5. 5. Role of Construction industry • The role the construction industry plays in socio- economic development of a nation. • The industry is a distinct sector of the economy which makes its direct contribution to economic growth like all the other sectors such as agriculture, manufacturing and services. • It also provides the basis upon which the other sectors can grow, by constructing the physical facilities required for the production and distribution of goods and services. Akash Padole 5
  6. 6. • What if I said construction is the 2nd largest economic activity in the country next to agriculture? • Around 25% of nation’s working population depends on construction and its allied activities for their livelihood. Akash Padole 6
  7. 7. • Just imagine the investments made in construction industry which is very much required for economic development of our nation. • These investments increase opportunities. • When opportunities increase, GDP of the nation automatically increases. Akash Padole 7
  8. 8. • The infrastructure required by any industry is provided by construction industry. • So, construction industry is an evergreen industry which helps in developing our nation. • The main thing to be noticed here is: “The output from construction industry becomes an asset of the nation.” Akash Padole 8
  9. 9. • There should be many more opportunities in Construction field so that many families in our country get benefited and there will be economic growth in our country. • Good mode of transport and connectivity also provides in economic growth as it makes it economical both in terms of money and labor. Akash Padole 9
  10. 10. Unique features of Construction Industry 1. Complexity • Construction projects, today, are high-tech, highly mechanized, and complex. • A typical construction project is characterized by the consumption of numerous types of materials, variety of tools, equipment, plants and machinery working in tandem, several different contracting agencies, big and small, sub-contractors, participating with complex interactions, working in cooperation, sometimes even at cross purposes. Akash Padole 10
  11. 11. • In addition to this highly interactive and complex environment at a construction site, thousands of activities each of different nature are arranged simultaneously. • Thus, the construction project is much more complex than any other production process, manufacturing, or service industry. Akash Padole 11
  12. 12. 2. Multiplicity of Agencies • Another typical characteristic of the construction industry is the presence of multiple regulatory agencies controlling the constructional site. • Every one of these regulatory agencies is independent of others. Akash Padole 12
  13. 13. • Many Government, and Semi-government agencies like Municipal Committees, Corporations, Area Development Authorities, Urban and Rural Planning, Mining Department, Forest Department and various other Public Departments and a similar never-ending plethora of controlling authorities required to issuing clearance certificates, controlling various aspects of construction at each project site. Akash Padole 13
  14. 14. 3. Involvement of the several people on ad-hoc basis 4. Limited set of resources 5. High Cost 6. A time frame for the completion 7. High risk of failure 8. No practice or rehearsal 9. High level of sub contracting 10. Uncertainty exist Akash Padole 14
  15. 15. Classification of Construction Projects A. Based on Nature of Work i. Building: • Residential buildings, • Commercial buildings, • Educational buildings, • Recreational buildings, • Hospitals and hotels, • Warehouse and marketing facilities, etc. Akash Padole 15
  16. 16. ii. Infrastructure Project: • Highways and expressways, • Dams and canals, • Airports, • Railways, • Bridges • Oil/gas pipe lines, • Large water supply and sewerage networks, • Docks and harbors, • Nuclear and thermal power plants, etc. Akash Padole 16
  17. 17. iii. Industrial: • Construction of steel plants, • Petroleum refineries, • Chemical and Fertilizer plants, • Consumer goods factories, • Automobile and aircraft industry, etc. iv. Special Purpose Project: • Environmental works, • Emergencies, • Remedial works, • Installation and commissioning of equipment, etc. Akash Padole 17
  18. 18. B. Based on Plant And Equipment i. Light Construction: • Residential buildings • Educational buildings • Recreational buildings • Commercial buildings, etc. ii. Heavy Construction: • Dams, barrages, tunnels • Highways, railways, airports • Harbours • Multi span bridges with well/pile foundations Akash Padole 18
  19. 19. C. Based on Completion Time i. Long duration project: • more than 5 years ii. Medium duration project: • 3 - 5 years iii. Short duration project: • 1 – 3 years iv. Special short term projects: • less than 1 year Akash Padole 19
  20. 20. D. Based on Value of Project i. Mega value projects • (over Rs. 10000 million) ii. Large value projects • (Rs. 1000 million to Rs. 10000 million) iii. Medium value projects • (Rs. 10 million to Rs. 1000 million) iv. Small value projects • (less than Rs. 10 million) Akash Padole 20
  21. 21. E. Based on Ownership i. Private sector projects ii. Public sector projects iii. Joint Sector projects (PPP) iv. Government sector projects Akash Padole 21
  22. 22. Characteristics of a Construction Project ➢ Following are the characteristics of a construction project: • The project should have a specified target. • The project should be unique. • Construction projects involve a lot of uncertainties, lack of information and variables. • The construction project should satisfy the owners requirement and expectations from the project. Akash Padole 22
  23. 23. Project Life Cycle • A project is “a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result.” • All projects vary in complexity but they all follow similar life cycles. • All projects have deliverables (meaning they always produce something). Akash Padole 23
  24. 24. • Project life cycle is a series of phases of a project from initiation to completion. • The life cycle gives a practical approach to problem solving applied to all aspects of a project. • Phases in a project life cycle encompasses sequential and overlapping phases. Akash Padole 24
  25. 25. • A project life cycle typically has a four major phases: - Initiation Phase - Planning Phase - Execution Phase - Closure Phase Akash Padole 25
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  28. 28. Initiation Phase • The first phase explores the project concept. • Scope is defined during this phase. • Feasibility studies are made in order to identify if there is a business need and justification to pursue the project. • Project charter is developed for approval. • This is the phase that the project team is assembled and the project manager is identified. Akash Padole 28
  29. 29. Planning Phase • This phase further details the scope of the project. • Tasks and resources are identified and assigned during this phase. • Project manager coordinates the preparation of the schedule and project budget. • Risks are identified ahead to anticipate any project threats. Akash Padole 29
  30. 30. • Quality plan is developed to maintain proper standards throughout project. • Communications plan is created in order to ensure everyone is constantly informed of project status. Akash Padole 30
  31. 31. Implementation Phase • This phase is where the work outlined in the project plan is performed. • This phase consumes the most resources and energy. • Constant and close monitoring of the work should be done to ensure efficiency of the project execution. Akash Padole 31
  32. 32. • Status reports are important for all stakeholders involved. • Deliverables are measured against the set metrics to ensure quality is acceptable. Akash Padole 32
  33. 33. Closure Phase • This is the last phase of the project life cycle and involves handing over final deliverable to the customer. • Contracts are properly terminated for equipment, vendors and staff. • All stakeholders are to be informed of project closure. • This phase is when the team reviews the overall project and identify lessons learned for future projects. Akash Padole 33
  34. 34. • This graphic is a representation of when these processes typically occur over the project life cycle. Akash Padole 34
  35. 35. • Going by the above definition, you might think that each stage is a distinct. • That once a stage gets over, the next one starts with no interaction with the earlier stage. Akash Padole 35
  36. 36. • That’s not true of course. Project stages don’t exist in isolation. • In actual projects, there is no hard line dividing stages. • Activities, resources, and even objectives often bleed over from stage to stage. Akash Padole 36
  37. 37. Roles & Responsibilities of different agencies involved in Construction Project • No matter a building project’s level of complexity, the construction process will require diligent oversight by a team of qualified professionals. • This oversight can come in many forms, as owner, architect, and contractor can serve in variable capacities. Akash Padole 37
  38. 38. Different agencies involved in Construction Project A construction project requires many different people with different skill sets to execute it. ✓ Owner ✓ Construction Contractor ✓ Construction Management Consultant/ Consulting Engineer ✓ Architect ✓ Suppliers Akash Padole 38
  39. 39. Owner • An owner is the person who owns the project and has full authority to control the whole project. • He is mainly involved in the process for supporting the financial matter for the construction project to go through easily. • He has to pay for fees and charges associated with the work. • Besides, he has to work together with architect and other consultants to achieve the goal of the construction project. Akash Padole 39
  40. 40. Construction Contractor • A general contractor is responsible for providing all of the material, labor, equipment (such as engineering vehicles and tools) and services necessary for the construction of the project. • A General Contractor often hires specialized subcontractors to perform all or portions of the construction work. Akash Padole 40
  41. 41. • The construction contractor must develop a schedule for all construction activities in accordance with the contract documents. • It should include procurement and delivery of materials to the job, coordination of labor and equipment on the job, and interface the work of all sub-contractors. Akash Padole 41
  42. 42. Construction Management Consultant/ Consulting Engineer • The main purpose of employing them is to indirectly support the project’s robustness and expectations of the clients. • Their help is appreciated in every stage of a project. Akash Padole 42
  43. 43. ▪ Coordinate functional perspectives from within and outside project teams. ▪ Manage projects and related specific activities within given constraints of time, budget and quality. ▪ Ensure scope, schedule and costs are reasonable and achievable. ▪ Allocate work among team members and provide guidance regularly. ▪ Conduct periodic and post-project reviews to ensure project is on track. Akash Padole 43
  44. 44. Architect • An architect is a skilled professional who plans and designs buildings and generally plays a key role in their construction. Akash Padole 44
  45. 45. • Architects are highly trained in the art and science of building design. • Since they bear responsibility for the safety of their buildings' occupants, architects must be professionally licensed. Akash Padole 45
  46. 46. • Architect monitors the construction of the project to assure that construction is in accordance with the plans and specifications prepared by the architect and approved by the Owner and Contractor. • The responsibility of an architect is to prepare construction drawings and specifications. • He acts as the leader of the rest of the design team to the client’s requirements design. Akash Padole 46
  47. 47. Suppliers • Suppliers are groups that provides all materials and services that needed for construction projects. • As such their responsibilities varies from project to project. • Depending upon the project, materials and equipment's plays big role in the construction project. • Suppliers offer it for sale or rent. • The best suppliers are reliable, efficient and result, they have great relationship with their clients. Akash Padole 47
  48. 48. Sanctions/ Approval required for Construction Activity • The builder requires to have the approval or sanctions from the concerned authority for the construction of a building. • The building constructed without sanctions or deviated more than 5 percent from approved plan levies penalty and authorities has right to demolish the building without any prior notice. Akash Padole 48
  49. 49. • Following include the list of Approvals or Sanctions required by builder for engaging in any construction activity: ✓ Building Plan ✓ Layout Approval ✓ Basic Amenities ✓ No Objection Certificate (NOC) ✓ Completion Certificate ✓ Approval for Conversion of land Akash Padole 49
  50. 50. Building Plan • A builder should submit building plan before starting the construction activities. • Building plans are a graphical representation of what a building will look like after construction. • Building plan ensures that building complies with building laws. • Once the building plan is approved, the builder should commence construction work within two years and there should be no deviation from the sanctioned plan. Akash Padole 50
  51. 51. Layout Approval • The builder has to get approval of layout plan from concerned authorities before starting construction of residential or commercial building. • Constructing building in unapproved layout will not be given permission to be occupied or such layout plots will be treated as unlawful and exemplary penalties will be levied as per Municipal Laws. Akash Padole 51
  52. 52. • Land which is sub-divided into plots without permission from competent authority is considered illegal or unapproved layout. • No facilities such as roads, drainage, street lighting will be extended in such areas. Akash Padole 52
  53. 53. Basic Amenities • The builder should get approval from concerned authorities for electricity, water for potable and non- potable use. • The building should comply with building laws for sanction or approval of basic amenities. Akash Padole 53
  54. 54. No Objection Certificate (NOC) • The builder has to get NOC from pollution board on the project. It is essential for the approval for sewer or water supply. • It is also important to get NOC from the neighboring properties to prove that builder is not encroaching any neighborhood property. Akash Padole 54
  55. 55. • Builder has to get NOC from municipality or respective authority for digging bore well. • Digging bore well without NOC or approval will be levied penalty and material used for digging bore wells would be seized. Akash Padole 55
  56. 56. Completion Certificate • Completion certificate is mandatory for building constructed before selling or occupied. • Issuing of Completion Certificate will ensure that the builder or owner has constructed the building as per approved plan. Akash Padole 56
  57. 57. Approval for Conversion of Land • Some builders use agricultural land for constructing building for residential or commercial purpose. • In such case builder need to get approval form concerned authority to convert agricultural land to non-agricultural (NA) purpose. Akash Padole 57
  58. 58. Concerned authorities for Sanctions/Approval in Construction Projects • The process for applying for sanction or approval is almost similar all over the country. • The concerned authority having right to give sanction or approval may vary from state to sate or region to region. Akash Padole 58
  59. 59. ❑ Mumbai: • Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority (MMRDA) is responsible for the development of Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR). • MMRDA was set up under the Mumbai Metropolitan Region Development Authority Act, 1974. Akash Padole 59
  60. 60. • Electricity supply in the city is managed by Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Co. Ltd (MAHADISCOM). • BrihanMumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) is providing Drinking Water Supply to Mumbai City and suburbs. Akash Padole 60
  61. 61. ❑New Delhi: • The Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) is among the largest municipal bodies in the world providing civic services. • For their convenience, the Municipal Corporation of Delhi/Nagar Nigam has divided the city into twelve different zones. • The Delhi Jal Board is responsible for the Production and Distribution of potable water after treating raw water from various sources like river Yamuna, Upper Ganga Canal & Groundwater and provides treatment and disposal of waste water.Akash Padole 61
  62. 62. ❑Bangalore: • The builder has to approach Bangalore Development Authority (BDA) for approval of layout plan and building plan. • The Bangalore Development Authority (BDA) is designated as the Planning Authority under the Karnataka Town and Country Planning Act, 1961. • Electricity supply in the city is managed by Bangalore Electricity Supply Company Ltd (BESCOM). • The builder has to get NOC from pollution board for his project to get new water connection from Bangalore Water Sanitary and Sewage board (BWSSB) Akash Padole 62
  63. 63. Feasibility Study • A feasibility study is a multidimensional set of actions which aims to analyze and evaluate a project in order to determine if its construction is feasible. Akash Padole 63
  64. 64. • Feasibility study is related to analyze the viability of the identified project to support decision making of investment. • As its name implies, it is a study to decide whether the identified project is attractive enough to go for implementation. • The study needs inputs from many professional disciplines for various areas of the study. Akash Padole 64
  65. 65. Feasibility Analysis: A Schematic Diagram Akash Padole 65
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  73. 73. Why Feasibility Study? • To find if there is adequate demand for the project’s output. • To find if there is availability of suitable technology and inputs. • To find the best options. • To answer if the project meets the environmental regulations and priority of the nations. • To examine the project’s financial and economic viability. Akash Padole 73
  74. 74. Site Layout • Site layout planning is an important task that involves identification of the Temporary Facilities (TFs) which will be needed to support construction operations. • Site layout planning is about determining the size and shape of the TFs. • Management must appropriately position all the temporary facilities within the boundaries of a construction site. • Proper site layout planning will improve site safety for workforce and public. Akash Padole 74
  75. 75. • Construction site layout involves identifying, sizing, and placing temporary facilities (TFs) within the boundaries of construction site. • Required temporary facilities and their areas are depending in many factors including project type, scale, design, location, and organization of construction work. Akash Padole 75
  76. 76. • Site planning in particular, has been the most neglected aspect in the construction industry and the attitude of the engineers has been that it will be done as the project progress. • It is important to realize that the site planning will be the conditions that site personnel will live with for the total duration of the construction period. Akash Padole 76
  77. 77. • Failure to plan the site layout in advance is a prime cause of operational inefficiency, and can increase the overall cost of a project substantially. • In the absence of a precise site layout plan, the following problems may occur: – Material stacks wrongly located – Plant and equipment wrongly located – Inadequate space allowed – Site huts wrongly located in relation to their effective use Akash Padole 77
  78. 78. • In fact, site layout planning is one of the preplanning tasks to be accomplished in a construction project. • This task has an interactive relationship with the other planning tasks such as scheduling, selection of construction method, procurement and material planning, manpower and equipment planning, and financial planning. • So, it becomes a task as important as other tasks that project managers have to accomplish. Akash Padole 78
  79. 79. Site Layout Planning Elements: • The following points should be considered in good site layout: ✓ Safety ✓ Site Accessibility ✓ Information Signs ✓ Security ✓ Accommodation ✓ Offices ✓ Water Supply and Sanitation ✓ Storage and site cleaning Akash Padole 79
  80. 80. A list of Temporary Facilities • Job office • Owner representatives office • Subcontractors office • First aid office • Information and guard house • Toilet on site • Staff/Engineer dormitory • Staff/Engineer family dormitory • Labor dormitory • Labor family dormitory • Bathroom for labor • Restroom for labor • Equipment maintenance shop • Parking lot for mechanics • Prefabricated rebar storage yard • Rebar fabrication yard • Fabricated rebar storage yard • Carpentry shop • Cement warehouse • Batch-plant and aggregate storage • Craft change-house • Sampling / Testing lab • Pipe jointing yard • Pipe storage yard • Welding shop • Parking lot • Tank • Long term laydown storage • Machine room • Electrical shop • Steel fabrication shop • Painting shop • Scaffold storage yard • Material warehouse Akash Padole 80
  81. 81. Site layout design Akash Padole 81
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  83. 83. Site Organisation for Construction • Site organization is a detailed and well thought out process which ensures a healthy and safe construction site throughout its build. Akash Padole 83
  84. 84. • What is to be done by whom, at what time and how is to be done is the starting point of site organization. • In simple terms site organization means how to organize the construction activity on site. Akash Padole 84
  85. 85. Site Mobilization • Mobilization refers to the initial stage of a construction project where preparations occur onsite prior to the commencement of any work. • It is a preparatory stage during which the majority of activities are managed by the construction manager. • At this point in a project, the contractor has been selected and building plans have typically been approved by the governing municipality. Akash Padole 85
  86. 86. • Take all the necessary preparation steps to start the work by, ✓ Taking approvals from authorities ✓ Develop management plan for traffic flow during construction of civil works. ✓ Providing of barricades, signs, cones & flaggers to do all the necessary precautions. ✓ Notification of neighbors ✓ Display all required work permits on site as per municipal requirements Akash Padole 86
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