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- DR.AKIF A.B
Leishmaniasis
Oroya Fever
Oriental Sore (Cutaneous Leishmaniasis)
Sandfly fever
DiseasesTransmitted
AfricanTrypanosomiasis ( Sleeping Sickness ofAfrica )
Mnemonic : Tse Tse Fly = aFrican Trypanosomiasis
Chagas Disease ( AmericanTrypanosomiasis/ Sleeping sickness OfAmerica)
Mnemonic :A =AmericanTrypanosomiasis
B = Bug reduvi...
Onchocerciasis ( River Blindness)
B for Blackfly…….B for Blindness
-Relapsing Fever
- Q fever
- KF Disease ( Outside India )
-KFD (India)
- Babesiosis
-Tularemia
L = Louse
E = EpidemicTyphus
T =Trench fever
t
e
R = Relapsing Fever
S = ScrubTyphus
P = Pox rickettsial
M = Mite
-Plague
- EndemicTyphus
- Chiggerosis
Mnemonic : F looks like P
Causes Malaria
Japanese Encephalitis
West Nile Fever
Filariasis
Red = Rift valley Fever
Yellow =Yellow fever
Chicken = Chikungunya
Causes
AIDS = Aedes
&
Dengue = Dengue
Anopheles Culex Aedes
DiseasesTransmitted Malaria Filariasis/ Japanese
Encephalitis/West
nile fever
Dengue/
Chikungunya/Ye...
Environmental
control
Chemical Biological Genetic
Best approach 1) Not effective if
used alone
2) Resistance to
chemicals ...
1) Space sprays : Pyrethrum
2) Residual sprays : DDT/Malathion/Lindane
3) Genetic Control
1) Mosquito Nets
2) Repellants :...
-No. of hole per square Inch = 150
- Size of each hole diameter = <0.0475inch / 0.12cm
- Insecticide treated Bed nets cont...
-It is a Contact Poison/Nerve poison
-Takes several hours to kill
- Residual action : 18months Very
Impo
rtant
Ans. Nerve Poison/contact poison
Q.Following are larval control measures except
A) DDT
B) Paris green
C) Gambusia
D) Eradication of breeding places
Ans. DDT
Anti – larval measures are broadly grouped into:
1. Larvicides:
a. Chemicals – larvicidal oils, paris green, teme...
Environmental
control
Chemical Biological Genetic
Best approach 1) Not effective if
used alone
2) Resistance to
chemicals ...
The following statement about DDT is false:
A)Pyrethrum has synergistic action
B) It is a contact poison
C) Immediately ki...
Ans. C Immediately kills the prey
Ref: Park textbook of S.P.M
- DDT is primarily a contact poison, acting on the nervous s...
Q.Which insect among the following is not resistant
to DDT?
A) Musca domestica
B) Phlebotomus
C) culex
D)Anopheles stephen...
Ans. B) Phlebotomus
Resistance to DDT has not been demonstrated by sandfly or
Phlebotomous.
All other agents mentioned in ...
Q.Which of the following insecticide is of plant
origin: (DNB June 09)
A) Paris green
B) Propoxur
C) malathion
D) Pyrethrum
Ans. D Pyrethrum Ref: Park textbook of S.P.M
Pyrethrum is extracted from the flowers of Chrysanthemum
It is an excellent s...
Paris green is useful for killing: (DNB Dec 11)
A) Anopheline larvae only
B) Culicine larvae only
C) Adult mosquitoes
D) N...
Ans.A Anopheline larvae only Ref: Park textbook of S.P.M
Paris Green kills mainly the anopheles larvae becauseAnopheles li...
Q. Malathion spray is effective for:
A) One month
B) Two months
C) Three months
D) Four months
Ans. C )Three months Ref: Park textbook of S.P.M
Malathion is used in the doses of 100-200 mg square foot for,
every three...
Q. Dose of malathion used for residual insecticidal action is:
A. 100-200 mg/sq. foot
B. 25-50 mg/sq. foot
C. 10-20 mg/sq....
Ans.A 100-200 mg/sq. foot Ref: ParkTEXTBOOK OF S.P.M
Dose of malathion used for residual insecticidal action is
100-200 mg...
Q.The breeding place for anopheles mosquito is:
A) Dirty water
B) Seawater
C) Free flowing water
D) Clean water
D) Clean water Ref: Park textbook of S.P.M
In general, theAnopheline prefer clean water for breeding;
Culicines prefer dir...
Vectors
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vectors and diseases is a very important topic for pg entrance.....so all about it has been discussed in detail as required for pg entrance....do make use of it...

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Vectors

  1. 1. - DR.AKIF A.B
  2. 2. Leishmaniasis Oroya Fever Oriental Sore (Cutaneous Leishmaniasis) Sandfly fever DiseasesTransmitted
  3. 3. AfricanTrypanosomiasis ( Sleeping Sickness ofAfrica ) Mnemonic : Tse Tse Fly = aFrican Trypanosomiasis
  4. 4. Chagas Disease ( AmericanTrypanosomiasis/ Sleeping sickness OfAmerica) Mnemonic :A =AmericanTrypanosomiasis B = Bug reduviid C = Chagas Disease
  5. 5. Onchocerciasis ( River Blindness) B for Blackfly…….B for Blindness
  6. 6. -Relapsing Fever - Q fever - KF Disease ( Outside India )
  7. 7. -KFD (India) - Babesiosis -Tularemia
  8. 8. L = Louse E = EpidemicTyphus T =Trench fever t e R = Relapsing Fever
  9. 9. S = ScrubTyphus P = Pox rickettsial M = Mite
  10. 10. -Plague - EndemicTyphus - Chiggerosis Mnemonic : F looks like P
  11. 11. Causes Malaria
  12. 12. Japanese Encephalitis West Nile Fever Filariasis
  13. 13. Red = Rift valley Fever Yellow =Yellow fever Chicken = Chikungunya Causes AIDS = Aedes & Dengue = Dengue
  14. 14. Anopheles Culex Aedes DiseasesTransmitted Malaria Filariasis/ Japanese Encephalitis/West nile fever Dengue/ Chikungunya/Yellow fever Breeding habitat Clean water Dirty water Artificial stored water Eggs Laid singly, Boat shaped Laid in clusters Laid singly, Cigar shape Adults Inclined at angle to surface Horizontal to surface Alternate black and white strips on body Flight range 3-5km 11km 100metres Other name Sophisticated mosquito Nuisance mosuito Tiger Mosquito
  15. 15. Environmental control Chemical Biological Genetic Best approach 1) Not effective if used alone 2) Resistance to chemicals have been seen Through use of small fishes e.g.; 1) Filling & drainage of freshwater collection = Anopheles 2) Do not store artificial collection of water=Aedes 3) Abolition of dirty water= Culex 4) Aquatic plants to be removed = Gambusia e.g: 1) Mineral oils 2) Paris green 3) Synthetic insecticide like Abate,malathion e.g; Gambusia
  16. 16. 1) Space sprays : Pyrethrum 2) Residual sprays : DDT/Malathion/Lindane 3) Genetic Control 1) Mosquito Nets 2) Repellants : Diethyltoluamide
  17. 17. -No. of hole per square Inch = 150 - Size of each hole diameter = <0.0475inch / 0.12cm - Insecticide treated Bed nets contains : Synthetic Pyrethroids
  18. 18. -It is a Contact Poison/Nerve poison -Takes several hours to kill - Residual action : 18months Very Impo rtant
  19. 19. Ans. Nerve Poison/contact poison
  20. 20. Q.Following are larval control measures except A) DDT B) Paris green C) Gambusia D) Eradication of breeding places
  21. 21. Ans. DDT Anti – larval measures are broadly grouped into: 1. Larvicides: a. Chemicals – larvicidal oils, paris green, temephos b. Biolarvicides – fishes like gambusia, lebister etc 2. Source reduction: drainage or filling, deepening or flushing, management of water level, changing the salt content of water & intermittent irrigation 3. Integrated control: bioenvironmental as well as personal protective measures. DDT is not used as a larvicide. It is an anti-adult measure of vector control.
  22. 22. Environmental control Chemical Biological Genetic Best approach 1) Not effective if used alone 2) Resistance to chemicals have been seen Through use of small fishes e.g.; 1) Filling & drainage of freshwater collection = Anopheles 2) Do not store artificial collection of water=Aedes 3) Abolition of dirty water= Culex 4) Aquatic plants to be removed = Gambusia e.g: 1) Mineral oils 2) Paris green 3) Synthetic insecticide like Abate,malathion e.g; Gambusia
  23. 23. The following statement about DDT is false: A)Pyrethrum has synergistic action B) It is a contact poison C) Immediately kills the prey D) Residual effect lasts for 18 months
  24. 24. Ans. C Immediately kills the prey Ref: Park textbook of S.P.M - DDT is primarily a contact poison, acting on the nervous system of insects. It does not cause immediate death but takes several hours to kill. The residual action may last as long as 18 months depending upon the treated surface. It has no repellant action. Most space sprays contain pyrethrum & DDT or other synthetic insecticides which are added for synergistic action. Some imp facts about DDT: the technical DDT contains 70-80% of para-para isomer which is the most active fraction of DDT.
  25. 25. Q.Which insect among the following is not resistant to DDT? A) Musca domestica B) Phlebotomus C) culex D)Anopheles stephensi
  26. 26. Ans. B) Phlebotomus Resistance to DDT has not been demonstrated by sandfly or Phlebotomous. All other agents mentioned in the question are known to show varying degrees of resistance to DDT.
  27. 27. Q.Which of the following insecticide is of plant origin: (DNB June 09) A) Paris green B) Propoxur C) malathion D) Pyrethrum
  28. 28. Ans. D Pyrethrum Ref: Park textbook of S.P.M Pyrethrum is extracted from the flowers of Chrysanthemum It is an excellent space spray.
  29. 29. Paris green is useful for killing: (DNB Dec 11) A) Anopheline larvae only B) Culicine larvae only C) Adult mosquitoes D) None
  30. 30. Ans.A Anopheline larvae only Ref: Park textbook of S.P.M Paris Green kills mainly the anopheles larvae becauseAnopheles lies on surface and paris green floats on surface of water and doesn’t Sinks. Bottom feeding larvae are also killed when Paris green is applied as a special granular formation.
  31. 31. Q. Malathion spray is effective for: A) One month B) Two months C) Three months D) Four months
  32. 32. Ans. C )Three months Ref: Park textbook of S.P.M Malathion is used in the doses of 100-200 mg square foot for, every three months. It has least toxicity of all organophosphorus compounds.
  33. 33. Q. Dose of malathion used for residual insecticidal action is: A. 100-200 mg/sq. foot B. 25-50 mg/sq. foot C. 10-20 mg/sq. foot D. 500-1000 mg/sq. foot
  34. 34. Ans.A 100-200 mg/sq. foot Ref: ParkTEXTBOOK OF S.P.M Dose of malathion used for residual insecticidal action is 100-200 mg/square foot area. Dose of DDT used for residual insecticidal action is also 100-200 mg. per square foot area.
  35. 35. Q.The breeding place for anopheles mosquito is: A) Dirty water B) Seawater C) Free flowing water D) Clean water
  36. 36. D) Clean water Ref: Park textbook of S.P.M In general, theAnopheline prefer clean water for breeding; Culicines prefer dirty and polluted water; Aedes prefer artificial collections of water. The MANSONIA breeds in water containing certain types of aquatic vegetation.
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vectors and diseases is a very important topic for pg entrance.....so all about it has been discussed in detail as required for pg entrance....do make use of it...

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