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Any publi...
SOCIAL FORCES:
ECONOMICS, TECHNOLOGY,
AND POLICY
Chapter 13
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
 
An Interplay of Forces
 Communication Policy
 government
 cultural values and traditions
 economic trends and patter...
Searching for the Public Interest
 Defining the Public Interest
 individual or institutional right?
Copyright © 2010 Pea...
Question to think about
 In your opinion, is the First
Amendment for individuals or
institutions or both?
Copyright © 201...
Searching for the Public Interest
 Defining the Public Interest
 Print media: receive greater freedoms
 Electronic medi...
Denying the Business of Media
 Audiences as consumers?
 Concentration of ownership
 Monopoly power =/≠ diversity of ide...
Enter Media Economics
 Who owns the media?
 Who supports the media?
 How are media companies financed?
 What are the f...
Enter Media Economics
 Media and the Digital Economy
 e-commerce
 Big media
 Little media
 Niche strategies
 The Lon...
Enter Media Economics
 Corporate Cultures and Revenue Models
 Law of Large Numbers: large audiences
 Law of Right Numbe...
Enter Media Economics
 New Business Models for Media
 Philanthropic Funding
 Foundation Model
 Membership Model
 Empl...
Enter Media Economics
 Free Markets and Regulatory Controls
 U.S. media market
 “free market”
 limited control and ove...
Independence with Controls
 Communication policy
is variously described as government interface
with media institutions o...
Independence with Controls
 Controlling
Objectionable
Content
 American colonies –
did not want the crown
to control con...
Independence with Controls
 Protecting the Public Interest
 News media = public trustees
 News media = Fourth Estate
Co...
Independence with Controls
 Covering Electoral Politics
 Commonality of interest
 Advocates and intermediaries for citi...
Political Protections: The
Constitutional Framework
 The Free Press – A Historical Legacy
 Prior Restraint
 English Law...
Political Protections: The
Constitutional Framework
 The First Amendment
“Congress shall make no law abridging the
freedo...
Political Protections: The
Constitutional Framework
 Technology’s Place in Regulation: From
Printing to Cyberspace
 Broa...
Linchpins of Communication Law
 The Libel Conundrum
 False, defamatory statements about someone
 Ancient roots – Ten Co...
Linchpins of Communication Law
 Libel Laws and the
Media
 Public figures and
public officials
 New York Times v.
Sulliv...
Trial by Media
 1930s Lindbergh case
 Reardon rules related to prejudicial
information
 Cameras in the courtroom
 OJ S...
Moral Values: Obscenity and
Pornography
 Obscenity: government censorship or
provide freedom?
 Roth (1957): not protecte...
The Government’s Secrets During
National Crises
 Direct Censorship During War
 1898, Spanish-American War
 1917, WWI Es...
Political Constraints: The Agents of
Control
 Regulatory Agencies
 Federal Communications Commission
 radio, television...
Political Constraints: The Agents of
Control
 Regulatory Agencies
 Federal Trade Commission
 established in 1914
 adve...
Political Constraints: The Agents of
Control
 Regulatory Agencies
 Deregulation and Outside Pressures
 intermedia owner...
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Dennis and Defleur Ch. 13

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Dennis and Defleur Ch. 13

  1. 1. This multi-media product and its content are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Any preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease or lending of the program Understanding Media in the Digital Age, 1/e Everette E. Dennis Melvin L. DeFleur Prepared by Todd Chambers, Ph.D. Texas Tech University Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. SOCIAL FORCES: ECONOMICS, TECHNOLOGY, AND POLICY Chapter 13 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  3. 3.   An Interplay of Forces  Communication Policy  government  cultural values and traditions  economic trends and patterns  new technologies Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  4. 4. Searching for the Public Interest  Defining the Public Interest  individual or institutional right? Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  5. 5. Question to think about  In your opinion, is the First Amendment for individuals or institutions or both? Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  6. 6. Searching for the Public Interest  Defining the Public Interest  Print media: receive greater freedoms  Electronic media: fewer First Amendment freedoms; licensing  Diversity of voices  Marketplace of ideas Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  7. 7. Denying the Business of Media  Audiences as consumers?  Concentration of ownership  Monopoly power =/≠ diversity of ideas? Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  8. 8. Enter Media Economics  Who owns the media?  Who supports the media?  How are media companies financed?  What are the financial drivers of media firms?  What accounts for profits/losses?  What inspires innovation?  What is the role of technology? Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  9. 9. Enter Media Economics  Media and the Digital Economy  e-commerce  Big media  Little media  Niche strategies  The Long Tail: value in small audiences Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  10. 10. Enter Media Economics  Corporate Cultures and Revenue Models  Law of Large Numbers: large audiences  Law of Right Numbers: large, attractive audiences  attractive to advertisers  ‘right’ demographic or psychographic Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  11. 11. Enter Media Economics  New Business Models for Media  Philanthropic Funding  Foundation Model  Membership Model  Employee Ownership Model  Government Subsidy Model Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  12. 12. Enter Media Economics  Free Markets and Regulatory Controls  U.S. media market  “free market”  limited control and oversight  Internet changing the media economy Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  13. 13. Independence with Controls  Communication policy is variously described as government interface with media institutions on behalf of the public, to a more complex formulation that involves the private sector, other social institutions, and interests. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  14. 14. Independence with Controls  Controlling Objectionable Content  American colonies – did not want the crown to control content  Pornography  Censorship v. Self- Censorship  Controlling Political Communication  government and media are separate  move into a global system  piracy  government standards Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. Independence with Controls  Protecting the Public Interest  News media = public trustees  News media = Fourth Estate Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  16. 16. Independence with Controls  Covering Electoral Politics  Commonality of interest  Advocates and intermediaries for citizens Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  17. 17. Political Protections: The Constitutional Framework  The Free Press – A Historical Legacy  Prior Restraint  English Law allowed prior restraint  against the Crown? Punishable.  John Zenger  seditious libel  separation of press and government Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  18. 18. Political Protections: The Constitutional Framework  The First Amendment “Congress shall make no law abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press…” Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  19. 19. Political Protections: The Constitutional Framework  Technology’s Place in Regulation: From Printing to Cyberspace  Broadcasters and the license  Cable and the franchise  Telecommunications Act 1996: allowed technology to advance  Indecency  Communications Decency Act, struck down Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  20. 20. Linchpins of Communication Law  The Libel Conundrum  False, defamatory statements about someone  Ancient roots – Ten Commandments  Today: protects individuals and corporations Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  21. 21. Linchpins of Communication Law  Libel Laws and the Media  Public figures and public officials  New York Times v. Sullivan (1964)  set precedent for free press v. public officials  US Supreme Court in favor of press criticism of public officials  Multi-million Dollar Libel Suits  Legal costs for defense  Chilling effect Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  22. 22. Trial by Media  1930s Lindbergh case  Reardon rules related to prejudicial information  Cameras in the courtroom  OJ Simpson trial  Court TV Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  23. 23. Moral Values: Obscenity and Pornography  Obscenity: government censorship or provide freedom?  Roth (1957): not protected under the constitution  Miller (1973): community standards  Codes of ethics Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  24. 24. The Government’s Secrets During National Crises  Direct Censorship During War  1898, Spanish-American War  1917, WWI Espionage Act  fines and prison for interfering with war effort  1918, WWI Sedition Act  crime to publish anything that abused, scorned or showed contempt for US Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  25. 25. Political Constraints: The Agents of Control  Regulatory Agencies  Federal Communications Commission  radio, television, cable, telephone, satellites, mobile phones  licensing, political content, children’s programming  public interest, convenience and necessity Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  26. 26. Political Constraints: The Agents of Control  Regulatory Agencies  Federal Trade Commission  established in 1914  advertising, concentration of ownership, deceptive advertising Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.
  27. 27. Political Constraints: The Agents of Control  Regulatory Agencies  Deregulation and Outside Pressures  intermedia ownership  intramedia ownership  Media concentration = public interest? Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

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