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Endocrine hormones
• Produced by endocrine (“ductless”) glands and
secreted into the bloodstream.
• Endocrine hormones may affect a wide array of
target cells to produce multiple effects.
• Two types: peptides (small proteins) and
steroids (lipids).
Peptide Hormones
• Peptide hormones do not enter the cell
directly. These hormones bind to
receptor proteins in the cell membrane.
• When the hormone binds with the
receptor protein, a secondary messenger
molecule initiates the cell response.
• Because peptide hormones are water
soluble, they often produce fast
responses.
Steroid Hormones
• Steroid hormones enter through the cell
membrane and bind to receptors inside
of the target cell.
• These hormones may directly stimulate
transcription of genes to make certain
proteins.
• Because steroids work by triggering
gene activity, the response is slower than
peptide hormones.
Role of the Hypothalamus
• The thalamus receives sensory
information, relays some to the
hypothalamus.
• Hypothalamus monitors the body for
temperature, pH, other conditions.
• Hypothalamus signals pituitary gland if
conditions need to be corrected.
Role of the Pituitary
• The pituitary is the “master gland” that signals other
glands to produce their hormones when needed.
• The anterior lobe of the pituitary receives signals from
the hypothalamus, and responds by sending out the
appropriate hormone to other endocrine glands.
• The posterior pituitary receives oxytocin or antidiuretic
hormone (ADH) from the hypothalamus, relays them to
the body as necessary.
Other hormone roles
• Controlling sleep cycles (melatonin)
• Controlling reproductive cycles
(melatonin, sex hormones)
• Growth (growth hormone)
• Responding to stress or emergencies
(epinephrine and other hormones)

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endocrine_system.ppt

  • 1. Endocrine hormones • Produced by endocrine (“ductless”) glands and secreted into the bloodstream. • Endocrine hormones may affect a wide array of target cells to produce multiple effects. • Two types: peptides (small proteins) and steroids (lipids).
  • 2. Peptide Hormones • Peptide hormones do not enter the cell directly. These hormones bind to receptor proteins in the cell membrane. • When the hormone binds with the receptor protein, a secondary messenger molecule initiates the cell response. • Because peptide hormones are water soluble, they often produce fast responses.
  • 3. Steroid Hormones • Steroid hormones enter through the cell membrane and bind to receptors inside of the target cell. • These hormones may directly stimulate transcription of genes to make certain proteins. • Because steroids work by triggering gene activity, the response is slower than peptide hormones.
  • 4. Role of the Hypothalamus • The thalamus receives sensory information, relays some to the hypothalamus. • Hypothalamus monitors the body for temperature, pH, other conditions. • Hypothalamus signals pituitary gland if conditions need to be corrected.
  • 5. Role of the Pituitary • The pituitary is the “master gland” that signals other glands to produce their hormones when needed. • The anterior lobe of the pituitary receives signals from the hypothalamus, and responds by sending out the appropriate hormone to other endocrine glands. • The posterior pituitary receives oxytocin or antidiuretic hormone (ADH) from the hypothalamus, relays them to the body as necessary.
  • 6. Other hormone roles • Controlling sleep cycles (melatonin) • Controlling reproductive cycles (melatonin, sex hormones) • Growth (growth hormone) • Responding to stress or emergencies (epinephrine and other hormones)