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Project Quality ManagementThe processes and activities of the performing organization that determines quality policies, objectives and responsabilities so that the project will satisfy the needs for which it was undertaken.
Quality Managment• PMbOK Processes• Important Quality Terms
8. Project Quality Management Monitoring & Controlling Processes Planning Processes Enter phase/ Initiating Closing Exit phase/ Start project Processes Processes End project Executing Processes Knowledge Process Area Initiating Planning Executing Monitoring & Contol Closing Perform Quality - Perform Quality - Cost Quality Planning Assurance Control
Quality Concepts• Quality vs. Grade ▫ Quality: the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill requirements ▫ Quality level that fails to meet quality requirements is always a PROBLEM ▫ Grade: a category assigned to product or service having the same functional use but different technical characteristics ▫ Low grade may not be a problem
QUALITY CONCEPTS• Six Sigma• Prevention vs. Inspection• Attribute Sampling vs Variable Sampling• Special Causes vs Common Causes• Tolerance vs. Control limits
Important Terms• Mutual Exclusive: if two events cannot both occur in a single trial• Probability: something will occur• Normal Distribution: common probability density distribution chart• Statistical independence: the probability of one event occurring does not affect the probability of another event occurring• Standard deviation (or Sigma): how far you are from the mean• 3 or 6 sigma ▫ Represent the level of quality has decided to try to achieve ▫ 6σ is higher quality standard than 3σ ▫ Used to calculate the upper and lower control limits in a control chart Percentage of occurrences Number of σ between two control limits 1 68.26% 2 95.64% 3 99.73% 6 99.99985%
Quality Management: Important points• Customer satisfaction • Conformance to requirement • Fitness for use: product/service produced must satisfy real needs• Prevention over inspection • Cost of preventing mistakes < cost of correcting• Continuous improvement (Kaizen) • Based on PDCA cycle • Using quality improvement initiatives e.g. TQM, 6 sigma • Using process improvement models e.g. OPM3, CMMI, Malcolm Baldrige• Management responsibility • To provide the resource needed to succeed
Quality Concepts• Gold Plating: giving the customer extras ▫ This practice is not recommended• Marginal Analysis: looking for the point where.. benefits/revenue to be received from improving quality EQUALS the incremental cost to achieve that quality• Just in Time (JIT): just when they are needed or just before they are needed. ▫ It forces attention on quality practices.• Total Quality Management (TQM) ▫ Company & their employees focus on finding ways to continuous improve the quality of their business practices & products.
8.1 Plan Quality • The process of identifying requirement and/or standards for the project and product and documenting how the project will demonstrate compliance. ▫ What is quality? How will we ensure it? Tools & Inputs Outputs Techniques 1. Scope baseline 1. Cost benefit analysis 1. Quality management 2. Stakeholder register 2. Cost of Quality (CoQ) plan 3. Cost performance 3. Control charts 2. Quality metrics baseline 4. Benchmarking 3. Quality checklists 4. Schedule baseline 5. Design of experiments 4. Process improvement 5. Risk register 6. Statistical sampling plan 6. Enterprise 7. Flowcharting 5. Project document environmental factors updates 8. Proprietary quality 7. Organizational process management assets methodologies 9. Additional quality planning tools
Quality Planning Techniques• Cost benefit analysis ▫ Weight the benefits versus the cost of meeting quality requirements• Design of Experiments (DOE) ▫ Use experimentation to statistically determine what variable will improve quality ▫ Systematically changing all of the important factors, rather than changing the factors one at a time• Statistical sampling ▫ We need it since studying entire population would take too long, too much cost, be too destructive• Flow charting ▫ Use to see a process or system flows and find potential quality problem
Cuanto cuesta la calidad?• Costos de Conformidad
Cuanto cuesta la Calidad?• Costos de No Conformidad
Control charts Rule of seven (non random data points) Out of control Assignable/special cause Normal and expected variationUpper control limit Usually 3 or 6 sigmaLower control limit Normal distribution curve Out of control Specification limit: is Assignable/special cause point determines by customer, not calculated based on control chart
Output• Quality Management Plan ▫ Contains: Project management method Quality metrics is input for Role and responsibility in managing quality • Quality Assurance AND Deliverable measurement • Quality Control Standard for monitoring & control purpose Process review Quality checklist is input for • Quality Control ONLY Major check points Inspection & acceptance criteria• Quality metrics ▫ An operational that describes how quality control process will measure it. ▫ What are things that important to measure and decide what measurement is acceptable• Quality checklists ▫ A list of items to inspect, step to be performed and note if any defects found
8.2 Perform Quality Assurance• The process of auditing the quality requirement and the result of quality control measurements to ensure appropriate quality standards and operational definitions are used. Tools & Inputs Outputs Techniques 1. Project management 1. Plan quality and 1. Organizational process plan Perform Quality Control updates 2. Quality metrics tools & techniques 2. Change requests 3. Work performance 2. Quality audits 3. Project management information 3. Process analysis plan updates 4. Quality control 4. Project document measurement updates
Quality Assurance Are we using the standard? Can we improve the standard?• Quality Audits ▫ To see if you are complying with company policies, standards & procedures ▫ Determine whether they are used efficiently & effectively ▫ Identify all the good practices being implemented ▫ Identify all the gaps/shortcomings ▫ Look for new lesson learned & good practices• Process Analysis ▫ Includes root cause analysis
8.3 Perform Quality Control• The process of monitoring and recording results of executing the quality activities to assess performance andInputs recommend necessary changes. Tools & Outputs Techniques 1. Project management 1. Cause and effect 1. Quality control plan diagrams measurements 2. Quality metrics 2. Control charts 2. Validated changes 3. Quality checklist 3. Flowcharting 3. Validated deliverables 4. Work performance 4. Histogram 4. Organizational process measurements 5. Pareto chart updates 5. Approved change 6. Run chart 5. Change requests requests 6. Project management 7. Scatter diagram 6. Deliverables 8. Statistical sampling plan updates 7. Organizational process 7. Project document 9. Inspection assets updates 10.Approved change request s reviews
Quality Control• Cause and Effect Diagram (Ishikawa Diagram or Fishbone Diagram) ▫ Helps stimulate thinking, organize thoughts, and generate discussion ▫ Can be use to explore the factors that will result in a desire future outcome• Histogram ▫ Showing how often a particular problem/situation occurred• Pareto Chart/Diagram (80/20 principle) ▫ Histogram ordered by frequency of occurrence which used to focus attention on the most critical issues ▫ 80% of the problems are due to 20% of the causes• Run Chart ▫ To look at history and see a pattern of variation• Scatter Diagram Regression analysis
Quality Control vs Quality Assurance• Cuando los miembros del equipo que presenten sus informes sobre la situación a usted como jefe de proyecto, evaluar la información y verificar su exactitud antes de incluirlo en su informe global de los resultados del proyecto. El acto de la validación de la información sería considerada como…….
Quality Control vs Quality Assurance• Al compilar toda la información del proyecto en el informe de ejecución del proyecto, evaluar los resultados actuales del proyecto contra el plan de gestión de proyectos, bases de referencia y objetivos. La evaluación de las desviaciones entre el plan y los datos reales se consideraría …………... Usted está determinando la necesidad de cualquier proceso o cambios en los procedimientos basados en las diferencias entre los requisitos documentados y los resultados reales del proyecto.
Costs of Conformance vs Costs of NonConformance• Cost of Conformance• The costs incurred while building in, or ensuring, quality are called the costs of conformance.• Costs of conformance can include activities such as process documentation, training, inspections, and audits. This is money spent to avoid failures.• These activities each consume resource hours and thus need to be included in your project schedule, resource assignments, and cost estimates.• Cost of Non-Conformance• However, if there is a choice made not to conduct quality activities, there is a potential for costs associated with any resulting problems. These costs are referred to as the costs of non-conformance. This is money spent because of failures.• Costs of non-conformance can include things such as payments made out on warranties, re-work or scrap, and/or damage to reputation.• It is easy to see that there is a potential correlation between the amount of money spent on conformance versus the cost implications of non- conformance.