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Digital memory and the archive

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Digital memory and the archive

  1. 1. Digital memory and the archive (Wolfgang Ernst) Aline Corso aline.corso@gmail.com Mestrado em Processos e Manifestações Culturais (FEEVALE) Disciplina de Linguagem e Memória em Mídias Digitais Prof.ª Dr.ª Sandra Portella Montardo
  2. 2. Contexto Embora formado em História e classicista, Ernst moveu-se para a mídia depois de se convencer que os referenciais teóricos e metodológicos em vigor nestas disciplinas (e as humanidades tradicionais em geral) não foram capazes de oferecer uma visão abrangente e dinâmica da mudança histórica. Para lidar com essas limitações, Ernst foi fortemente influenciado pelo filósofo Friedrich Kittler no desenvolvimento de uma abordagem radicalmente materialista para estudar história, memória e cultura. Digital Memory and the Archive coleciona ensaios dos últimos dez anos de sua pesquisa. KITTLER: "Media are not pseudopods for extending the human body. They follow the logic of escalation that leaves a written history behind it. (Kittler in Geschichte der Kommunikationsmedien. In: Jörg Huber, Alois Martin Müller (publishers): Raum und Verfahren.)
  3. 3. PART II
  4. 4. Underway to the dual system: classical archives and digital memory (p. 81 - 94)
  5. 5. Se desconsiderarmos o uso metafórico da palavra arquivo para todas as formas possíveis da memória e da memória cultural e usá-lo para especificar uma tecnologia de memória, a Internet não é um arquivo. No entanto, a Internet constitui um novo tipo de “transarquivo’”, já presente na concepção de Ted Nelson de hipertexto e hipermídia: um arquivo dinâmico e a essência do que é atualização permanente. A Internet: um arquivo ou sua metáfora?
  6. 6. ● Como digitalizar arte não digital? ● Sobre a arte digital: The digitization of mono–media art forms (analog video, for instance, or classical electronic music or tape) for archival purposes is one thing. Born-digital media art is another. How does dynamic art archive itself?
  7. 7. Arquivo na internet é sempre temporário; Reescrito permanente. Ex.: Wikipédia; Datas de validade (ref. ao livro DELETE); Internet = coleção ou montagem; The archive becomes a memory only at the moment of its standardization. The codes involved can be stored according to the rules of the archive. But the things actually realized on this basis can be only documented, not archived.
  8. 8. The archive is defined as a given, preselected quantity of documents evaluated according to their worth for being handed down. The Internet, on the other hand, is an aggregate of unpredictable texts, sounds, images, data, and programs.
  9. 9. O original é real, digitalização é apenas uma “imagem’’; Alteração do objeto original; Materialidade/imaterialidade; Mesmo valor? "Arquivos Digitais" como sujeito e objeto de uma nova memória e A (IM)aterialidade do digital Nam June Paik. Watchdog II, 1997.
  10. 10. Europeana A Europeana é uma biblioteca virtual desenvolvida pelos países da União Europeia. O protótipo contém em volta de dois milhões de itens digitais, todos eles em domínio público. Mais de 50% do conteúdo inicial foi fornecido pela França, 10% do Reino Unido, 1.4% da Espanha, e 1% da Alemanha. A plataforma da Europeana permite pesquisas por nome (atores, arquitetos, artistas, coreógrafos, compositores, maestros, bailarinos, cineastas, músicos, fotógrafos), por tipo de documento (títulos de livros, poemas, jornais, pinturas, fotografias, filmes ou programa de televisão), por localização dos registros (nomes de cidades ou países da Europa ou de outras partes do mundo), por datas e por frases. As pesquisas podem ser refinadas por tipo de mídia, língua, data, documentos com direitos autorais e por origem dos documentos. Cada documento é identificado por um ícone que representa imagem, texto, som e 3D. Uma ferramenta disponível é denominada Minha Europeana, um espaço para conservar as pesquisas pessoais para uso posterior e para marcar registros favoritos. Wikipédia
  11. 11. E se pesquisássemos Magritte na Europeana?????
  12. 12. Qual a necessidade de arquivar? O que é relevante para arquivar? Obsolência da obra? Em qual formato? Hardware X software; Facilmente deletável; Artemídia, por sua natureza, é transitória e não arquivável. Arquivando artemídia TESE: O efêmero tecnológico e a ausência da arte computacional nos acervos brasileiros. BOONE, Silvana (2013).
  13. 13. Archives in transition: dynamic media memories (p. 95 - 101)
  14. 14. Although the traditional function of the archive is to document an event that took place at one time and in one place, the emphasis in the digital archive shifts to regeneration, (co-)produced by online users for their own needs. Arqueologia da mídia; Memória está em permanente transição; Memória permanente X memória dinâmica; Arquivos digitais = feedback instantâneo. Ex.: streaming; Arquivos self-learning, adaptativos, metadating, flexíveis, Net-base information, transformação permanente e updating.
  15. 15. Seen from a media-archaeological perspective, transfer and storage are two sides of one coin: storage is a transfer across a temporal distance. The traditional separation between transmission media and storage media becomes obsolete.
  16. 16. Between real time and memory on demand: reflections on television. (p. 102 - 112)
  17. 17. Transmissões ao vivo (constantemente fornecer o inesperado); Não-lineares, mas seriais; Atemporal? Distorção do tempo? Delay? Narrativa de televisão? Estética da televisão (ex.: clipes da MTV e CNN); Zapping; Materialidade do meio; Amadores; Divisão de som e imagem na TV? Transmissão na TV X transmissão internet; Pay-per-view (efeito webcam na TV); Replay? Arquivos de programas de tv online; TV digital, conteúdo customizado;
  18. 18. We are made oblivious to the amnesia of TV in the enduring flow of transmission. Accordingly, much of contemporary media culture demands a turn away from privileging storage and toward an aesthetics of the permanent broadcast. Without any extant films, all early TV programs would be lost to our cultural memory. It was precisely the live character of the medium that excluded its memory at first.
  19. 19. Discontinuities: does the archive become metaphorical in Multimedia Space? (p. 113 - 140)
  20. 20. Arqueologia da Internet? Cody Darnell + print internet
  21. 21. Internet Archive é uma organização sem fins lucrativos dedicada a manter um arquivo de recursos multimídia. Ela foi fundada por Brewster Kahle em 1996 e se localiza em São Francisco, Califórnia. Tal arquivo inclui "retratos" da Web: cópias arquivadas de páginas da World Wide Web, com múltiplas cópias (tomadas em instantes diferentes) de cada página, mostrando assim a evolução da Web. O arquivo inclui também software, filmes, livros, e gravações de áudio (inclusive gravações de shows/concertos ao vivo de bandas que o permitem). O acervo pretende manter uma cópia digital desses materiais para consulta histórica Devido ao seu objetivo de preservar o conhecimento humano e disponibilizá-lo a todos, o Internet Archive já foi comparado à Biblioteca de Alexandria. Wikipédia Arqueologia da Internet?
  22. 22. Som e silêncio MANUSCRITO COMPUTADOR IMPRESSOS
  23. 23. The emergence of multimedia archives has confused the clear-cut distinction between the (stored) past and (the illusion of) the present and thus ismore than just an extension or remapping of well-know n archival practices. The archival phantasms in cyberspace are an ideological deflection of the sudden erasure of archives (both hardware and software) in the digital world. According to Jacques Derrida, “The twentieth century, the first in history to be exhaustively documented by audio-visual archives, found itself under the spell of what a contemporary philosopher has called ‘archive fever,’ a fever that, given the World Wide Web’s digital storage capacities, is not likely to cool any time soon.”
  24. 24. In the age of digitalizability, that is, when we have the option of storing all kind of information, a paradoxical phenomenon appears: cyberspace has no memory. Cyberspace is not even a space but rather a topological configuration. Em um arquivo, ex.: museu, nem tudo se arquiva. Como selecionar o que deve(ria) ser arquivado na internet? Quem faria isso? O que fazer com o “lixo’’

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