Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Nous utilisons votre profil LinkedIn et vos données d’activité pour vous proposer des publicités personnalisées et pertinentes. Vous pouvez changer vos préférences de publicités à tout moment.

Jozve amuzeshi standard

1 874 vues

Publié le

جزوه آموزشی استاندارد

Publié dans : Ingénierie
  • Soyez le premier à commenter

Jozve amuzeshi standard

  1. 1. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ١ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎي‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻛﺎرﺑﺮدي‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺎﻟﻬﺎي‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺮاه‬ASME،AWS,API ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻴﻪ‬‫ﮔﺮدآوري‬:‫ﺗﻘﻮي‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻮﭼﻬﺮ‬. ‫ﺗﻨﻈﻴﻢ‬:‫رﻓﻌﺖ‬ ‫ﭘﻮرﻳﺎ‬.
  2. 2. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ٢ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻘ‬‫ﺪﻣﻪ‬.........................................................................................................................................................٥ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎ‬..................................................................................................................................................٦ CODES & SPECIFICATIONS ■......................................................................................................................٦ RP (RECOMMENDED PRACTICE) ■..............................................................................................................٧ METHODS ■............................................................................................................................................٧ CODE CASES ■.........................................................................................................................................٧ INTERPRETATION ■..................................................................................................................................٧ GUIDES & RP ■.......................................................................................................................................٨ ERRATA ■...............................................................................................................................................٨ ‫و‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﺮا‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﺶ‬‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬.........................................................................................................................................٨ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓ‬‫ﻲ‬API‫و‬ASME‫و‬AWS‫و‬.......................................................................................................................٩ ١(‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫ﻣﻮرد‬ ‫در‬ASME........................................................................................................................١١ ☼‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ASME SEC VIII..................................................................................................................١١ 2(‫ﮔﺰ‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﺪه‬‫ا‬‫ي‬‫ﻛﺎرﺑﺮد‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫از‬‫ي‬‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ASME SEC VIII................................................................................١٣ ■‫ﻣﺤﺪود‬‫ة‬‫ﻛﺎرﺑﺮد‬ASME SEC VIII................................................................................................................١٣ ■‫ﺗﻐ‬‫ﻴﻴ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻓﺮم‬OUT-OF-ROUNDNESS‫در‬‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬...............................................................................................١٣ ■‫دﺳﺘﻪ‬‫ﺑﻨﺪ‬‫ي‬‫ﺧﻄﻮط‬‫ﺟﻮش‬‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬)WELDED JOINT CATEGORY(....................................................................١٤ ■‫ﻓ‬‫ﺎﺻﻠ‬‫ﺔ‬‫ﺧﻄﻮط‬‫ﺟﻮش‬‫در‬‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬................................................................................................................١٥ ■‫اﻧﻮاع‬‫اﺗﺼﺎﻻت‬‫ﺑﻪ‬‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬.........................................................................................................................١٦ ■SPIN HOLES.......................................................................................................................................١٧ ■PEENING...........................................................................................................................................١٩ 3(‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﺗﺼﺎل‬‫ي‬‫ﻏ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﻜﺴﺎن‬)UNEQUAL THICKNESSES(.......................................................................٢٠ ☼‫اﺗﺼﺎل‬‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ي‬‫ﻏ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﻜﺴﺎن‬‫در‬ASME SEC VIII DIV.1............................................................................٢٠ ☼‫اﺗﺼﺎل‬‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ي‬‫ﻏ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﻜﺴﺎن‬‫در‬API 620................................................................................................٢١ ☼‫اﺗﺼﺎل‬‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ي‬‫ﻏ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﻜﺴﺎن‬‫در‬ASME B31.3.........................................................................................٢٢ ☼‫اﺗﺼﺎل‬‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ي‬‫ﻏ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﻜﺴﺎن‬‫در‬ASME B16.47........................................................................................٢٤ 4(‫ﻣﺤﺪود‬‫ة‬QUALIFY‫ﻏ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﻜﺴﺎن‬‫در‬PQR........................................................................................٢٥ ۵(‫ﮔ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺮ‬‫ي‬‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬B31.3‫ﻛﻨﻮن‬ ‫ﺗﺎ‬ ‫آﻏﺎز‬ ‫از‬................................................................................................٢٦ ☼‫ﺧﻼﺻﻪ‬‫ا‬‫ي‬‫از‬ASME B31.3...................................................................................................................٢٧ 6(ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA‫ﻓ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻠﻤﻬﺎ‬‫ي‬‫راد‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﻮﮔﺮاﻓ‬‫ﻲ‬......................................................................................٢٩ ■ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA‫در‬‫ﻫﻤﻪ‬‫ﺳﺮو‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﺴﻬﺎ‬‫ﺑﻐ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺮ‬‫از‬HIGH PRESSURE.................................................................٢٩
  3. 3. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ٣ ■ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA‫در‬‫ﺳﺮو‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﺲ‬HIGH PRESSURE..................................................................................٣١ 7(WPS‫و‬WQT........................................................................................................................................٣٢ ☼WPS‫و‬WQT‫در‬ASME SEC VIII.........................................................................................................٣٢ ☼WPS‫و‬WQT‫در‬‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬‫ذﺧ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺮه‬‫ا‬‫ي‬‫ﺑﺮاﺳﺎس‬API 650 (2003)........................................................................٣٢ ☼WPS‫و‬WQT‫در‬API 620 (2004)...........................................................................................................٣٢ ☼WPS‫و‬WQT‫در‬API 1104 (1999).........................................................................................................٣٢ ☼WPS‫و‬WQT‫در‬B31.3........................................................................................................................٣٢ ■WPS‫و‬WQT‫ﺑﺮا‬‫ي‬‫ﺳﺮو‬ ‫اﻛﺜﺮ‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﺴﻬﺎ‬‫ﺑﻐ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺮاز‬‫ﺳﺮو‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﺲ‬Pressure Piping‫در‬B31.3..............................................٣٢ ■WPS‫و‬WQT‫ﺑﺮا‬‫ي‬‫ﺳﺮو‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﺲ‬Pressure Piping‫در‬B31.3..........................................................................٣٣ 8(‫از‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬WPS‫د‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﮕﺮان‬.........................................................................................................................٣٤ ■‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬‫از‬WPS‫د‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﮕﺮان‬‫ﺑﺮا‬‫ي‬‫ﻫﻤﻪ‬‫ﺳﺮو‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﺴﻬﺎ‬‫ﺑﺠﺰ‬PRESSURE PIPING...............................................................٣٤ ■‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬‫از‬WPS‫د‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﮕﺮان‬‫ﺑﺮا‬‫ي‬‫ﺳﺮو‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﺲ‬PRESSURE PIPING.............................................................................٣٤ 9(PREHEAT...........................................................................................................................................٣٥ ☼‫ﭘ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺶ‬‫ﮔﺮم‬‫در‬‫ﻣﺨﺎز‬‫ن‬‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬‫ﻓﺸﺎر‬..............................................................................................................٣٥ ☼‫ﭘ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺶ‬‫ﮔﺮم‬‫در‬PIPING.............................................................................................................................٣٨ ■‫ﺗﻐ‬‫ﻴﻴ‬‫ﺮ‬RECOMMENDATIONS‫ﺑﻪ‬REQUIREMENTS.............................................................................................٤٠ 10(PWHT (POST WELD HEAT TREATMENT).......................................................................................٤١ ☼PWHT‫ﺑﺮا‬‫ي‬‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬‫ﻓﺸﺎر‬..............................................................................................................٤١ ■HEATING RATE....................................................................................................................................٤٦ ■COOLING RATE...................................................................................................................................٤٦ ■‫ﺗﻌﻤ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺮات‬‫ﺟﻮش‬‫ﭘﺲ‬‫از‬PWHT....................................................................................................................٤٦ ■‫ﻣﺘﺪ‬TEMPER BEAD WELDING...............................................................................................................٤٧ ☼PWHT‫ﺑﺮا‬‫ي‬PIPING............................................................................................................................٤٩ 11(‫ﺿﺮﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺖ‬)CHARPY V-NOTCH(........................................................................................................٥١ ☼‫ﺗﺴﺖ‬‫ﺿﺮﺑﻪ‬‫در‬‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬‫ﺗ‬‫ﺤﺖ‬‫ﻓﺸﺎر‬ASME SEC VIII DIV. 1...........................................................................٥١ 1-‫اﺳﺘ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺑﻦ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻞ‬Carbon Steel Materials.................................................................................................۵٨ 2-‫اﺳﺘ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻨﻠﺲ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﻞ‬Stainless Steel Materials..........................................................................................۶٣ ☼‫ﻣﻌ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺎر‬‫ﭘﺬ‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﺮش‬‫ﺗﺴﺖ‬‫ﺿﺮﺑﻪ‬‫در‬PIPING:......................................................................................................٦٣ 12(UNIFORM NUMBERING SYSTEM (UNS)..........................................................................................٦٥ ١٣(‫ﺑﻨﺪ‬ ‫دﺳﺘﻪ‬‫ي‬‫ﻣﺘﺮ‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﺎل‬................................................................................................................................٦٥ 14(CONSUMABLE INSERT....................................................................................................................٦٩ 15(HIGH-LOW‫ﻣﺠﺎز‬ ِ.................................................................................................................................٧٠ ☼HIGH-LOWِ‫ﻣﺠﺎز‬‫در‬ASME SEC VIII DIV.1............................................................................................٧٠
  4. 4. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ٤ ☼HIGH-LOWِ‫ﻣﺠﺎز‬‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬‫در‬API 650......................................................................................................٧٠ ☼HIGH-LOWِ‫ﻣﺠﺎز‬‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬‫در‬API 620......................................................................................................٧٠ ☼HIGH-LOWِ‫ﻣﺠﺎز‬‫در‬PIPING‫در‬‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬B31.3.......................................................................................٧١ ☼HIGH-LOWِ‫ﻣﺠﺎز‬‫در‬PIPELINE‫در‬‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬API 1104...............................................................................٧٢ 16(REINFORCEMENT‫ﺟﻮش‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎز‬ ِ...........................................................................................................٧٣ ☼REINFORCEMENTِ‫ﻣﺠﺎز‬‫ﺟﻮش‬‫در‬‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬‫ﻓﺸﺎر‬..................................................................................٧٣ ☼REINFORCEMENTِ‫ﻣﺠﺎز‬‫ﺟﻮش‬‫در‬‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬API 620.....................................................................................٧٣ ☼REINFORCEMENTِ‫ﻣﺠﺎز‬‫ﺟﻮش‬‫در‬‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬API 650.....................................................................................٧٣ 17(‫ﻣﻌ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺎر‬U/C (UNDERCUT)‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎ‬ ‫در‬.................................................................................................٧٤ ☼‫ﻣﻌ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺎر‬U/C‫در‬‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬API..................................................................................................................٧٤ ☼U/C‫در‬ASME SEC VIII DIV.1.............................................................................................................٧٤ ☼U/C‫در‬‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ASME B31.3.............................................................................................................٧٥ 18(LEAK TEST.......................................................................................................................................٧٧ 19(JOINT EFFICIENCIES.......................................................................................................................٧٨ 20(‫ﺑﺮا‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺮط‬‫ي‬‫راد‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﻮﮔﺮاﻓ‬‫ﻲ‬‫ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬.........................................................................................................٧٩ 21(‫رو‬ ‫ﻧﺎزل‬‫ي‬‫ﺟﻮش‬ ‫ﺧﻂ‬...............................................................................................................................٨٠ ☼‫ﺑﺮﺧﻮرد‬‫ﻧﺎزل‬‫ﺑﺎ‬‫ﺧﻂ‬‫ﺟﻮش‬‫در‬‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬‫ﻓﺸﺎر‬‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬ASME SEC. VIII..........................................................٨٠ ☼‫ﺑﺮﺧﻮرد‬‫ﻧﺎزل‬‫ﺑﺎ‬‫ﺧﻂ‬‫ﺟﻮش‬‫در‬‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬‫ذﺧ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺮه‬‫ا‬‫ي‬‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬API 650........................................................................٨١ 22(‫راد‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﻮﮔﺮاﻓ‬‫ﻲ‬..........................................................................................................................................٨٢ ☼‫راد‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﻮﮔﺮاﻓ‬‫ﻲ‬‫در‬‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬‫ﻓﺸﺎر‬ASME SEC. VIII...................................................................................٨٢ ■‫راد‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﻮﮔﺮاﻓ‬‫ﻲ‬‫ﻧﺎزﻟﻬﺎ‬)Flanges(................................................................................................................٨۴ 23(‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬API 1104 (1999)...................................................................................................................٨٧ ■‫دﺳﺘﻪ‬‫ﺑﻨﺪ‬‫ي‬‫ﻣﺘﺮ‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﺎل‬...............................................................................................................................٨٧ ■‫وﺿﻌ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺖ‬‫ﺗﻌﻤ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺮات‬‫ﺟﻮش‬‫در‬‫ا‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﻦ‬‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬...................................................................................................٨٨ 23(‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬API 5L (2000).......................................................................................................................٩٠ ■PSL 1‫و‬PSL 2....................................................................................................................................٩٠ ■‫ﺗﻌﻤ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺮات‬‫ﺟﻮش‬....................................................................................................................................٩١ ■‫راد‬‫ﻳ‬‫ﻮﮔﺮاﻓ‬‫ﻲ‬.........................................................................................................................................٩٢ ■‫ﻣ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺰان‬‫ﻣﺠﺎز‬LAMINATION......................................................................................................................٩٤ ■‫ﺗﻠﺮاﻧﺴﻬﺎ‬‫ي‬‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬....................................................................................................................................٩٥ ■DENTS...............................................................................................................................................٩٦ ■‫ﻣ‬‫ﻴ‬‫ﺰان‬‫ﻣﺠﺎز‬UNDER CUT........................................................................................................................٩٦
  5. 5. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺴـــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــــﻢ‬‫اﻟﺮﺣﻴﻢ‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺣﻤﻦ‬ ‫اﷲ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﻄﻔ‬ ‫ﺪ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﻣﺤ‬ ،‫اﻧﺒﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺗﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫درود‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬‫ﺮش‬‫ﻬ‬‫ﻣﻄ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﭘﺎك‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻧﺪان‬ ‫و‬ ، ‫ﻲ‬ ‫ﺪ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﻣﺤ‬ ‫آل‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺪ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﻣﺤ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ‬ ‫ّﻲ‬‫ﻠ‬‫ﺻ‬ ‫ﻢ‬‫ّﻬ‬‫ﻠ‬‫اﻟ‬ ‫داﺷﺘﻢ‬ ‫دوﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻮد‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻟﻬﺎ‬‫ﻛ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻛﺎرﺑﺮدي‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ‬‫ﻣﺨـﺎزن‬ ‫ﺳـﺎﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﺻـﻨﻌﺖ‬ ‫در‬ ‫روزﻣـﺮه‬ ‫اﺳـﺘﻔﺎده‬ ‫ﻪ‬‫و‬Piping‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨـﻴﻦ‬ ‫و‬ Pipe Line‫ﺟﻤﻊ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺠﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫دارا‬ ‫را‬‫آوري‬‫ﺑﮕﺬ‬ ‫رﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺪان‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﻪ‬ ‫اﺧﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫در‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻢ‬‫زﻧـﺪﮔﻲ‬ ‫ﻣـﺸﻜﻼت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻛﺎري‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻐﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫وﻟﻲ‬ ‫ارم‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻴﺸﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﺮاﻫﻢ‬ ‫اﻣﻜﺎن‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬.‫آﻣﺪ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺶ‬ ‫ﻧﻜﺎت‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫آﻣﻮزش‬ ‫ﺑﺤﺚ‬ ‫اﻳﻨﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ‬.‫ﺗﻮاﻧﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫و‬‫را‬ ‫دﻳﺮﻳﻨﻪ‬ ‫آرزوي‬‫دﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﺠﺎم‬ ‫ا‬.‫ﻗﻠـﺐ‬ ‫ﺻﻤﻴﻢ‬ ‫از‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫واﻗﻌ‬ ‫ﭼﻮن‬ ، ‫ﺣﻤﺪاﷲ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫دﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻗﺮار‬ ‫ﻋﺰﻳﺰم‬ ‫ﻫﻤﻜﺎران‬ ‫اﺧﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫در‬ ‫را‬ ‫ﻛﺎرﻳﻢ‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ ‫اﻧﺪوﺧﺘﻪ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻴﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﺎ‬ ‫داﺷﺘﻢ‬ ‫دوﺳﺖ‬‫را‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺻﺖ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﻴﻖ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻴﻪ‬ ‫رﻓﻌﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻨﺪس‬ ‫آﻗﺎي‬ ‫ﺗﻼش‬ ‫و‬ ‫زﺣﻤﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوه‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫دوره‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ‬ ‫و‬ ‫دﻫﻢ‬ ‫اﻧﺠﺎم‬ ‫را‬ ‫ﻛﺎر‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺮدم‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺪا‬‫دارد‬ ‫ﺟﺎ‬ ‫ﺻﻤﻴﻤﺎ‬ ‫اﻳﺸﺎن‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬‫ﻓﺮﻣﻮدﻧـﺪ‬ ‫ﻣـﺴﺎﻋﺪت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻛﻤـﻚ‬ ‫ﺟـﺰوه‬ ‫اﻳـﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻴـﺔ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻣـﺮا‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﮔﺬاﺷﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫وﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻢ‬ ‫ﻗﺪرداﻧﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻜﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻪ‬.‫ﺑـﺴﻴﺎر‬ ‫اﻳـﺸﺎن‬ ‫از‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻓـﺸﺎر‬ ‫ﺗﺤـﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺨـﺎزن‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺖ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎي‬ ‫ﻛﺎرﺑﺮدي‬ ‫ﻣﻮارد‬ ‫از‬ ‫اي‬ ‫ﺧﻼﺻﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻮاﻧﺴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوه‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫اﻣﻴﺪوارم‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺳﭙﺎﺳﮕﺬارم‬Piping‫و‬ ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ‬Pipe line‫ﺑﺎﺷﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﺮده‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺪ‬ ‫را‬.‫اﻣـﺎ‬ ،‫اﺳـﺖ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوه‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎت‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻓﺮاﺗﺮ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﮔﺴﺘﺮده‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻴﺎر‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎت‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺮﭼﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﺪ‬ ‫در‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫آﺷﻨﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﺪف‬‫اﻧﺸﺎا‬...‫ﺑﺎﺷـﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻴـﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﺰﻳـﺰم‬ ‫ﺑﺮادران‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫ﺟﺰوه‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬.‫ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽـﻪ‬ ‫ﺿـﻤﻦ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻋﺰﻳﺰ‬ ‫ﺑﺮادران‬‫ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎس‬ ‫ﺷﻤﺎرﻩ‬ ‫داﺷﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎدي‬٠٩١۶۶١٧۴٢١٨‫ﻣﻴﺸﻮم‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺷﺤﺎل‬ ‫ﺁﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎس‬ ‫از‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬. ‫ﻣ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﺎﺗﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺪ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﻣﺤ‬ ‫آل‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺪ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﻣﺤ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻴﺎي‬ ‫اﺟﻌﻞ‬ ‫ّﻬﻢ‬‫ﻠ‬‫اﻟ‬‫ﺪ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﻣﺤ‬ ‫آل‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺪ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﻣﺤ‬ ‫ﻤﺎت‬.‫ارزﻗﻨﻲ‬ ‫ّﻠﻬﻢ‬‫ﻟ‬‫ا‬ ‫ﺷﻔﺎﻋ‬‫ﺔ‬‫اﻟﺤﺴﻴﻦ‬‫ﻣﻊ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪك‬ ‫ﺻﺪق‬ ‫ﻗﺪم‬ ‫ﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺖ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺛ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻟﻮرود‬ ‫ﻳﻮم‬‫اﻟﺤﺴﻴﻦ‬‫اﺻﺤﺎب‬ ‫و‬‫اﻟﺤﺴﻴﻦ‬ )‫اﻟﺴﻼم‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬( ‫روزاﻓﺰون‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻓﻴﻖ‬ ‫آرزوي‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬‫ﺷﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﭼﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﺮادر‬‫ا‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻮي‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻮﭼﻬﺮ‬. ‫اردﻳﺒﻬﺸﺖ‬1387. ٥
  6. 6. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫اﺳﺘ‬‫ﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎ‬‫آزﻣﺎﻳﺸﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫روﺷﻬﺎي‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺐ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ،‫ﺳﺎﺧﺖ‬ ، ‫ﻃﺮاﺣﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﺟﺮاﻳﻲ‬ ‫دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻠﻬﺎي‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻗﻮاﻧﻴﻦ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ ‫زﻣﻴﻨﻪ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫روﺷﻬﺎي‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎد‬ ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ‬ ‫و‬. ‫ﻛﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﻮر‬‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫زﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻮارد‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎ‬: Standards ٦ Codes Specifications RP Guides Methods Code Cases Interpretation Errata ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬AWS CC-RM D1.1‫ﺷﻤﺎره‬ ‫ﺟﺪول‬ ‫در‬1،‫ﺗﻌﺎرﻳﻒ‬Code‫و‬Standard‫و‬Specification‫و‬Guide‫ﺷﺮح‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫آﻣﺪه‬ ‫ذﻳﻞ‬: A Code is "a body of lows"; as of a nation, state or industry group; arranged systematically for ease of use and reference; Example included AWS D1.1, API 1104, ASME Sec VIII, MIL Spec 248D. ‫ﻛﺪ‬،‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻗﻮاﻧﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻧﺔ‬ ‫واﻗﻊ‬ ‫در‬‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺪي‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﺎﺗﻴﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﻮر‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﺗﺴﻬﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺖ‬. A Standard is "established for use as a 'rule' or basis of comparison in measuring quality, quantity, content, relative value, etc. " ASTM Standards for various products such as ASTM A36 for weldable structural steels, is an example. ‫ﻣﻘﺪار‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺖ‬ ،‫ﻣﺤﺘﻮي‬ ،‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ‬ ،‫ﻛﻤﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺮﻳﻬﺎي‬ ‫اﻧﺪازه‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺖ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫اﺳﺎﺳﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻧﻮن‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬. A Specification is "a detailed description of parts of a whole; a statement or enumeration of particulars as to actual or required quality, size, etc." AWS Filler Metal Specifications A5.1 through A5.31 are examples. Specification‫ﺷﻤﺎره‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺶ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺟﺰﺋﻴﺎت‬ ‫ﺷﺮح‬‫ﻋﻨﺎﺻﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺪي‬‫واﻗﻌﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ‬ ‫اﺳﺎس‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎز‬ ‫ﻣﻮرد‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬.‫ﻣﺜﺎل‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻨﻮان‬ AWS A5.1 – A5.31‫ﭘﺮدازد‬ ‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻠﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺎن‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬. A Guide (Self-explanatory) is a document of the same class; AWS B1.11 Guide for the Visual Examination of Welds, is an example. Guide‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ‬ ‫ردة‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻣﺪرﻛﻲ‬ ،.‫ﻣﺜﺎل‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻨﻮان‬AWS B1.11 Guide‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺟﻮش‬ ‫ﭼﺸﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎزرﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮط‬. Codes & Specifications ■ ÷ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬1:‫و‬ ‫ﻛﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬Specification‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬AWS WHB 5 CH-6
  7. 7. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ Specification‫و‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬Code‫ﻫﺎ‬‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺸﻬﺎي‬‫ﻫﺎي‬ ‫واژه‬ ‫از‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬Shall‫و‬Will‫از‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬ ‫ﺑﻮدن‬ ‫اﺟﺒﺎري‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮﻳﺎل‬‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬‫ﺧﺎﺻ‬‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺎن‬ ‫را‬ ‫ﻲ‬.‫ﺗﻔﺎوت‬Code‫و‬Specification‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫اﻳﻨﺴﺖ‬‫از‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬Codes‫در‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫اﺟﺒﺎري‬ ،‫ﻣﻘﺮرات‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫از‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﻜﻪ‬Specification‫اﺷﺎرة‬ ‫درﺻﻮرت‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻬﺎ‬Codes‫ﻣﻴﺎﺑـ‬ ‫ﺿـﺮورت‬ ‫ﭘـﺮوژه‬ ‫ﻣﺪارك‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬‫ﺪ‬.‫از‬ ‫اﺳـﺘﻔﺎده‬Specification‫ﻫـﺮ‬ ‫ﺑـﺮ‬ ‫دارد‬ ‫اوﻟﻮﻳﺖ‬ ‫دﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺟﻊ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬. RP (Recommended Practice) ■ ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫ﺧﻮد‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎدي‬ ‫روﺷﻬﺎي‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺶ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬.‫ﻣﺜﺎل‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻮان‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬(GTAW)AWS– RP C5.5‫ﺧـﻮد‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎدي‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫روش‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬‫روش‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎري‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬GTAW.‫ﭘﻴﺸ‬ ‫روش‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫ﻨﻬﺎدي‬AWS‫اﻳـﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺣـﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎم‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﺻﻮرت‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫داده‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ‬ ‫روش‬.‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫رﺟﻮع‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫داده‬ ‫اراﺋﻪ‬ ‫را‬ ‫ﻻزم‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎدات‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎم‬ ‫در‬ ‫و‬RP‫ﺗﻬﻴﻪ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺘﻮان‬WPS‫اﻧﺠـﺎم‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻛﺮد‬ ‫درﻳﺎﻓﺖ‬ ‫را‬ ‫ﻻزم‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻜﻬﺎي‬ ‫ﺟﻮش‬ ‫روش‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻮد‬. Methods ■ ‫ﻣﺜﺎل‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻮان‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ASTM‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮ‬‫ﻋﻪ‬‫روي‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺘﻬﺎي‬ ‫از‬ ‫اي‬Material‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫داده‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ‬ ‫را‬ ‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫اﻧﺠﺎم‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬. Code Cases ■ Code Case‫ﺑـﺼﻮرت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻴـﺸﻮد‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺰﻳﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﻮاﻧﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺮرات‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻗﻮاﻧﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﺎزي‬ ‫ﺷﻔﺎف‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻮاب‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺳﻮال‬.‫ﺑﻬﺘﺮ‬ ‫درك‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬Code Case‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪا‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬‫رد‬ASME Sec VIII Div.1App.16-1 (b)‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬. ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬2:‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬Code Cases‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬ASME Sec VIII Div.1App.16-1 (b) Interpretation ■ ‫ﺳﻮاﻻت‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫آﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺶ‬ ‫ﺳﻮاﻻﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺮي‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫ﻛﺎر‬ ‫اﺟﺮاي‬ ‫ﺣﻴﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺪه‬ ‫ﻟﺤﺎظ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﺷﻔﺎف‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻮرت‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺗﻲ‬‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﭘﺮﺳﻴﺪه‬‫ﻣﻲ‬‫ﺷﻮد‬.‫ﻗﺒﻴﻞ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬‫ﺳﻮاﻻت‬‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺪه‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺎن‬ ‫وﺿﻮح‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫ﺧﻮد‬ ‫در‬.‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻨﺎد‬Interpretation‫ﺧﻮد‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻨﺎد‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬. ‫ﻣﺜ‬‫ﺎل‬1:‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫در‬ASME B31.1‫ﺧﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫اﻣﻜﺎﻧﭙﺬﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻳﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺪه‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺻﺮاﺣﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬.‫از‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺘﻮان‬ ‫آﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻮال‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬‫درﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬‫زاﻧﻮي‬ ‫ﻛﺮدن‬‫ﻣﺎﻳﺘﺮ‬‫ﻛﺮد‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬‫ﺑﺨﺶ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﺧﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬Interpretation B31.1‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﭘﺮﺳﻴﺪه‬. ٧ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬3:ASME B31.1 Interpretation
  8. 8. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ Guides & RP ■ Guide‫و‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬RP‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻜﻬﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻮان‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﻣﺎﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﻮر‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫واﻓﻊ‬ ‫در‬ ، ‫ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎدي‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫روﺷﻬﺎي‬ ‫و‬ ‫راﻫﻨﻤﺎﻳﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎد‬‫اﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎد‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪه‬ ‫ه‬.‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺎﺗﻲ‬ ‫ار‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎدي‬ ‫روﺷﻬﺎي‬ ‫و‬ ‫راﻫﻨﻤﺎﻳﻴﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫در‬Should‫و‬May‫ﻣﻴﺸﻮد‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬.‫ﻫﺪف‬ Guide‫دادن‬ ‫آﻣﻮزش‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬Code‫ﻧﮕﺎه‬ ‫ﻛﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎز‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﺶ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪ‬ ‫رﻋﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫را‬ ‫ﻛﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺮرات‬ ‫ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﭼﻄﻮر‬ ‫ﺑﺪاﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪه‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬ ‫ﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪ‬.ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻟﻄﻘ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺘﺮ‬ ‫درك‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬AWS WHB 5 CH.6‫ﺑﺨﺶ‬Definition‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬: ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬4:‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬Guide‫و‬RP‫در‬AWS WHB 5 CH.6 Errata ■ ‫و‬ ‫ﭼﻚ‬ ‫ﭼﺎﭘﻲ‬ ‫ﻏﻠﻄﻬﺎي‬ ‫ﻟﺤﺎظ‬ ‫از‬ ‫را‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﭼﺎپ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ً‫ا‬‫ﻣﺠﺪد‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮط‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻴﺘﺔ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردي‬ ‫ﻫﺮ‬ ‫وﻳﺮاﻳﺶ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﭼﺎپ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﭘﺲ‬ ‫ﻏﻠ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫در‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻜﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ‬‫ﻣﻴﻜﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺸﺮ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﭼﺎپ‬ ‫ﻏﻠﻄﻨﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻮان‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫اﺻﻼح‬ ‫ﺿﻤﻦ‬ ‫را‬ ‫ﭼﺎﭘﻲ‬ ‫ﻄﻬﺎي‬.‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫اﻧﺘﺸﺎر‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﭼﺎپ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﭘﺲ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﺎن‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬ ‫ﻣﻮرد‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫اﺻﻼح‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﻏﻠﻄﻨﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫درﻳﺎﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺾ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺰم‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻃﻪ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪه‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬ ، ‫ﻏﻠﻄﻨﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻗﺪام‬ ‫وﻗﺖ‬ ‫اﺳﺮع‬ ‫در‬. ‫در‬ ‫دﺳﺘﻮرات‬ ‫اﻧﻮاع‬ASME 1.Mandatory:‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻻﺟﺮا‬ ‫ﻻزم‬ ‫دﺳﺘﻮرات‬ ‫اﻳﻨﮕﻮﻧﻪ‬ 2.Nonmandatory:‫دارﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎدي‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫دﺳﺘﻮراﺗﻴﺴﺖ‬. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫وﻳﺮاﻳﺶ‬ ASME Codes‫ﺳﺎل‬ ‫ﻫﺮ‬ ،‫ﻣﻴﺸﻮد‬ ‫وﻳﺮاﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺒﺎر‬ ‫ﺳﺎل‬ ‫ﺳﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺮ‬Addenda‫از‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫و‬ ،‫ﺧﻮرد‬ ‫ﻣﻲ‬6‫ﻣﺎه‬‫آن‬ ‫از‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬ ،‫ﭼﺎپ‬ ‫ﺗﺎرﻳﺦ‬ ‫از‬ Mandatory‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﻲ‬.‫اﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎي‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬Errata‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫اﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ،‫درﻳﺎﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺾ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬. API‫ﻫﺮ‬5‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﭼﺎپ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺒﺎر‬ ،‫ﺳﺎل‬. ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬5:API 510 Special Note ٨
  9. 9. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻲ‬API‫و‬ASME‫و‬AWS‫و‬... ‫در‬AWS WHB-5 CH-6‫اﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ذﻛﺮ‬ ، ‫اﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﭘﺮداﺧﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫آﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻮرد‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎي‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺸﻬﺎﻳﻲ‬. ‫ﺷ‬‫ﻜﻞ‬6:AWS WHB-5 CH-6 API - API Std. 620: (15 psi) ‫ﻓﺸﺎر‬ ‫ﻛﻢ‬ ‫اي‬ ‫ذﺧﻴﺮه‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺖ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ - API Std. 650: ‫اﺗﻤﺴﻔﺮي‬ ‫اي‬ ‫ذﺧﻴﺮه‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺖ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ - API Std. 653: ‫اي‬ ‫ذﺧﻴﺮه‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ - API Std. 510: ‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺮوﻳﺲ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﺸﺎري‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ‫وﻧﮕﻬﺪاري‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ - API Std. 570: ‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺮوﻳﺲ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎي‬ ‫وﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎزرﺳﻲ‬ - API Spec. 5L: ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺖ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ - API Std. 1104: ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻮط‬ - API RP 1107: ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻮط‬ ‫وﻧﮕﻬﺪاري‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ‬ - API RP 1110: ‫ﻧﻔﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻮط‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺪروﺗﺴﺖ‬ AWS - AWS A2.4: ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎري‬ ‫ﻋﻼﺋﻢ‬ - AWS A3.3: ‫اﺻﻄﻼﺣﺎت‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎرﻳﻒ‬‫ﺟﻮش‬ - AWS D3.0: ‫آب‬ ‫زﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎري‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺤﺎت‬ - AWS A5.1-A5.31: ‫ﻓﻴﻠﺮ‬ ‫درﺑﺎره‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺤﺎت‬ ٩
  10. 10. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ١٠ - AWS (WHB-1) – (WHB-5): ‫ﻏﻴﺮه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎري‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫روﺷﻬﺎي‬ ‫درﺑﺎرة‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺤﺎت‬ - AWS D1.1: ‫ﻓﻠﺰي‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ ‫ﺳﺎزه‬ - AWS D1.2: ‫آﻟﻮﻣﻴﻨﻴﻮﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ ‫ﺳﺎزه‬ - AWS D1.5: ‫ﭘﻠﻬﺎ‬ ASME - ASME Sec. II Part A: ‫آﻫﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮﻳﺎل‬ - ASME Sec. II Part B: ‫آﻫﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮﻳﺎل‬ - ASME Sec. II Part C: ‫ﻓﻴﻠﺮ‬ - ASME Sec. II Part D: ‫ﻣﻮاد‬ ‫ﺧﻮاص‬ - ASME Sec. VIII : ‫ﻓﺸﺎر‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺖ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻃﺮاﺣﻲ‬ - ASME Sec. IX : ‫ﻛﺎري‬ ‫ﻟﺤﻴﻢ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎري‬ ‫ﻗﻮاﻧﻴﻦ‬ - ASME B31.3: ‫ﺻﻨﻌﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎي‬ - ASME B36.10M: ‫ﻛﺮﺑﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫اﺑﻌﺎدي‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت‬‫اﺳﺘﻴﻞ‬ - ASME B36.19M: ‫اﺳﺘﻴﻞ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻨﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫اﺑﻌﺎدي‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت‬ - ASME B16.5: ‫ﺳﺎﻳﺰ‬ ‫از‬ ‫اﺗﺼﺎﻻت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻨﺞ‬ ‫اﺑﻌﺎدي‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت‬2/1‫ﺗﺎ‬24‫اﻳﻨﭻ‬ - ASME B16.47: ‫ﺳﺎﻳﺰ‬ ‫از‬ ‫اﺗﺼﺎﻻت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﻨﺞ‬ ‫اﺑﻌﺎدي‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎت‬26‫ﺗﺎ‬60‫اﻳﻨﭻ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺟﻊ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﺖ‬ ‫دﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎي‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺧﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻀﻲ‬‫دارﻧﺪ‬.‫ذﻳﻞ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎي‬ ‫ﻣﺜﻞ‬: - ASME Sec. II (Material) - ASME Sec. V (NDT) - ASME Sec. IX (Welding and Brazing) - ASTM (Material and Methods)
  11. 11. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ١١ ١(‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫ﻣﻮرد‬ ‫در‬ASME ‫آﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ‬ ‫داﺧﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﻨﮓ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬)Civil War(‫ﻣﺪت‬ ‫در‬10‫ﺳﺎل‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺳﺎل‬1895‫ﺗﺎ‬1905‫ﺗﻌﺪاد‬3612‫ﻣﻨ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﻳﻠﺮ‬‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻔﺠﺮ‬.‫روز‬ ‫ﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻧﮕﻴﻦ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻲ‬.‫ﺣﺪود‬ ‫و‬7600‫ﺷﺪﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺘﻪ‬ ‫اﻧﻔﺠﺎرات‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫اﺛﺮ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻣﺪت‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺮ‬. ‫ﺳﺎل‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺳﺎﭼﻮﺳﺖ‬ ‫اﻳﺎﻟﺖ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﺑﻮﻳﻠﺮ‬ ‫ﻃﺮاﺣﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮط‬ ‫ﻗﻮاﻧﻴﻦ‬ ‫اوﻟﻴﻦ‬1907‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﺷﺘﻪ‬.‫ﻻزم‬ ‫ﻗﻮاﻧﻴﻦ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫آﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ‬ ‫اﻳﺎﻻت‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﺑﺎر‬ ‫اوﻟﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫اﻻﺟﺮا‬. ،‫ﻃﺮاﺣﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫اﻳﺠﺎد‬ ‫ﻓﺸﺎر‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺎر‬ ‫ﺑﻮﻳﻠﺮﻫﺎي‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺑﺮداري‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺮه‬ ،‫ﺳﺎﺧﺖ‬.‫اوﻟﻴﻦ‬Section‫آن‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻨﻲ‬Section I (Power Boiler)‫در‬15‫ﺳﺎل‬ ‫ﻓﻮرﻳﻪ‬1915‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫اراﺋﻪ‬ ‫اﻧﺠﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﻳﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬.‫و‬Section‫ﺳﺎﻟﻬﺎي‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺑﻘﻲ‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ Section III – Locomotive Boilers 1921 Section IV – Miniature Boilers 1922 Section VI – Heating Boilers 1923 Section II – Material 1924 Section VIII – Unfired Pressure Vessels 1925 Section VII – Care and use of Boilers 1926 ☼‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪا‬‫رد‬ASME Sec VIII ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ASME Sec VIII‫ﺳﻪ‬ ‫در‬Division‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﭼﺎپ‬: • Sec VIII Div 1 : For up to 3000 psi • Sec VIII Div 2 : For up to 10000 psi • Sec VIII Div 3 : For upper than 10000 psi (High Pressure Vessel) ‫اﺳـﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ASME Sec. VIII Div.1‫ﺷـﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻛـﻪ‬ ‫اﺳـﺖ‬ ‫ﻓـﺸﺎر‬ ‫ﺗﺤـﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺨـﺎزن‬ ‫ﻃﺮاﺣـﻲ‬ ‫ﺑـﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺑـﻮط‬3‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋـﻪ‬ ‫زﻳـﺮ‬2‫از‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋـﻪ‬ Appendix‫ﻫﺎﺳﺖ‬.Appendix‫ﻫﺎي‬Mandatory‫ﺑﺎ‬‫ﺷﻤﺎر‬‫ه‬‫و‬Appendix‫ﻫﺎي‬Nonmandatory‫ﺑﻨـﺪي‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻘـﻪ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺒـﺎ‬ ‫ﺣـﺮوف‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫اﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬. ،‫ﻣﺜﺎل‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻮان‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬Appendix 10‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴـﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘـﺮل‬ ‫روﻧـﺪ‬ ‫درﻣﻮرد‬(Q.C. Plan)‫و‬Appendix 16‫از‬ ‫ﺳـﻮال‬ ‫ﭘﺮﺳـﻴﺪن‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻘـﺔ‬ ‫ﻣـﻮرد‬ ‫در‬ ASME‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺪﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻗﺮار‬ ‫اﺧﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫در‬ ‫را‬ ‫ﻻزم‬ ‫اﻃﻼﻋﺎت‬Appendix R‫ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎد‬ ‫دﻣﺎي‬ ‫ﻣﻮرد‬ ‫در‬‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﮔﺮم‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺶ‬ ‫ي‬. ‫ﻋﻨﻮان‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫زﻳﺮﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ‬Subsection A،Subsection B،Subsection C‫اﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻣﮕﺬاري‬: :Subsection A‫ﭘﺎرت‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻞ‬UG‫و‬ ‫ﻻزم‬ ‫ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬‫اﺟﺮاﻳﻲ‬‫ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫دارا‬ ‫را‬ ‫ﻓﺸﺎر‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬. :Subsection B‫ﭘﺎرﺗﻬﺎي‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫زﻳﺮﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬UW،UF،UB‫اﺳﺖ‬‫ﺧﺎص‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻻزم‬ ‫ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬‫اﺟﺮاﻳﻲ‬‫ﻣ‬ ‫روﺷﻬﺎي‬‫ﺳـﺎﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﺨﺘﻠـﻒ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎري‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﺸﺎر‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬(UW)‫ﻛﺎري‬ ‫ﻟﺤﻴﻢ‬ ،(UB)‫رﻳﺨﺘﮕﺮي‬ ‫و‬(UF)‫ﻣﻴﺸﻮد‬. Subsection C:‫ﺷـﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫زﻳﺮﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋـﻪ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬UNF, UHA, UCI, UCL, UCD, UHT, ULW, and ULTUCS,‫اﺳـﺖ‬.‫اﻳـﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻻزم‬ ‫ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫داراي‬ ‫زﻳﺮﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ‬‫ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﺸﺎر‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺖ‬ ‫در‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻛﻼﺳﻬﺎي‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻣﻮاد‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫اﺟﺮاﻳﻲ‬. ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫وﺿﻌﻴﺖ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫اﻃﻼﻋﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬3‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫زﻳﺮﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ‬Para. U-1(b)‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫در‬ASME Sec. VIII Div.1‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬.
  12. 12. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ■‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎﻳﻲ‬‫ﺟﺪول‬ ‫در‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺟﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻨﻮان‬U-3‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫آﻣﺪه‬. ١٢ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬7:‫ﻣﺮﺟﻊ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎي‬ASME Sec.VIII
  13. 13. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ 2(‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫ﻛﺎرﺑﺮدي‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫از‬ ‫اي‬ ‫ﮔﺰﻳﺪه‬ASME Sec VIII ■‫ﻛﺎرﺑﺮد‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪودة‬ASME Sec VIII ‫ﻛﺎرﺑﺮد‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪودة‬ASME Sec VIII‫ﭘﺎراﮔﺮاف‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬U-1(e)‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫زﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻗﺮار‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬: ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬8:‫ﻛﺎرﺑﺮد‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪودة‬ASME Sec VIII ■‫ﻓﺮم‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬Out-of-Roundness‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬ASME Sec VIII Div.1 UG-80.2‫از‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪار‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫اﺧﺘﻼف‬0,01‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫اﺳﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬. ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬9:‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎز‬ ‫ﻓﺮم‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬80GU,1.DivASME Sec VIII ١٣
  14. 14. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ■‫ﺑﻨﺪ‬ ‫دﺳﺘﻪ‬‫ي‬‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ‫ﺟﻮش‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻮط‬)Welded Joint Category( ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬10:‫در‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ‫ﺟﻮش‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺪي‬ ‫دﺳﺘﻪ‬ASME Sec VIII Div.1, UW-3 Category A: ‫ﻋﺮﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻬﺎي‬ ‫ﺧﻂ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ‬ Category B:‫ﻣﺤﻴﻄﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻬﺎي‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﮔﺮ‬Head،Hemispherical‫اﺗﺼﺎل‬ ، ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬Head‫ﻧﻮع‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺰن‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬A‫ﺑﻮد‬ ‫ﺧﻮاﻫﺪ‬ Category C: ‫ﻓﻠﻨﺞ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ Neck‫اﺗﺼﺎل‬ Category D: ‫اﺗﺼﺎﻻت‬‫ﻣﺨﺰن‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻜﺘﻪ‬:‫ﻧﺼﻒ‬ ،‫ﻛﺮوي‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ؛‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺎت‬ ‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎم‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫اﻳﻨﺴﺖ‬ ‫اي‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻮاﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻛﺮوي‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻗﻬﺎي‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻲ‬‫ﻣﻮرد‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫اي‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻮاﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎز‬: ١٤ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬11:‫در‬ ‫ﻓﺸﺎر‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ‫ﭘﻮﺳﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ASME Sec VIII Div.1 , UG-27
  15. 15. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ■‫ﻓﺎﺻﻠﺔ‬‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﺟﻮش‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻮط‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﻮش‬ ‫ﺧﻂ‬ ‫دو‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ‬ ،‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺪاﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫رادﻳﻮﮔﺮاﻓﻲ‬ ‫درﺻﻮرﺗﻴﻜﻪ‬ ،‫اﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻮرس‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎزﻧﻲ‬ ‫در‬ 5×Thickness‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬.‫ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎز‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ،‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫رادﻳﻮﮔﺮاﻓﻲ‬ ‫زﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﭘﺎراﮔﺮاف‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻮل‬ ‫رادﻳﻮﮔﺮاﻓﻲ‬ ‫درﺻﻮرﺗﻴﻜﻪ‬. ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬21:‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻬﺎي‬ ‫ﺧﻂ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺻﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ‬9UW,1.DivASME Sec VIII ‫ﺳﺮد‬ ‫ﺳﺮوﻳﺴﻬﺎي‬ ‫ﺟﻮش‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻮط‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎز‬ ‫ﺿﺮﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﺻﻮرﺗﻴﻜﻪ‬ ‫در‬)‫ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ‬ ‫دﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺮوﻳﺴﻬﺎي‬ ‫در‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻋﻤﻮﻣ‬(‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬ULT-17(b)‫ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﺮﺿﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﻮش‬ ‫ﺧﻂ‬ ‫دو‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ‬5t ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻮل‬ ‫رادﻳﻮﮔﺮاﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﮔﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻲ‬ ،‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬. ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬31:‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ‬ ‫دﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺮوﻳﺴﻬﺎي‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﻮش‬ ‫ﺧﻂ‬ ‫دو‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺻﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ‬17ULT,1.DivASME Sec VIII ١٥
  16. 16. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ■‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫اﺗﺼﺎﻻت‬ ‫اﻧﻮاع‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺶ‬ ‫در‬UW 16‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫داده‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ‬ ‫اﺗﺼﺎﻻت‬ ‫ﺟﻮش‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻧﺎزﻟﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎز‬ ‫اﺗﺼﺎﻻت‬ ‫اﻧﻮاع‬. ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬14:‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ‫اﺗﺼﺎﻻت‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻮل‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫اﺗﺼﺎﻻت‬ ‫اﻧﻮاع‬UW-16 ١٦
  17. 17. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ■Spin Holes ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺖ‬ ‫در‬Head‫ﻣﻴﻜﻨﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻳﺠﺎد‬ ‫آن‬ ‫وﺳﻂ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﺳﻮراﺧﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ َِ.‫ﻟﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻳﻨﻮﺳﻴﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﭼﺮﺧﺎﻧﻨﺪه‬ ‫دﺳﺘﮕﺎه‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﻮر‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﻮراخ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬Head‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫داده‬ ‫ﻓﺮم‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺰن‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫اﺗﺼﺎل‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺖ‬.‫در‬UW-34‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫داده‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ‬ ‫ﺳﻮراخ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎري‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻮة‬ ‫درﺑﺎرة‬.‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻼوه‬ ‫ﻣﻄ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺤﺎت‬‫ﺑﻮﺳﻴﻠﺔ‬ ‫آن‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻛﺮدن‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺘﻮان‬ ‫زﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺎﺑﻖ‬Weld Metal‫داﺧﻞ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﺳﻮراخ‬ ‫زﻳﺮ‬ ‫در‬Head‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫از‬Base Plate‫ﻣﺘﺮﻳﺎل‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺠﻨﺲ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬Head‫ﻛﺮد‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺒﺎﺷﺪ‬. ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬15:‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰي‬ ‫ﺳﻮراخ‬ ‫ﻛﺮدن‬ ‫ﭘﺮ‬ ‫روﻧﺪ‬Head‫ﻣﺨﺰن‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬16:‫دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬Spin Holes ١٧
  18. 18. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ‫ﻧﻜﺘﻪ‬:Head‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ِ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫داده‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ‬ ‫زﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫در‬ ‫آن‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺪاول‬ ‫اﻧﻮاع‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﻲ‬ ‫اﺷﻜﺎل‬: ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬17:‫ﻣﺘﺪاول‬ ‫اﻧﻮاع‬Head‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺎﺳﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬Head‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬UG-32‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬. ١٨
  19. 19. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ■Peening ‫ﭘﺎراﮔﺮاف‬ ‫در‬UW-39‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫راﺑﻄﻪ‬ ‫در‬Peening‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫داده‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴﺢ‬. Peening‫ﭼﻴﺴﺖ؟‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬UW-39‫ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﮔﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮل‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬)Distortion(‫ﭘﺴﻤﺎﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺸﻬﺎي‬ ‫ﻛﺮدن‬ ‫آزاد‬ ‫و‬)Relieve Residual Stress(‫از‬Peening ‫ﻣﻴﺸﻮد‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬.‫ﻣﻴﺸﻮد‬ ‫وارد‬ ‫ﺟﻮش‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮل‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫آﻫﺴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﺑﺎت‬ ‫درواﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬.‫ﺑﻮﺳﻴﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻗﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫دﺳﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺘﻮاﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﺑﺎت‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫اﻧﺠﺎم‬ ‫ﺑﺎدي‬ ‫اﺑﺰارﻫﺎي‬.‫دروا‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬‫ﻣﻴﺸﻮد‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬ ‫ﺟﻮش‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬ ‫ﺳﺮﺑﺎره‬ ‫ﺟﺪاﻛﺮدن‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫ﻗﻊ‬.‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﭘﺎس‬ ‫در‬ ‫روش‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫از‬(Root Pass)‫ﭘﺎس‬ ‫و‬ ‫آﺧﺮ‬(Final Pass)‫ﺟﻮش‬ ‫آن‬ ‫ﻣﮕﺮاﻳﻨﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻴﺸﻮد‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬PWHT‫ﺷﻮد‬.‫ﻋﻨﻮان‬ ‫ﻫﻴﭻ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫داﺷﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬Peening‫ﺟﺎﻳﮕﺬﻳﻦ‬PWHT ‫ﻧﻤﻴﺸﻮد‬. ١٩ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬18:Peening‫ﻓﺸﺎر‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ‫ﺟﻮش‬ ‫در‬
  20. 20. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ 3(‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﺗﺼﺎل‬‫ﻳﻜﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫ي‬)Unequal Thicknesses( ☼‫در‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺘﻬﺎي‬ ‫اﺗﺼﺎل‬ASME Sec VIII Div.1 ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫در‬ASME Sec VIII Div.1‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬Fig. UW-9‫ﻧﺴﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫اﺧﺘﻼف‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪار‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬3/1‫ﺳﺎزي‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻪ‬)Taper(‫ﺷﻮد‬. ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬19:‫ﻧﺎﺑﺮاﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺘﻬﺎي‬ ‫اﺗﺼﺎل‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﺳﺎزي‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻮة‬ASME Sec VIII ‫اﺗﺼﺎل‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫درﺻﻮرﺗﻴﻜﻪ‬)Unequal Thickness(‫اﺗﺼﺎل‬ ،Head‫ﺑﻪ‬Shell‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻮرد‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬PWHT ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﺎزﻛﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺟﺰء‬ ،‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻼك‬.‫اﺗﺼﺎﻻت‬ ‫درﺻﻮرﺗﻴﻜﻪ‬ ‫و‬Shell‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ،‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻼك‬ ،‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬Shell‫اﺳﺖ‬. ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬20:‫ﺟﻬﺖ‬ ،‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻼك‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ‬ ‫دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬PWHT‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬UW40 ٢٠
  21. 21. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ☼‫در‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺘﻬﺎي‬ ‫اﺗﺼﺎل‬API 620 ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬API 620 (2004)‫ﭘﺎراﮔﺮاف‬ ‫در‬6.16‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﭼﻨﻴﻦ‬: ‫ﺑﺮاي‬Plate‫از‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫داراي‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬12.7mm‫ﻣﺘﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺪﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ورﻗﻲ‬ ‫دو‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫اﮔﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺰن‬ ‫ﻛﻒ‬ ،‫ﺳﻘﻒ‬ ، ‫ﺑﺪﻧﻪ‬ ‫ورﻗﻬﺎي‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﺑﺼﻮرت‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺸﻮﻧﺪ‬Butt-Weld‫ﻣﻴ‬ ‫ﺟﻮش‬‫از‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ، ‫ﺸﻮﻧﺪ‬3mm‫ﺳﺎزي‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﻴﻢ‬ ‫ورق‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬ ‫داﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺎوت‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺪﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ )Trimmed(‫ﺑﺼﻮرت‬ ‫ﺷﻮد‬Taper‫ﻧﺴﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬4/1‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬Fig 6.1‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫آﻣﺪه‬ ‫ذﻳﻞ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬. ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬21:‫ﻧﺎﺑﺮاﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺘﻬﺎي‬ ‫اﺗﺼﺎل‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﺳﺎزي‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻮة‬API 620 ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬22:‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺘﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﺗﺼﺎل‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﺳﺎزي‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻮة‬‫ﻧﺎﺑﺮاﺑﺮ‬ ‫ي‬API 620 ٢١
  22. 22. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ☼‫در‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺘﻬﺎي‬ ‫اﺗﺼﺎل‬ASME B31.3 ‫ﻧﺎﺑﺮاﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫دو‬ ‫اﺗﺼﺎل‬ ‫وﺿﻌﻴﺖ‬)Unequal thickness(‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫در‬ASME B31.3‫ﭘﺎراﮔﺮاف‬ ‫در‬328.4 (b)(5)‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺪ‬. ‫ﻣﺤﻴﻄﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﻮش‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫اﺗﺼﺎل‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻞ‬ ‫وﻗﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﭘﺎراﮔﺮاف‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫در‬)Girth Groove(‫ﺳﺎز‬ ‫دﺳﺖ‬ ‫زاﻧﻮﻫﺎي‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬)Miter Groove(‫دو‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺒﻲ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫آﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺑﺮاﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ 2 1 1‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺑﺮاﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺘﻬﺎي‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻮل‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻃﺮاﺣﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫اﺗﺼﺎل‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻮة‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫دﻳﮕﺮي‬ ASME B16.25‫ﻧﺴﺒﺖ‬ ‫آﻣﺪه‬ ‫ذﻳﻞ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬Taper‫ﻧﻴﺰ‬3/1‫اﺳﺖ‬. ٢٢ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬23:‫ﻧﺎﺑﺮاﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺘﻬﺎي‬ ‫اﺗﺼﺎل‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﺳﺎزي‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻮة‬ASME B16.25
  23. 23. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬24:‫ﻧﺎﺑﺮاﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺘﻬﺎي‬ ‫اﺗﺼﺎل‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﺳﺎزي‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻮة‬ASME B31.3 ‫ﻧﻜﺘﻪ‬:‫در‬Piping‫در‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫اﺧﺘﻼف‬ ‫درﺻﻮرﺗﻴﻜﻪ‬Inside‫ﻣﻴﺘﻮاﻧﻴﻢ‬ ‫درﺻﻮرﺗﻲ‬ ،‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬Taper‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻴﻢ‬Taper‫ﺳﻴﺎل‬ ‫ﻋﺒﻮر‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺖ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬.‫در‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ‬ ‫وﻟﻲ‬Outside‫ﺑﺎﺷ‬‫زﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻠﻬﺎي‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬ ،‫ﺪ‬Taper‫ﻣﻴﺸﻮد‬: ٢٣ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬25:‫ﻧﺤﻮة‬Taper‫ﻛﺮدن‬Inside‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬ Flow3 ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬26:‫در‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫اﺧﺘﻼف‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫اﺗﺼﺎﻻﺗﻲ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﺳﺎزي‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻪ‬Outside‫دارﻧﺪ‬)B31.3( 1
  24. 24. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ☼‫در‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺘﻬﺎي‬ ‫اﺗﺼﺎل‬ASME B16.47 ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫در‬ASME B16.47‫ﺑ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺸﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮط‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬‫ﻓﻠﻨﺠﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻪ‬‫از‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻳﺰ‬ ‫ي‬"26‫ﺗﺎ‬"60‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬Fig. 7‫اﺗﺼﺎﻻت‬ ‫ﺳﺎزي‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺑﺮاﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺘﻬﺎي‬)Unequal(‫ﻧﺴﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬3/1‫ﻣﻴﺒﺎﻳﺴﺖ‬Taper‫ﺷﻮد‬. ٢٤ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬27:‫ﺑﺮاﺳﺎس‬ ‫ﺳﺎزي‬ ‫ﻟﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺤﻮة‬ASME B16.47
  25. 25. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ 4(‫ﻣﺤﺪودة‬Qualify‫در‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬PQR ‫ﻣﺤﺪودة‬ ‫وﺿﻌﻴﺖ‬Qualify‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬PQR‫ا‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻴﻪ‬‫ﻳﻜﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫اﺗﺼﺎﻻت‬ ‫ز‬)Unequal Thickness(‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬ASME Sec IX ‫ﭘﺎراﮔﺮاف‬QW 202.4‫ﺟﺪول‬ ‫و‬QW 451.1‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫زﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬: ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬QW 202.4(a)‫و‬QW 451.1‫ﻧﺎزك‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬)Thinner(‫ﻣﻴﺰان‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬2T،Qualify‫ﻣﻴﺸﻮد‬. ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬QW 202.4(b)‫آزﻣﺎﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ‬)(Test Coupon‫از‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬6mm‫آﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮﻳﺎل‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻴﻞ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻨﻠﺲ‬ ‫ازﺟﻤﻠﻪ‬ ‫آﻣﺪه‬ ‫ذﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﭘﺎراﮔﺮاف‬ ‫در‬P-No. 8‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻣﺤﺪود‬ ‫آﻧﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﺪاﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪودة‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬28:‫ﻛﺎرﺑﺮي‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪودة‬PQR‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬29:‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﺗﺎﻳﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎز‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪودة‬PQR ٢٥
  26. 26. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ۵(‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺮي‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬B31.3‫ﻛﻨﻮن‬ ‫ﺗﺎ‬ ‫آﻏﺎز‬ ‫از‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ASME Sec VIII‫ﺳﺎل‬ ‫در‬1925‫آﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎي‬ ‫اﻧﺠﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺎل‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺪوﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ASA (American Standards Association)‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫ﭘﺮوژة‬B31‫ﻛـﺮد‬ ‫رﻳﺰي‬ ‫ﻃﺮح‬ ‫را‬.‫ﻛﻤﻴﺘـﺔ‬B31‫ﺷـﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻛـﻪ‬40‫ﻣﻬﻨـﺪس‬ ‫و‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﭼﺎپ‬ ‫اوﻟﻴﻦ‬ ،‫ﺑﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬‫از‬ ‫را‬ ‫ﻳﺮاﻳﺶ‬B31‫ﺳﺎل‬ ‫در‬1935‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫آزﻣﺎﻳﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﻮر‬Pressure Piping‫ﻛﺮدﻧﺪ‬ ‫اراﺋﻪ‬. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫از‬ ‫وﻳﺮاﻳﺶ‬ ‫اوﻟﻴﻦ‬B31.3‫ﻧﺎم‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬Petroleum Refinery Piping Code‫ﺳﺎل‬ ‫در‬1959‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺸﺮ‬.‫ﺳـﺎل‬ ‫در‬1967‫اﻧﺠﻤـﻦ‬ ‫آﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎي‬ASA‫اﻧﺠﻤ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫اﺳﻢ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻳﺎﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺪدي‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻼت‬‫ﻛﺮد‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﻦ‬.‫آن‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺎم‬ ‫و‬‫ﺑﻪ‬ USASI (United States of American Standards Institute)‫ﻳﺎﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬.‫ﺳﺎل‬ ‫در‬ ‫اﻣﺎ‬1969‫اﻳـﻦ‬ ‫اﺳـﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻌـﺪ‬ ‫ﺳـﺎل‬ ‫دو‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎم‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻛﺮد‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫اﻧﺠﻤﻦ‬ANSI (American National Standards Institute)‫ﻳﺎﻓـﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴـﺮ‬.‫ﺳـﺎل‬ ‫در‬1973‫ﻛـﺪ‬ ‫ﻳـﻚ‬ ‫ﻃﺮ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪي‬‫ﻧﺎم‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫اﺣﻲ‬ANSI B31.3‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﭼﺎپ‬ ‫ﺳﺎل‬ ‫ﻫﻤﻴﻦ‬ ‫در‬ ‫و‬. ‫ﻋﻨﻮان‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎي‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫ﻛﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ANSI-B31.6‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻃﺮاﺣﻲ‬.‫ﺳـﺎل‬ ‫در‬ ‫اراﺋـﻪ‬ ‫آﻣـﺎده‬ ‫اﻣـﺎ‬1974‫ﻧـﺸﺪ‬.‫در‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻴﺘﺔ‬ ‫از‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻌﻼﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ،‫ﻣﺴﺌﻠﻪ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫واﻛﻨﺶ‬ASME Code Piping‫ﻣﻘـﺮرا‬ ‫اﻳﺠـﺎد‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫ﻃﺮاﺣﺎن‬ ‫آﻣﻮزش‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﺪ‬‫ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎي‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻳﺘﻬﺎي‬ ‫ﻛﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬.ASME Code Piping‫ﺳـﺎﻳﺘﻬﺎي‬ ‫ﻛـﺸﻲ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟـﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻴـﺴﺘﻤﻬﺎي‬ ‫ﻣﺨـﺼﻮص‬ ‫اﺳـﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫اوﻟـﻴﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻛﺮد‬ ‫ﻣﻮاﻓﻘﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﺎل‬ ‫در‬ ‫را‬ ‫ﺷﻴﻤﻴﺎﻳﻲ‬1976‫ﻧﺎم‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping‫ﻛﺮد‬ ‫اراﺋﻪ‬. 2‫ﺳﺎل‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺎل‬1978‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫و‬ ‫داد‬ ‫ﻧﺎم‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬ ً‫ا‬‫ﻣﺠﺪد‬‫ﺟﺪﻳـﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺎم‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ASME Code for Pressure Piping‫ﺷـﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘـﺸﺮ‬.‫در‬ ‫ﺳﺎل‬1980‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮك‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ANSI/ASME B31.3‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ‬. ‫ﺳﺎل‬ ‫در‬ ‫اﻣﺎ‬1996‫ﻋﻨﻮان‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ASME B31.3 Process Piping‫ﺑـﺮ‬ ‫ﮔﻴـﺮي‬ ‫اﻧﺪازه‬ ‫روش‬ ‫ﭼﺎپ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﺮوع‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮﻳﻚ‬ ‫اﺳﺎس‬.‫ﺳﺎل‬ ‫ﭼﺎپ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬1999‫ﺑﺼ‬‫ﻮرت‬100%‫ﮔﻴﺮي‬ ‫اﻧﺪازه‬ ‫واﺣﺪ‬B31.3‫ﮔﺮﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﻗﺮار‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮﻳﻚ‬ ‫اﺳﺎس‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ASME B31‫ﺑﺮاي‬Pressure Piping‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺸﺮ‬ ‫ذﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎت‬ ‫در‬: ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬30:‫ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺚ‬ASME B31 - B 31.4: ‫ﻣﺎﻳﻌﺎت‬ ‫اﻧﺘﻘﺎل‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻮط‬ ‫ﻃﺮاﺣﻲ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬)‫ﻧﻔﺖ‬( ٢٦ - B 31.8: ‫ﮔﺎز‬ ‫اﻧﺘﻘﺎل‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻮط‬ ‫ﻃﺮاﺣﻲ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬
  27. 27. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﻜﺘﺔ‬‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫اﻳﻨﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬B31.4 & B31.8‫ﺟﻮش‬ ‫ﻗﻮاﻧﻴﻦ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻃﺮاﺣﻲ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪاردﻫﺎي‬‫آﻧﻬﺎ‬‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬API 1104‫ﻣﻴﺸﻮد‬ ‫اﻧﺠﺎم‬: ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬31:‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬ ،‫اﻧﺘﻘﺎل‬ ‫ﺧﻄﻮط‬ ‫ﺟﻮش‬ ‫ﻗﻮاﻧﻴﻦ‬ASME B31.4 ☼‫از‬ ‫اي‬ ‫ﺧﻼﺻﻪ‬ASME B31.3 ‫در‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬9Chapter‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻴﻪ‬.B31.3‫درﺑﺎرة‬Piping‫ﻓﻠﺰي‬ ‫ﻫﻢ‬)Metallic(‫ﻓﻠﺰي‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﻢ‬ ‫و‬(Nonmetallic)‫ﺑﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻜﻨﺪ‬.‫ﭘﻨﺞ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺪي‬ ‫دﺳﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺰي‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬Category‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺪي‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ‬.‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ذﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺷﺮح‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺪﻳﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬: 1- Category D Fluid Service 2- Category M Fluid Service 3- Category Severe Cyclic Condition 4- Category High Pressure Piping 5- Category Normal Fluid Service ‫در‬Chapter 1‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺸﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮط‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬Scope and Definitions،Category‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫آﻣﺪه‬ ‫ذﻳﻞ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫اﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﻓﻮق‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬: ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬32:‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬Category‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬B31.3‫ﭘﺎراﮔﺮاف‬ ‫در‬300.2 ٢٧
  28. 28. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬33:‫ﻣﺤﺪودة‬High Pressure Piping ‫ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ‬Category M‫ﭘﻴﺸﻮﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬M‫ﻣﻄﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫و‬Category High Pressure Piping‫ﭘﻴﺸﻮﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬K‫ﻏﻴﺮﻓﻠﺰي‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬ ‫و‬ )Nonmetallic(‫ﭘﻴﺸﻮﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬A‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺪ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫در‬. ٢٨
  29. 29. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ 6(Acceptance Criteria‫رادﻳﻮﮔﺮاﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻠﻤﻬﺎي‬ ■Acceptance Criteria‫از‬ ‫ﺑﻐﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﺮوﻳﺴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﻪ‬ ‫در‬High Pressure Acceptance Criteria‫ﻫﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫رادﻳﻮﮔﺮاﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻠﻤﻬﺎي‬Category‫ﺑﻐﻴﺮاز‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬Category High Pressure Piping‫ﺟﺪول‬ ‫در‬ 341.3.2‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫آﻣﺪه‬.‫اﻣﺎ‬Acceptance Criteria‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫رادﻳﻮﮔﺮاﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻠﻤﻬﺎي‬Pressure Piping‫ﺟﺪول‬ ‫در‬K341.3.2‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺪ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬. ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬34:‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ذﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﺮوﻳﺴﻬﺎي‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻬﺎ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻮب‬ ‫ﭘﺬﻳﺮش‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻴﺎر‬ ٢٩
  30. 30. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬35:‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ذﻛﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﺮوﻳﺴﻬﺎي‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻬﺎ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻮب‬ ‫ﭘﺬﻳﺮش‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻴﺎر‬)‫اداﻣﻪ‬( ٣٠
  31. 31. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ■Acceptance Criteria‫ﺳﺮوﻳﺲ‬ ‫در‬High Pressure ٣١ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬36:‫ﭘﺬﻳﺮش‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻴﺎر‬‫ﺳﺮوﻳﺲ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻮب‬High Pressure Piping
  32. 32. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ 7(WPS‫و‬WQT ☼WPS‫و‬WQT‫در‬ASME Sec VIII ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﻓﺸﺎر‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ‫در‬UW-28‫ﻣﻘﺮرات‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ‬WPS‫و‬‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬UW-29‫ﻣﻘﺮرات‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻴﺔ‬WQT‫ﺑﺮاﺳﺎس‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺒﺎﻳﺴﺖ‬ASME Sec. IX‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻴﻪ‬. ‫ﭘﺎراﮔﺮاف‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬UW-47‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺪا‬ ‫اﻃﻤﻴﻨﺎن‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎزرس‬WPS‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬ASME Sec. IX‫ا‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻴﻪ‬‫ﻣﺪارﻛﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺎزﻧﺪه‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ‬ ‫رﻋﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫دال‬ASME Sec. IX‫ﻛﻨﺪ‬ ‫اراﺋﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎزرس‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬. ☼WPS‫و‬WQT‫ﺑﺮاﺳﺎس‬ ‫اي‬ ‫ذﺧﻴﺮه‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ‫در‬API 650 (2003) ‫ﭘﺎراﮔﺮاف‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬7.2.1.1‫ﻣﻘﺮرات‬WPS‫ﭘﺎراﮔﺮاف‬ ‫و‬7.3.1‫ﺑﺮاﺳﺎس‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎر‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ‬ASE Sec. IX‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫اﻧﺠﺎم‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺒﺎﻳﺴﺖ‬. ☼WPS‫و‬WQT‫در‬API 620 (2004) ‫ﭘﺎراﮔﺮاف‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬6.7.1‫ﻣﻘﺮرات‬WPS‫ﭘﺎراﮔﺮاف‬ ‫و‬6.8.1‫ﺑﺮاﺳﺎس‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎر‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ‬ASE Sec. IX‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫اﻧﺠﺎم‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺒﺎﻳﺴﺖ‬. ☼WPS‫و‬WQT‫در‬API 1104 (1999) ‫ﭘﺎراﮔﺮاف‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬5.1‫ﻣﻘﺮرات‬WPS‫ﭘﺎراﮔﺮاف‬ ‫و‬6.1‫ﺑﺮاﺳﺎس‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎر‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ‬‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫ﺧﻮد‬API 1104‫اﻧﺠﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺒﺎﻳﺴﺖ‬‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫م‬. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫در‬ ‫داﺷﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬API 1104‫ﭘﺎراﮔﺮاف‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬ ، ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮات‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬10.2‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬WPS‫و‬PQR‫ﻛﺮد‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﺪاﮔﺎﻧﻪ‬. ☼WPS‫و‬WQT‫در‬B31.3 ■WPS‫و‬WQT‫ﺑﺮاي‬‫ﺳﺮوﻳﺲ‬ ‫ﺑﻐﻴﺮاز‬ ‫ﺳﺮوﻳﺴﻬﺎ‬ ‫اﻛﺜﺮ‬Pressure Piping‫در‬B31.3 ‫ﭘﺎراﮔﺮاف‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬328.2.1‫ﺗﻬﻴﺔ‬WPS‫و‬WQT‫اﺳﺘﺜﻨ‬ ‫ﻣﻮارد‬ ‫ﺑﺠﺰ‬‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺒﺎﻳﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﻟﺤﺎظ‬ ‫ﭘﺎراﮔﺮاف‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺎﻳﻲ‬ASME SecIX ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬B31.3‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻴﻪ‬. ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬37:‫وﺿﻌﻴﺖ‬WPS‫و‬PQR‫در‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺋﺎت‬ ‫و‬B31.3 ٣٢
  33. 33. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ■WPS‫و‬WQT‫ﺳﺮوﻳﺲ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬Pressure Piping‫در‬B31.3 ‫ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺮوﻳﺲ‬ ‫زﻣﺎﻧﻴﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬High Pressure Piping‫ﺗﻬﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬WPS‫و‬WQT‫ﭘﺎراﮔﺮاف‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬K328.2‫ﺑﺮاﺳﺎس‬ASME SecIX ‫ﭘﺎراﮔﺮاف‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻮاردي‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎي‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬K328.2.1‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺪ‬.‫ﭘﺎراﮔﺮاف‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺋﺎﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﺒﺖ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺋﺎت‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬328.2.1‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺪ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﺨﺘﮕﻴﺮﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺗﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬. ‫ﻣﺜﺎل‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬:○‫ﻫﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬WPS‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺣﺘﻤ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬Impact Test‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫اﻧﺠﺎم‬. ○‫ﻫﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬WPS‫ﺗﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺣﺘﻤ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬PQR‫در‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺪ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮود‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮﻳﺎل‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎن‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬WPS‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫اﻧﺠﺎم‬. ○‫ﺗﺴﺖ‬PQR‫ﺗﻴﻮب‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫روي‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻴﻪ‬WPS‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮط‬Plate‫را‬Qualify‫ﺧﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻋﻜﺴﺶ‬ ‫اﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻜﻨﺪ‬. ○‫ﺗﺴﺖ‬ ‫اﻧﺠﺎم‬Mechanical‫ﺑ‬‫ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎران‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺮاي‬ ○‫ﻫﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬WQT‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺣﺘﻤ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬Impact Test‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫اﻧﺠﺎم‬) .Interpretation-17-10( ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬38:‫ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎرﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫ﺿﺮﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎز‬Interpretation of B31.3 ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬39:‫وﺿﻌﻴﺖ‬WPS‫و‬PQR‫در‬ ‫اﺳﺘﺜﻨﺎﺋﺎت‬ ‫و‬Pressure Piping ٣٣
  34. 34. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ 8(‫اﺳ‬‫از‬ ‫ﺘﻔﺎده‬WPS‫دﻳﮕﺮان‬ ■‫از‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬WPS‫ﺑﺠﺰ‬ ‫ﺳﺮوﻳﺴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫دﻳﮕﺮان‬Pressure Piping ‫از‬ ‫ﺑﺨﻮاﻫﻴﻢ‬ ‫درﺻﻮرﺗﻴﻜﻪ‬WPS‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ،‫ﻛﻨﻴﻢ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬ ‫دﻳﮕﺮي‬ ‫ﭘﺮوژة‬ ِASME B31.3 Para. 328.2.2‫ﻛﻨﻴﻢ‬ ‫رﺟﻮع‬: ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬40:‫از‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬ ‫ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ‬WPS‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬ ‫دﻳﮕﺮان‬ ِASME B31.3 Para. 328.2.2 ‫از‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬ ‫درﺻﻮرت‬WPS‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎز‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻗﺮار‬ ‫زﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﺮاﻳﻂ‬ ‫درﺻﻮرﺗﻴﻜﻪ‬ ،‫دﻳﮕﺮان‬ ِPQR‫ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺪد‬ ِ: 1(‫ﺑﺎزرﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﻳﻴﺪ‬ 2(‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮﻳﺎل‬P-No. 1&2&3 & Gr-No.1‫ﻳﺎ‬P-No.8‫ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎز‬ ‫ﺿﺮﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺖ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬. 3(‫در‬ ‫اﺗﺼﺎل‬WPSً‫ﻼ‬‫ﻛﺎﻣ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ِSimilar‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬.‫ﻳﻌﻨﻲ‬P-No.‫ﻣﺘ‬ ‫ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫اي‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻌﻪ‬ ‫دو‬ ِ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺼﻞ‬. 4(‫از‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺘﺮ‬ ، ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬19mm‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬.‫ﻳﻌﻨﻲ‬PWHT‫ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎز‬. 5(‫از‬ ‫ﻃﺮاﺣﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺸﺎر‬300 psi‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺮاﺣﻲ‬ ‫دﻣﺎي‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬-20‫ﺗﺎ‬399‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻧﺘﻴﮕﺮاد‬ ‫درﺟﻪ‬. )B16.5 PN 50 PN=Pressure Nominal( 6(،‫ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎري‬ ‫روش‬SMAW‫ﻳﺎ‬GTAW‫اﻳﻨﺪو‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬. 7(‫ﭘﺮوﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺶ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ذﻛﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮودﻫﺎي‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻓﻘﻂ‬SMAW‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬. 8(‫ﺗﺎﻳﻴﺪ‬WPS‫و‬PQR‫ﻣﺴﺌﻮﻟﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺒﻞ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﺎرﻓﺮﻣﺎي‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻧﺐ‬ ‫از‬. ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﺟﻮش‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬WPS‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﺧﻤﺶ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺖ‬. ■‫از‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬WPS‫ﺳﺮوﻳﺲ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫دﻳﮕﺮان‬Pressure Piping ‫از‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬WPS‫ﺳﺮوﻳ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫دﻳﮕﺮان‬‫ﺲ‬High Pressure Piping‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬K328.2.2‫ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎز‬ ٣٤
  35. 35. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ 9(Preheat ☼‫ﻓﺸﺎر‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﮔﺮم‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺶ‬ ‫ﭘﺎراﮔﺮاف‬ ‫ﺑﺮاﺳﺎس‬UW-30‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫در‬ASME Sec VIII Div.1‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﻗﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫اﻧﺠﺎم‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎري‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺒﺎﻳﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫دﻣﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ‬. ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬41:‫ﻓﺸﺎر‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﮔﺮم‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺶ‬ ٣٥
  36. 36. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺶ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎدي‬ ‫دﻣﺎي‬‫در‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮﻳﺎل‬ ‫ﺗﻔﻜﻴﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ،‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ‫ﺟﻮش‬ ‫ﻣﻮرد‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﮔﺮم‬ASME Sec VIII Div.1 Appendix R.‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺎن‬. ٣٦ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬42:Preheat‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎري‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ASME Sec VIII Div.1 Appendix R
  37. 37. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ٣٧ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬43:Preheat‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎري‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ASME Sec VIII Div.1 Appendix R)‫اداﻣﻪ‬(
  38. 38. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ☼‫در‬ ‫ﮔﺮم‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺶ‬Piping ‫در‬piping‫دﻣﺎي‬ ‫ﺷﺪن‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺨﺺ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬Preheat‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ASME B31.3 , Table 330.1.1‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﺮاﺟﻌﻪ‬: ٣٨ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬44:‫دﻣﺎي‬Preheat‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬B31.3
  39. 39. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬45:Preheat‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎري‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ASME B31.3 Para. 331.1.3 ٣٩
  40. 40. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ■‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬Recommendations‫ﺑﻪ‬Requirements ‫ﺳﺮد‬ ‫ﻫﻮاي‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎري‬ ‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎم‬)‫زﻳﺮﺻﻔﺮ‬(‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬ ‫؛‬ASME B31.3 Para. 330.1.1‫ﺳﺘﻮن‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎدي‬ ‫ﮔﺮم‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺶ‬ ‫دﻣﺎي‬ Recommendations‫ﺳﺘﻮن‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫دارد‬ ‫ﻗﺮار‬Requirements‫ﻣﻴﺸﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﻘﻞ‬.‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫اﻋﻤﺎل‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﮔﺮم‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺶ‬ ‫دﻣﺎي‬ ‫ﻳﻌﻨﻲ‬. ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬46:‫اﺳﺎس‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﮔﺮم‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺶ‬ ‫آور‬ ‫اﻟﺰام‬ ‫ﺷﺮط‬B31.3 ٤٠
  41. 41. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ 10(PWHT (Post Weld Heat Treatment) ☼PWHT‫ﻓﺸﺎر‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ 2‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﺸﺎر‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ‫در‬ ‫زداﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺶ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪة‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ‬ ،‫ﻋﺎﻣﻞ‬: 1(‫ﻣﺨﺰن‬ ‫ﺳﺮوﻳﺲ‬)‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬UW2( 2(‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬‫ﺟﻨﺲ‬ ‫اﺳﺎس‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬‫ﻣﺨﺰن‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮﻳﺎل‬)‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬UCS 56( 1-‫ﺳﺮوﻳﺲ‬: ‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬ASME Sec VIII Div.1 UW2‫درﺻﻮرﺗﻴﻜﻪ‬‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت‬ ،‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﻨﺪه‬ ‫ﻣﻮاد‬ ‫ﺣﺎوي‬ ‫ﺳﺮوﻳﺲ‬PWHT،Mandatory‫ﻣﻴﺸﻮد‬: ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬47:‫دﺳﺘﻮراﻟﻌﻤﻞ‬ASME Sec VIII Div.1 UW2‫ﻛﺸﻨﺪه‬ ‫ﺳﺮوﻳﺲ‬ ‫ﺣﺎوي‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎزن‬ ‫زداﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﻮرد‬ ‫در‬ ٤١
  42. 42. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ 2-‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬: ‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬UCS 56‫ﻣﻴﺒﺎﻳﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺘﻬﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮﻳﺎل‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬PWHT‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺨﺺ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬.‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺎل‬ ‫ﺑﻄﻮر‬P-No. 1 Gr- No. 1&2&3‫از‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫درﺻﻮرﺗﻴﻜﻪ‬38mm‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫اﻧﺠﺎم‬ ‫زداﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬.‫از‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫و‬32mm‫از‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺘﺮ‬ ‫و‬ 38mm‫دﻣﺎي‬ ‫ﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﮔﺮم‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺶ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎري‬ ‫ﻫﻨﮕﺎم‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ‬93ºC‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎز‬ ،‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫اﻋﻤﺎل‬PWHT‫ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‬.‫ﭘﺎراﮔﺮاف‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬(b)‫در‬ Note‫ﺟﺪاول‬ ِUCS-56 ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪودة‬،‫دﻣﺎ‬ ،‫ﻧﮕﻬﺪاري‬ ‫زﻣﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﺪت‬ ‫و‬‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮﻳﺎﻟﻬﺎي‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬‫ﺟﺪوﻟﻬﺎي‬ ‫در‬UCS-56‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺎن‬. ٤٢ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬48:‫ﺟﺪاول‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮﻳﺎل‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎز‬ ‫ﻣﻮرد‬ ‫زداﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺶ‬UCS-56
  43. 43. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ٤٣
  44. 44. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ٤٤
  45. 45. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ‫ﻧﻜﺘﻪ‬: ‫ﻣﻴﺘﻮاﻧﻴﻢ‬ ،‫ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ذﻛﺮ‬ ‫اﻧﺪازة‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫دﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﺮﻧﺎك‬ ‫اﻧﺒﺴﺎط‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻫﺎﻳﻴﻜﻪ‬ ‫در‬‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬UCS-56.1،Holding Time‫را‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﻓﺰاﻳﺶ‬Holding Temperature‫دﻫﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫را‬: ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬49:‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬Holding Temperature‫اﺳﺎس‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫دارﻳﻢ‬ ‫اﻧﺒﺴﺎط‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪودﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﺮاﻳﻄﻲ‬ ‫در‬UCS-56.1 ‫روﻧﺪ‬PWHT:‫دﻣﺎي‬ ‫در‬ ،‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﺷﺮوع‬ ‫ﺗﺪرﻳﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻣﺎﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫زﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮدار‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬ ‫زداﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺶ‬Holding‫ﺛﺎﺑﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺗﻲ‬‫در‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺸﻮد‬ ‫داﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﮕﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺸﻮد‬ ‫ﺳﺮد‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺨﺼﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﺮخ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ‬. ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬50:‫اﻧﺠﺎم‬ ‫روﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮدار‬PWHT ٤٥
  46. 46. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ■Heating Rate ‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬UW56‫اﻧﺠﺎم‬ ‫ﻃﻲ‬ ‫در‬PWHT‫از‬ ‫دﻣﺎ‬ ‫آﻧﻜﻪ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﭘﺲ‬427°C‫از‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺒﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻣﺎﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﻧﺮخ‬ ‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬222°C/ hr‫ﺷﻮد‬: ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬51:‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻣﺎﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﻧﺮخ‬UW56 ■Cooling Rate ‫از‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﺗﺮ‬ ‫دﻣﺎي‬ ‫در‬ ،‫ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬427°C‫ﺣﺪاﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﻧﺮخ‬278°C/ hr‫ﻣﻴﺸﻮد‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪود‬: ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬52:‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﻧﺮخ‬UW56 ■‫از‬ ‫ﭘﺲ‬ ‫ﺟﻮش‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮات‬PWHT ‫ﺑﻌﺪاز‬ ‫ﺟﻮش‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻮب‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺑﻌﻀ‬ ‫اﻳﻨﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬PWHT‫ﻣﺤﺪودة‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻮل‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪودة‬ ‫از‬Repair‫رادﻳﻮﮔﺮا‬ ،‫ﻣﻴﺮوﻧﺪ‬‫ﺑﻌﺪاز‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ‬PWHT ‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫اﻧﺠﺎم‬.‫ﺑﻌﺪاز‬ ‫درﺻﻮرﺗﻴﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﺎل‬PWHT‫ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ‬‫ات‬‫ﺷ‬ ‫اﻧﺠﺎم‬‫ﻮ‬‫د‬‫وﺿﻌﻴﺖ‬PWHT‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺻﻮرت‬ ‫دو‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫آن‬. 1-PWHT‫دارد‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎز‬ 2-PWHT‫ﻧﺪارد‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎز‬ ‫درﺷﺮاﻳﻂ‬1،PWHT‫اﻟﺰاﻣﻴﺴﺖ‬ ‫زﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﺮوط‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮات‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﭘﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺪد‬: -‫درﺻﻮرﺗﻴﻜﻪ‬PWHT‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫اﻧﺠﺎم‬ ‫ﺳﺮوﻳﺲ‬ ‫ﻧﻮع‬ ‫ﺑﺮاﺳﺎس‬)‫ﻛﺸﻨﺪه‬ ‫ﺳﺮوﻳﺲ‬(، -‫درﺻﻮرﺗﻴﻜﻪ‬PWHT‫در‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮع‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫اﻧﺠﺎم‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاﺳﺎس‬ ASME Sec VIII UCS 56 Para. f(2)‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬53:ASME Sec VIII UCS 56 Para. f(2) ٤٦
  47. 47. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬54:‫ﺟﻮش‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻮب‬ ‫اﻋﻤﺎق‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮع‬ ‫درﺷﺮاﻳﻂ‬2،PWHT‫ﺷﺮوط‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮات‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﭘﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺪد‬‫ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎز‬ ‫زﻳﺮ‬: -‫درﺻﻮرﺗﻴﻜﻪ‬PWHT‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺪه‬ ‫اﻧﺠﺎم‬ ‫ﺳﺮوﻳﺲ‬ ‫ﻧﻮع‬ ‫ﺑﺮاﺳﺎس‬)‫ﻛﺸﻨﺪه‬ ‫ﺳﺮوﻳﺲ‬(، -‫درﺻﻮرﺗﻴﻜﻪ‬PWHT‫در‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮع‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫اﻧﺠﺎم‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاﺳﺎس‬ ASME Sec VIII UCS 56 Para. f(2)‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺪه‬ -‫روش‬ ‫ﺑﺮاﺳﺎس‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت‬Temper Bead Welding‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫اﻧﺠﺎم‬. ■‫ﻣﺘﺪ‬Temper Bead Welding ‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬API 510‫ﻣﺘﺪ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬ ‫اﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻮده‬ ‫ﺳﺮوﻳﺲ‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎزﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎري‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ‬Temper Bead Welding‫ﺗﻨﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎزي‬ ،‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫اﻧﺠﺎم‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺘﻬﺎي‬ ‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫زداﻳﻲ‬38mm‫ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‬: ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬55:‫ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎري‬ ‫روش‬Temper Bead Welding ‫ﻧﻜﺘﻪ‬:‫ﻋﺒﺎرت‬ ‫از‬in lieu‫ﻛﻨﻴﻢ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬ ‫دﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫روش‬ ‫ﺟﺎي‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫روش‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺑﺨﻮاﻫﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺸﻮد‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫در‬. ٤٧
  48. 48. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺪ‬Temper Bead Welding 1(‫ﮔﺮم‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺶ‬ ‫دﻣﺎي‬ ‫ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ‬175‫ﭘﺎﺳﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫دﻣﺎي‬ ‫ﺣﺪاﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫و‬ ‫درﺟﻪ‬230‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫درﺟﻪ‬. 2(‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮود‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫را‬ ‫اول‬ ‫ﭘﺎس‬3mm‫ﻣﻴﺪارﻳﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫آﻧﺮا‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻒ‬ ،‫داده‬ ‫ﺟﻮش‬.‫ﻧ‬ ‫را‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪي‬ ‫ﭘﺎﺳﻬﺎي‬‫ﺣﺪاﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮود‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻴﺰ‬4mm‫از‬ ‫ﭘﺲ‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺰﻧﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻣﻴﺪارﻳﻢ‬ ‫آﻧﺮا‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻒ‬ ‫ﭘﺎس‬ ‫ﻫﺮ‬. ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬56:‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎري‬ ‫ﭘﺎس‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻧﻴﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺮداﺷﺘﻦ‬ 3(‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫اﻳﺠﺎد‬ ‫ﺣﺮارت‬)Heat Input(‫ﺷﺪة‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪودة‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬WPS‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬. 4(‫دﻣﺎي‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎري‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﭘﺲ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺖ‬ ‫دو‬ ‫ﺗﺎ‬260‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﺣﻔﻆ‬ ‫درﺟﻪ‬. 5(VT‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫اﻧﺠﺎم‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬. 6(‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮودﻫﺎي‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎري‬ ‫ﭘﺮوﺳﺔ‬Low-Hydrogen‫ﭘﻬﻨﺎي‬ ‫و‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫اﻧﺠﺎم‬Bead‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮود‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﭼﻬﺎر‬ ‫ﺣﺪاﻛﺜﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻮش‬ ِ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬. 7(‫ﺷﺪة‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ‬ ‫درﺻﻮرﺗﻴﻜﻪ‬UCS 56‫ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‬ ‫زداﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎزي‬ ‫دﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬.‫ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮع‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ‬ ‫اﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪا‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ر‬PWHT‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫اﻧﺠﺎم‬. ‫ﻧﻜﺘﻪ‬: ‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬UCS 56‫ﺣﺪاﻛﺜﺮ‬Bead‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﻜﺘﺮود‬ ‫ﻗﻄﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﭼﻬﺎر‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻴﺮ‬ ‫و‬ ‫زداﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪاز‬ ‫ﺟﻮش‬ ِ: ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬57:‫ﺣﺪاﻛﺜﺮ‬Bead‫زداﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪاز‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺎز‬ ‫ﺟﻮش‬ ِ‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬UCS-56 ‫ﻧﻜﺘﻪ‬: ‫ﻋﻤﻖ‬ ،‫ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮر‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻮاردي‬ ‫در‬Defect‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫را‬UT‫ﻣﻲ‬‫ﻧﺒﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫اﺿﺎﻓﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﺎﻓﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎز‬ ‫ﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺠﻨﺪ‬. ٤٨
  49. 49. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ☼PWHT‫ﺑﺮاي‬Piping ‫در‬ ‫زداﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺶ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎت‬Piping‫ﭘﺎراﮔﺮاف‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺒﺎﻳﺴﺖ‬331‫ﺟﺪول‬ ‫و‬331.1.1‫در‬ASME B31.3‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫اﻧﺠﺎم‬. ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬58:‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ‫زداﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺶ‬ ‫ﭘﺎراﻣﺘﺮﻫﺎي‬Piping ٤٩
  50. 50. ‫اﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪارد‬ ‫آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﺰوة‬ ‫زداﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺶ‬Branch‫ﻫﺎ‬‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬ASME B31.3 Branch‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬ ‫زداﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺒﺎﻳﺴﺖ‬ ‫زﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻣﻮﻟﻬﺎي‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬: ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬59:‫زداﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺶ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺠﻲ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎز‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺖ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻔﺎده‬ ‫ﻣﻮرد‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻣﻮﻟﻬﺎي‬Branch‫ﻃﺒﻖ‬ ،‫ﻫﺎ‬ASME B31.3 Para. 331.1.3 ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫در‬1‫ﺟﺪارة‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮع‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ‬ ،Branch)Tb(‫ﺟﻮش‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫و‬)tc(‫ﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ‬ ‫دو‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮع‬ ‫از‬‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎز‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺘﻲ‬ ‫اﻗﻞ‬ PWHT‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫دارﻧﺪ‬Branch‫ﻣﻴﺒﺎﻳﺴﺖ‬PWHT‫ﺷﻮد‬.‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺟﺰء‬ ‫دو‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫اﮔﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻲ‬. ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬:‫ﺑﺮاي‬ ،‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮر‬P-No. 1،19mm‫اﺳﺖ‬.‫ﺟﺪول‬ ‫در‬ ‫و‬Table 331.1.1‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺮﻳﺎﻟﻬﺎي‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ‬ ، ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪه‬ ‫ذﻛﺮ‬. ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫در‬2،‫ﺟﺪارة‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮع‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ‬Header)Th(‫ﺟﻮش‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫و‬)tc(‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎز‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ‬ ‫دو‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮع‬ ‫از‬ PWHT‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫دارﻧﺪ‬Branch‫ﻣﻴﺒﺎﻳﺴﺖ‬PWHT‫ﺷﻮد‬.‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺟﺰء‬ ‫دو‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫اﮔﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻲ‬. ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫در‬3‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮع‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ‬ ،Reinforcement)Tr(‫ﺿﺨﺎ‬ ‫و‬‫ﺟﻮش‬ ‫ﻣﺖ‬)tc(‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎز‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ‬ ‫دو‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮع‬ ‫از‬ PWHT‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫دارﻧﺪ‬Branch‫ﻣﻴﺒﺎﻳﺴﺖ‬PWHT‫ﺷﻮد‬.‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺟﺰء‬ ‫دو‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫اﮔﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻲ‬. ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫در‬4‫ﺟﺪارة‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮع‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ‬ ،Header)Th(‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫و‬Reinforcement)Tr(‫ﺟﻮش‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫و‬)tc(‫ﻣﺠ‬ ‫از‬‫دو‬ ‫ﻤﻮع‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎز‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ‬PWHT‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫دارﻧﺪ‬Branch‫ﻣﻴﺒﺎﻳﺴﺖ‬PWHT‫ﺷﻮد‬.‫ﺟﺰء‬ ‫دو‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫اﮔﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺘﺮ‬. ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫در‬5‫ﺟﺪارة‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮع‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺎﻧﭽﻪ‬ ،Branch)Tb(‫ﺟﻮش‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫و‬)tc(‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎز‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺘﻲ‬ ‫ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺮاﺑﺮ‬ ‫دو‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻤﻮع‬ ‫از‬ PWHT‫دار‬‫ﺷﻮد‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﺪ‬Branch‫ﻣﻴﺒﺎﻳﺴﺖ‬PWHT‫ﺷﻮد‬.‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺟﺰء‬ ‫دو‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫از‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻲ‬ ‫ﺿﺨﺎﻣﺖ‬ ‫اﮔﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻲ‬. ‫ﻧﻜﺘﻪ‬1:PQR‫ﺑﺮاي‬P_No.‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻤﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺴﺎن‬ ‫ﻫﺎي‬. ‫ﻧﻜﺘﻪ‬2:Cladding:‫ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ‬ ‫درﺟﺎﻫﺎﻳﻴﻜﻪ‬)‫داﺧﻞ‬ ً‫ﻼ‬‫ﻣﺜ‬Head‫ﺗﺎورﻫﺎ‬ ِ(‫ﻻﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬S.S‫روي‬C.S‫ﭘﻴﻮﺳﺘ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﻛﺎري‬ ‫ﻻﻳﻪ‬‫ﻻﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﮕﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫اﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻗﺪري‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫اﺻﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺤﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻨﻠﺲ‬UT‫ﻧﻤﻴﺒﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬.‫ﺧﻮردﮔﻲ‬ ‫درﺑﺮاﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻈﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺶ‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻨﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﻻﻳﺔ‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬ ‫دارد‬.‫ﻣﻴﺸﻮد‬ ‫اﻧﺠﺎم‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺑﻦ‬ ‫ورق‬ ‫روي‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻨﻠﺲ‬ ‫ﺟﻮﺷﻜﺎري‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫اﻳﺮان‬ ‫در‬ ‫ﻛﺎر‬ ‫اﻳﻦ‬. ٥٠

×