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Coal fired power plants by Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34)
Coal Fired Power Plants<br />By Waqas Ali Tunio (07ME34), QUEST, Nawabshah<br />.::No Sin - I Win::.<br />
Introduction<br />.::No Sin - I Win::.<br />Coal-fired units produce electricity by burning coal in a boiler to heat water to produce steam. The steam, at tremendous pressure, flows into a turbine, which spins a generator to produce electricity. The steam is cooled, condensed back into water, and returned to the boiler to start the process over.<br />
Coal Fired Power Plants<br />A conventional coal-fired power plant produces electricity by burning coal in a steam generator that heats water to produce high pressure and high temperature steam. The steam flows through a series of steam turbines which spin an electrical generator to produce electricity. The exhaust steam from the turbines is cooled, condensed back into water, and returned to the steam generator to start the process over. <br />Conventional coal-fired power plants are highly complex and custom designed on a large scale for continuous operation 24 hours per day and 365 days per year. Such plants provide most of the electrical energy used in many countries. <br />Most plants built in the 1980s and early 1990s have a power of around 500 MW (500•106 watt), while many of the modern plants have a power of around 1000 MW. Also the efficiencies (ratio of electrical energy produced to energy released by the coal burned) of conventional coal-fired plants increased from under 35% to close to 45%.<br />.::No Sin - I Win::.<br />
.::No Sin - I Win::.<br /><ul><li>A typical (500 megawatt) coal plant burns 1.4 million tons of coal each year. There are about 600 U.S. coal plants.
Coal pollutes when it is mined, transported to the power plant, stored, and burned.</li></li></ul><li>.::No Sin - I Win::.<br /><ul><li>Air pollution: Burning coal causes smog, soot, acid rain, global warming, and toxic air emissions.
Wastes generated: Ash, sludge, toxic chemicals, and waste heat create more environmental problems.
Fuel supply: Mining, transporting, and storing coal levels mountains and pollutes the land, water, and air.
Water use: Coal plants need billions of gallons of cooling water and harm wildlife.</li></li></ul><li>Thar Coal<br />The bulk of Pakistan's indigenous coal resources lie in Sindh. The largest reserve, 175 billion tonnesof lignite coal, is located in the Thar Desert of Sindh. Thar coal is yet to be developed for<br />mining and power generation. Thar Coal presents an electricity generation potential of 100,000 MW, at estimated consumption of 536 million tonnes/year.<br />In addition to this, there are lignite coal reserves in Lakhra, Sonda, Indus East and other coalfields of Sindh. The Lakhra coal field is thoroughly investigated and developed. Several public and private mining companies are mining coal from Lakhra. It has been confirmed that Lakhracoal is suitable for power generation. A 150 MW FBC plant is currently being operated by WAPDA on Lakhra coal. The Sonda and other coal-fields of Sindh are yet to be investigated and developed.<br />In Balochistan and Punjab, coal has been continuously mined since before independence. Good quality Sub-bituminous coal is available in various coalfields of Balochistan and Punjab, which coalfields are considered suitable for power generation. Some small coal reserves are also located in NWFP and AJK, and are being mined on a small scale.<br />.::No Sin - I Win::.<br />
Coal Power Stations in Pakistan<br />Source: Energy Book 2002, Hydrocarbon Development Institute of Pakistan.<br />PROPOSED COAL POWER PROJECTS (MEDIUM TERM PLAN )<br />PROPOSED COAL POWER PROJECTS (LONG TERM PLAN )<br />.::No Sin - I Win::.<br />