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Unit 1 from prehistory to the middle ages

From Pehistory to the Middle Ages

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Unit 1 from prehistory to the middle ages

  1. 1. Almudena Corrales Marbán
  3. 3. 1. PREHISTORY Almudena Corrales Marbán
  4. 4. 1.1. The Stone Age Almudena Corrales Marbán
  5. 5. Almudena Corrales Marbán Piece of research (10-15 lines) about Homo antecessor
  6. 6. Almudena Corrales Marbán 1.1. The Stone Age (5 000 000 B.C. – 5000 B.C.) The Stone Age is made up of two different periods. 1. The Paleolithic period: a group of hominids slowly evolved into human beings. They became more intelligent, starting using language and began walking upright. People were nomadic. They lived in caves or huts and survive hunting, fishing and gathering food. The most important technological advances were the use of FIRE and the production of tools from stone and bone.
  7. 7. Almudena Corrales Marbán 2. The Neolithic period: agriculture appeared as human beings began farming and keeping livestock. People became more sedentary and started living in small villages. They invented techniques for making stone tools (mills), textiles, ceramic cups and bowls. During the Stone Age, humans (homo sapiens) produced the first examples of artistic expression. • Cave paintings • Sculptures made of stone and bones
  8. 8. 1.2. The Metal Ages (5000 B.C.- 3000 B.C.) Almudena Corrales Marbán People began using metals (bronce, then copper, and finally iron) to make tools and weapons. This new objects became symbols of social status in many cultures. At the same time, societies became more agressive and war- like, and built fortifications to defend themselves from attacks. After the invention of vehicles with wheels , trade also became more common because it was easier to transport goods such as food.
  9. 9. Almudena Corrales Marbán
  10. 10. 2. ANTIQUITY Almudena Corrales Marbán Fertile Crescent Mesopotamia Egypt Classical civilisations Greece Rome
  11. 11. 2.1. Fertile Crescent (3000 B.C.- 30 B.C.) Almudena Corrales Marbán Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt were urban civilisations that emerged along the banks of rivers. In the case of Mesopotamia along the banks of the Tigris and Euphrates and in the case of Egypt along the banks of the Nile. They built the first cities. Writing was invented: • Clay tablets • Papyrus
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  13. 13. 2.2. Classical civilisations (2000 B.C.-476 B.C.) Almudena Corrales Marbán Ancient Greece and Rome developed around the Mediterranean Sea. These civilisations have been the classical models for Western cultures, especially in the areas of:  Politics  Law  Languages (Latin, Greek)  Art The first participative governments appeared in these civilisations: Athens was a democracy and Rome was a republic. Both Greeks and the Romans established colonies around the Mediterranean Sea, which increased the volume trade
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  16. 16. 3. THE MIDDLE AGES Almudena Corrales Marbán Three great civilisations co-existed in western Asia, North Africa and Europe. 3.1. THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE (476 A.D. – 1453 A.D.) This empire emerged in the former Eastern Roman Empire, which had resisted the invasions of Germanic tribes. The name of the empire came from the name of its capital city -Byzantium- which was later renamed Constantinople, and finally Istambul.
  17. 17. Almudena Corrales Marbán Emperor Justinian (527 -565). Mosaics of Ravena (Italy) Hagia Sophia (Istambul)
  18. 18. Almudena Corrales Marbán 3.2. ISLAMIC CIVILISATION(622 A.D. – 1492 A.D.) Islamic civilisation began on the Arabian Peninsula in the 7th century A.D. and then expanded towards India, North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula. The word “Islamic” comes from Islam, the name of the civilisation’s religion. Islam was founded by the prophet Mohammed, and its followers are called Muslims. Piece of research (10-15 lines) about Mohammed.
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  20. 20. Almudena Corrales Marbán 3.3. CHRISTIAN EUROPE (476 A.D. – 1492 A.D.) During the Middle Ages, Christian civilisation developed in the former Western Roman Empire, which had collapsed after invasions by Germanic tribes. It was a Christian civilisation because the church played a decisive role in politics, society and culture. The three stages in the development of Christian Europe were: 1. the rise of feudalism 2. its decline (medieval cities development) and 3. the period of economic crisis (Back Dead)
  22. 22. European art in the Middle Ages Almudena Corrales Marbán Romanesque style. Early Middle Ages (10th-12th centuries) Gothic style. Late Middle Ages (12th-15th centuries) Semicircular arches Barrel vaults