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Starting Date of Training: 05/06/2015
End Date of Training: 04/07/2015
ALOK KUMAR SINGH
Civil Engineering Final Year
Report Submitted to:
Dr. V.K. SINGH
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
SITAPUR ROAD, LUCKNOW-226021
1.1 Types of buildings
1.2 Safety induction
1.3 Site location
1.4 Form work
Section-2 Construction steps of building
2.1 Site clearance
2.2 Surveying and layout
2.6 Wall construction
2.7 Beams & columns construction
2.8 Slab construction
Section-3 Materials& equipment’s
3.1 Materials used at site
3.2 Equipment’s used
Section-4 Quality control
4.1 Quality control in concrete works
4.2 Quality control in reinforcement
5.1 Reinforcement and casting of slab
5.2 Construction of retaining wall
5.3 Construction of shear wall
5.4 Tremix flooring
5.5 Column reinforcement & concreting
Section-6 Other images
I take this opportunity to extend my gratitude to LUCKNOW DEVELOPMENT
AUTHORITY as well as MAA VAISHNO INFRA CONTRACT PRIVATE LIMITED for
having provided me with an unbelievable practical learning experience during
summer training. It was indeed a pleasure to be a part of such organization.
First and foremost I would like to thank V.K. BHATT, Project In Charge and special
thanks to Mr. RAJESH SRIVASTAVA, Site Engineer and Mr. NIKHIL PATEL, Jr.
Engineer, who support me through inspiring towards this report. He had provided
me a nice industrial experience.
Secondly, I am no less grateful to the other employees and members of the
department for their kind co-operation and spontaneous response.
Last but not the least; I express my gratitude toward my family members, my
teachers and college friends for their kind co-operation and encouragement which
help me in completion of this training.
ALOK KUMAR SINGH
Civil Engineering Department
Project Name: PANCHSHEEL APARTMENT scheme launched by LUCKNOW
DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY and contract for the construction of this multistoried
residential finished house is awarded to MAA VAISNO INFRA CONTRACT PRIVATE
Scope: Design and construction of multistoried finished houses including basement
parking, based on R.C.C. monolithic shear wall concept, using aluminium form
■No. of Towers- 4 ■No. of Flats- 400
■Construction period – 36 months ■Type of contract – Lump Sum
■Architect- Arinem Consultancy Limited ■Estimated project cost – 100 crores
■Agency – Maa Vaishno Infra Contract Pvt. Limited
■Consultant – Manish Shrikhande (Assoc. Professor, Civil Engg. Dept. IIT Roorkee)
■Design of concrete mix by –Department of Civil Engg. IIT Kanpur
■Client name –Lucknow Development Authority (LDA)
The basics needs of human existences are food, clothing’s & shelter. From times
immemorial man has been making efforts in improving their standard of living.
The point of his efforts has been to provide an economic and efficient shelter. The
possession of shelter besides being a basic, used, gives a feeling of security,
responsibility and shown the social status of man.
Every human being has an inherent
liking for a peaceful environment needed for his pleasant living, this object is
achieved by having a place of living situated at the safe and convenient location,
such a place for comfortable and pleasant living requires considered and kept in
■ A Peaceful environment.
■ Safety from all natural source & climate conditions
■General facilities for community of his residential area.
The engineer has to keep in mind the municipal conditions, building bye
laws, environment, financial capacity, water supply, sewage arrangement,
provision of future, aeration, ventilation etc., in suggestion a particular type of
plan to any client.
1.1-TYPES OF BUILDING:
Buildings are classified on the basis of character of occupancy and type of use as.
In such building sleeping accommodation is provided. IT includes the living room,
bed room, kitchen, hall, toilet and bath room. It may be a single storey building or
These includes any building using for school, college, assembly for instruction,
education or recreation.
These building are used for different purposes, such as medical or other treatment
or care of a person suffering from a physical or mental illnesses. These building
includes hospital, sanatoria, jail etc.
These are buildings in which products or material s of all kind of properties are
fabricated, assembled, processed. For example refineries, gas plant, mills etc.
Safety is very important part of any work. An induction video was showed which
highlighted the need and importance of safety at construction site. Most accidents
can be prevented by taking simple measures or adopting proper working
procedures. It is very important to discuss issues on safety and health that should
be paid attention to on construction sites for easy reference by the workers. If we
work carefully and take appropriate safety measures, there will definitely be fewer
work injury cases, and our sites will become a safe and secure place to work in. It
is important to educate everyone in the site regarding safety for following
■ Workers safety
■ Construction progress
■ Standard procedure
■ Legal cases
■ Working efficiency
Two standard guidelines are followed for health & environment safety
■ ISO 14001-2004
■ OHSAS 18001-2007
Precautions at site for safety-
■ Wear protective equipment.
■ Do not drink or take drugs while working.
■ Pay attention to personal hygiene.
■ Do not play in the workplace.
■ Report to your supervisor immediately if you notice any unsafe condition.
1.2.1Equipment used for safety at construction site-
1.2.2.Possible types of accidents and ill health
■Construction Site Fall ■Crane Accidents
■Scaffolding Accidents ■Electrical Accidents
■Trench Collapses ■Fires and Explosions
■Welding Accidents ■Cutting Accidents
■Structure Failure ■Building Collapse
■Supervisor Negligence ■Punch Press Malfunctions
■Compressor Accidents ■Exploding Compressor
■Gas Explosions During Welding ■Run-Over by Operating Equipment
■Unsafe/ Dangerous Equipment Accidents
PANCHSHEEL APARTMENTS SCHEME, SHAHID PATH NH – 28, LUCKNOW
1.3.1Advantages of this site
Formwork is a mould or die used to support or shape the concrete until it attains
sufficient strength to carry its self-weight. Formwork holds the concrete until it
hardens to required shape & size.
1.4.1. Significance of formwork
A-Formwork constitutes 30% of cost & 60% of time in concrete construction.
B-Quality of concrete finish and soundness of concrete depends very much on type
of formwork system.
C-Desired shape of concrete is not possible if formwork is not done properly.
D-Formwork should be properly designed fabricated and erected to receive
E-Accident happen because of faulty formwork and scaffolding or staging.
1.4.2. Safety in using formwork-
A-Components are light in weight for manual holding.
B-Loose or hanging components are minimal.
C-Appropriate use of tools.
D-Minimum operations are involved in each reuse.
1.4.3. Types of formwork-
Good company ply is used
A.1Components of flex system-
■H beam primary or secondary.
■Foue way head.
■Assembly wedge clamp.
■Beam forming head.
■Quick deck system.
Panels with aluminium frame and plywood fitted in it.
Used in raft, shear wall and columns.
Components of aluform system.
■Brackets for safety.
Aluminium formwork is widely used by Construction Company at site.
Components of aluminium formwork-
■External and internal corner.
Formwork used at construction site.
Aluminium panels for form
Flex type of formwork
below reinforcing steel
Fitting of aluminium
panels in formwork
using wig nut
CONSTRUCTION STEPS INVOLVED IN BUILDING CONSTRUCTIONS
2. 1Site clearance.
2. 2Surveying and layout.
2. 4Bar binding and positioning of foundation steel.
2. 6wall construction.
2. 7Beam and Columns.
2. 8Finishing and whitewashing.
2. 1SITE CLEARANCE
A no of conditions determine the kind of building that may be erected on a plot of
ground. These conditions determine where on the plot it may be located. There
are also convenants that are legally binding regulations. These may be setting
height of building, prohibit utility of buildings or ban rooftop network towers etc.
Zoning laws regulate the setback and other factors that play into equation of
house location a lot. Septic tanks also require special considerations and a
certificate of occupancy is also required for some loaning and legal processes.
2. 2SURVEYING AND LAYOUT
Survey is the first step done in any construction site so as to get the required level
of surface. It is also used in level transferrin during construction of retaining wall.
Generally at site survey is carried out by following two instruments.
A-Total Station A total station is an electronic/optical instrument used in modern
surveying and building construction. The total station is an electronic theodolite
(transit) integrated with an electronic distance meter (EDM) to read slope
distances from the instrument to a particular point. By this instrument we can
measure Angle, Distance, Coordinate and also Data Processing.
Advantages: The following are some of the major advantages of using total
station over the conventional surveying instruments
1. Field work is carried out very fast.
2. Accuracy of measurement is high.
3. Manual errors involved in reading and recording are eliminated.
4. Calculation of coordinates is very fast and accurate. Even corrections for
temperature and pressure are automatically made.
5. Computers can be employed for map making and plotting contour and cross-
sections. Contour intervals and scales can be changed in no time.
B-Auto level- It is a leveling instrument which was on site checking the elevations
of various points.
Auto level is a modified form of dumpy level. We used auto level to transfer the
level of ground to retaining wall and setting thickness of slab in which first of all
marking was made to fix the level of particular elevations then casting of slab was
Transferring of surface level to retaining wall
1 – Set the auto level at the building floor level.
2 – Level the instrument.
3 – Take the staff reading at point also on floor level surface.
4 – Locate the staff on the formwork of retaining wall and adjust the staff in such
a way so that reading of staff is same as staff reading in step 3.
Excavation work on the site was being done by the JCB Machines and excavated
soil was transferred using dumpers.
Following measures should be prevented while excavation work.
1-There should be proper timbering while excavation for basement area.
2-Dewatering should be done before construction work.
3-During rainy season excavation work should be avoided.
Excavation of soil for construction of retaining wall.
2. 4. FOUNDATION
Footings are strips of concrete or filled concrete blocks placed under foundation
wall. Gravel or crushed stone footings may also be used. The purpose of footing is
to transfer the loads safely in the ground.
Generally in high rise buildings three types of footings are provided
An isolated footing is used to support the load on a single column. It is usually
either square or rectangular in plan. It represents the simplest, most economical
type and most widely used footing. Whenever possible, square footings are
provided so as to reduce the bending moments and shearing forces at their critical
sections. Isolated footings are used in case of light column loads, when columns
are not closely spaced. An isolated footing must, therefore, be provided by two
sets of reinforcement bars placed on top of the other near the bottom of the
footing. In case of property line restrictions, footings may be designed for
eccentric loading or combined footing is used as an alternative to isolated footing.
Whenever a column is to be provided near the edge of property and it may not be
permissible to extend the footing beyond a certain limit. In such a case, the load
on the footing will be eccentric and hence this will result in uneven distribution of
load to the supporting soil. Hence, an alternative design would be to provide a
common footing to the edge column and to an interior column close to it.
Combined footings under two or more columns are used under closely spaced,
heavily loaded interior columns where individual footings, if they were provided,
would be either very close to each other, or overlap each other. This footing is
called “combined footing”.
A view of Isolated and Combined footings at construction site
ISOLATED FOOTINGS COMBINED FOOTINGS
■Raft footing or Mat footing-
This is a footing that covers the entire area under the structure. This footing is
used when very heavy loads of building are to be transmitted to the underlying soil
having very low and differential bearing capacities. Due to its rigidity, it minimizes
differential settlement. There are several types of raft foundation in use. The most
common types are; the flat slab and the slab-beam types
Raft footings are provided in following cases-
■When the ground water table is high, rafts are often placed over piles to control
■When isolated footings for column overlap on each other.
■When total area of footing slab is more than50% of total area.
■Where underground flooring is required this type of footing is provided and it
serves as footing as well as floor.
After shuttering and scaffolding concreting should be done.
During concreting following equipment’s are used-
■Mounted concrete pump.
■Concrete vibrators (e.g. Needle vibrator, plate/ surface vibrator etc.).
During concreting work following instructions should be followed-
■There should be proper compaction of poured concrete.
■There should be spacers to provide cover to reinforcement.
■There should be proper curing of concrete construction.
2.6 WALL CONSTRUCTION
In framed structure generally brick walls are constructed for partition purpose and
half brick walls are made. But at the site no wall was constructed with brick
because it was a high rise building. All the walls were constructed as RCC wall
because these acts as a shear wall and provide horizontal stability to building and
reduces the deflection.
Workers at site during forming work for RCC wall construction
2.7BEAMS AND COLUMNS
In framed structure fixed type beams are constructed. In such type of beams
proper reinforcement should be done for positive as well as negative bending
In such type of structures short columns are constructed with minimum
eccentricity. In square or rectangular shaped columns min. 4 no’s of 12 mm
diameter bars must be used and spacing should not be more than as per code
Fixed type beam
constructed at site
with positive as well
A view of short
column at site
Slabs are of following types-
■One way slab-
In one way slab load transfer occurs only in one direction. For one way slab aspect
ratio should be more than or equal to 2. In one way slab reinforcement calculated
is provided only in shorter direction and in other direction distribution steel is
■Two way slab-
In two way slab load transfer occurs in both the directions. For two way slab
aspect ratio should be less than 2. In two way slab reinforcement is provided in
both shorter and longer directions and at the supports negative reinforcement is
■Detailing of reinforcement in two way slab is as following
3.1MATERIALS USED FOR CONSTRUCTION AT SITE
At the construction site following materials were being used
The function of cement is to combine with water and to form cement paste. This
paste first sets i.e. it becomes firms and then hardens due to chemical reaction,
called hydration, between the cement and water. On setting & hardening, the
cement binds the aggregate together into a stone like hard mass & thus provides
strength, durability & water-tighten to the concrete. Quality of cement is based on
grade of cement. The grades of cement are as-
■At the site Portland cement of 53 grades (ULTRATECH CEMENT) was used.
■The initial setting time of cement = 30 minutes (1/2 hr.)
■The final setting time of cement = 10 hrs.
Aggregates are small pieces of broken stones in irregular size and shapes.
Neat cement is very rarely used in construction works since it is liable to shrink too
much and become cracks on setting. Moreover, it will be costly to use neat cement
in construction work. Therefore cement is mixed with some inert strong & durable
They also reduce the cost of concrete because they are comparative much cheaper
Types of aggregates:
■Fine aggregate (sand)-
The aggregate, which pass through 4.75 mm, I.S. sieve and entirely retain on 75
micron (.075mm) I.S. sieve is known as fine aggregate.
FINE AGGREGATE OLACED NEAR RMC PLANT
Function of fine aggregate-
The function of using fine aggregate in a concrete mix is to fill up the voids existing
in the coarse aggregate and to obtain a dense and strong concrete with less
quantity of cement and increase the workability of the concrete mix.
The aggregate, which pass through 75 mm I.S. sieve and entirely retain on 4.75 I.S.
sieve is known as coarse aggregates.
■At construction site aggregate used are as follows
Coarse aggregate of 20mm size.
Coarse aggregate of 12.5 mm size (As per concrete mix design).
Fine aggregate in form of coarse sand.
8 mm dia lateral ties 20mm dia longitudional bars
The material that develops a good bond with concrete in order to increase its
strength is called reinforcement. Steel bars are highly strong in tension, shear,
bending moment, torsion and compression.
■Function of reinforcement-
Reinforcement working as a tension member because concrete is strong in
compression and week in tension so reinforcement resists the tensile stresses in
the concrete members. At the site contractor using the high strength steel bars
and T.M.T. (Thermo Mechanically Treated) bars of diameter 8 mm, 10 mm, 16
mm, & 32 mm as per requirement of design.
At construction site 8 mm, 10 mm, 16 mm, & 32 mm (T.M.T.) reinforcement bars
were being used.
The bars were of grade Fe415 for 8mm and Fe500 for other diameter bars.
The bars were of brand TATA TISCON.
■The main reason of using steel bars in RCC is that, the coefficients of thermal
expansion of steel bars and concrete is of approximately equal value.
STEEL BARS IN RETAINING WALL STEEL BARS PLACED AT SITE
3.1.4 Fly ash-
At the site, a small amount of fly ash was also being used which is produced by
burning of coal in thermal power plants.
The main advantages of using fly ash in building construction are as follows-
■It is free of cost.
■It’s consumption reduces environmental pollution.
■It has a fair quality of bonding properties.
Admixtures are generally used to affect workability of concrete mix and to reduce
water content. Admixtures also increases the target mean strength of concrete
At the site HYPERPLAST PC- 711 (MADE BY- DON CHEMICALS) admixture was
being used to increase workability and to reduce quantity of water in concrete
Types of admixtures-
■Air entraining agents
3.2.2Rotary mixer for transporting R.M.C.
3.2.4Boom pump (used in construction of retaining wall where transportation of
R.M.C. was very difficult because of excavation work)
3.2.5Ready Mix Concrete plant
IMAGES OF EQUIPMENTS USED-
Quality control is the part of quality management that ensures products and
service comply with requirements. It is a work method that facilitates the
measurement of the quality characteristics of a unit, compares them with the
established standards, and analyses the differences between the results obtained
and the desired results in order to make decisions which will correct any
Technical specifications define the type of controls that must be carried out to
ensure the construction works are carried out correctly. They include not only
products materials, but also the execution and completion of the works.
■Causes for poor quality These can be summarized as ignorance, poor materials,
poor design, poor detailing, poor workmanship, improper quantity of cement,
improper concrete mix, excess water, inadequate compaction, substandard forms,
inadequate curing, inadequate cover, poor construction practices, poor
supervision and above all lack of technical knowledge.
4.1QUALITY CONTROL IN CONCRETE WORKS
Since concrete keeps a very important place in modern building construction
works, so it is necessary to test and inspection of concrete work at site.
Following points should be kept in mind while concreting.
■There should proper compacting of poured concrete because every 1% void
reduce the strength of concrete by 20%.
■There should be proper curing of concrete work for at least 7to10days because it
helps in gaining the strength.
■Level of formwork should be same throughout the building while casting the slab
■There should be a lab to test the properties of Green Concrete like slump, initial
setting time etc.
■There should be proper portioning of materials while preparing R.M.C.
4.1.1Quality control works in concreting at site
■Needle vibrator was being used for compaction.
■RMC plant was being operated for concrete mixing.
■A lab was established for testing.
At site a concrete mix design was being followed for exact proportioning which
is as follows-
4.2QUALITY CONTROL IN REINFOREMENT
■The reinforcement should be provided at designed spacing.
■Steel bars of designed grade should be used.
■Steel bars should be placed at dry places to prevent them from corrosion.
■For quality assurance of steel a test report was also given to company by TATA
Image of steel test report showing Yield strength & Ultimate tensile strength
5.1REINFORCEMENT PLACEMENT AND CASTING OF SLAB
At there I was involved while placement of reinforcement bar for monolithic
construction of concrete slab with beam.
Reinforcement in the slab with alternate bent up bars provided at supports in
order to provide negative reinforcement at support in two way slab
In concreting, concrete pump, needle vibrator etc. were used
A VIEW OF SLAB AFTER CASTING
REINFORCEMENT IN THE SLAB AT SITE
5.2IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF RETAINING WALL
■In the retaining wall two sided reinforcement was provided with 16mm steel bars
with 200mm c/c spacing.
■The retaining wall was constructed without shear key.
5.3IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF SHEAR WALL
At the site all the walls were provided with two sided reinforcement and
constructed by concrete which may work as shear wall during earthquake or wind
blow. In general buildings lift pit acts as shear wall and reduces horizontal
deflection of building during horizontal loading.
A VIEW OF REINFORCEMENT IN RETAINING
RETAINING WALL AFTER CONSTRUCTION
Tremix flooring is a special type of flooring mostly being done in the industrial
sector. It provides better wearing and tearing properties.
Since the building was also designed for underground parking facility so tremix
flooring was done for this purpose. In this process any type of reinforcement was
not provided, only concreting was done by M35 concrete with required slope.
All Mason tools and tackles required to available at site.
Some special tools required for tremix flooring are as follows-
1. Vacuum de-watering Pump 2. Floater machine
3. Tremix skin 4. Double beam screed vibrator
LIFT PIT SERVES AS SHEAR WALL A VIEW OF REINFORCEMENT IN RCC WALL
5.5 PALCING OF REINFORCEMENT IN A COLUMN
LATERAL TIES WITH 135* BEND
FINAL VIEW OF BASEMENT SLAB AFTER TREMIX FLOORING FOR PARKING PURPSE
Lateral ties 8mm dia provided@150mm c/c in a column
Longitudional steel bars of 20mm dia provided in a column
Other images of construction site
Plan of one tower
Reinforcement for staircase at site