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Youth in agriculture: Entrepreneurial perspective

  1. Why Agriculture is not Attractive to the Youth ? • No money from farming / low income / unstable work / high risk / no prospects • No pride and dignity in farming , low self esteem • Rural life is boring, no “entertainment” • Exclusion in agricultural policy formation and decision- making processes • Lack of rural youth organizations focusing on agriculture .
  2. • Youth will farm if : –Agri will provide decent livelihoods –Agri can be a “wealth multiplier” –Support for capital investments in family farm is available
  3. Value added of Young Professionals At ease with change More computer literate Fresh perspectives More aware of new tools
  4. Disadvantages of Young Professionals Lack conflict resolving skills Lack negotiating skills
  5. Challenges of Youth in agriculture Access to Education ,Knowled ge,Info.. Access to Green jobs Access to markets Engagement in policy dialogue Perceived Challenges of Youth in Agriculture Labour intensive.. Traditional Risky, Not Lucrative.. Access to financial Services Access to Land Redefining Youth in Agri.. Social low status
  6. Youth in Agriculture: An Analysis on Entrepreneurial Perspective Alok Kumar Sahoo Ph.D. research scholar Division of Agricultural Extension, ICAR- IARI, New Delhi
  7. Agri-enterprise development and management CAMBODIA Rebranding agriculture in schools UGANDA AND SAINT LUCIA Young Women Open Schools Pakistan On-the-job training Madagascar PhD training in agriculture Africa Distance learning for young farmers Brazil ICTs for extension services Ghana and Kenya ICT solutions for agriculture Rwanda Youth resource centres on agriculture Zambia Land tenure, farm productivity and enterprise development Philippines Land ownership for Shea butter producers Burkina Faso Distributing hillside land to landless youth Ethiopia Young rural entrepreneur and land fund program me Mexico Reclaiming desert land for young graduates Egypt Small landlords and large tenants program me Taiwan Province of China Short -term land leases for youth Uganda Several Success stories regarding Youth in Agriculture ….(FAO)
  8. According to Census 2011, India has 55 million potential workers between the ages of 15 and 35 years in rural areas. At the same time, the world is expected to face a shortage of 57 million workers by 2020. This presents a historic opportunity for India to transform its demographic surplus into a demographic dividend. Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana Enable Poor and Marginalized to Access Benefits Inclusive Program Design Mandatory coverage of socially disadvantaged groups (SC/ST 50%; Minority 15%; Women 33%) Shifting Emphasis from Training to Career Progression Greater Support for Placed Candidates Post-placement support, migration support and alumni network Proactive Approach to Build Placement Partnerships Guaranteed Placement for at least 75% trained candidates Enhancing the Capacity of Implementation Partners Regional Focus Standards-led Deliver Govt. of India Initiatives….
  9. • "Start-Up India" intended to build a strong eco-system for nurturing innovation and Start-ups in the country • Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) with Self-Employment and Talent Utilization (SETU) Program • “Stand-Up India” to facilitate bank loans between 10 lakh to 100 lakh to at least one (SC) or (ST) borrower and at least one Woman borrower for setting up a greenfield enterprise • National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) was setup as a PPP mode for catalysing the skills landscape in India. • Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) to enable outcome based skill training and become employable and earn their livelihood with certificates and monetary reward with successfully trained, assessed and certified in skill courses run by affiliated training providers. The average monetary reward would be around Rs.8000 per trainee • AC ABC , DAESI and NABARD supported projects to facilitate youth entrepreneurs with initial financial credit and subsidy support. Govt. of India Initiatives….
  10. ICAR initiatives Farmer FIRST, ARYA, Student READY and Mera Gaon Mera Gaurav. ARYA: (i) To attract and empower the Youth in Rural Areas for sustainable income and gainful employment in (ii) To enable network groups to take up resource and capital intensive activities like processing, value addition and marketing (iii)To demonstrate functional linkage with different stakeholders for sustainable development of youth. Implementation: 25 States through KVKs, one district from each State • 200-300 rural youths identified for their skill development in entrepreneurial activities & micro-enterprise units ….. • SAUs and ICAR Institutes as Technology Partners. • Enterprise units of KVK serve as entrepreneurial training units for farmers. The purpose is to establish economic models for youth in the villages so that youths get attracted in agriculture and overall rural situation is improved.
  11. READY refers to “Rural and Entrepreneurship Awareness Development Yojana” and the programme was conceptualized to reorient graduates of Agriculture and allied subjects for ensuring and assuring employability and develop entrepreneurs for emerging knowledge intensive agriculture. Component of the programme Experiential Learning: step forward for “Earn while Learn” concept for high quality professional competence and practical work experience in real life situation to Graduates which facilitates Job Providers rather than Job Seekers . • To promote professional skills and knowledge through meaningful hands on experience. • To build confidence and to work in project mode. • To acquire enterprise management capabilities Rural Agriculture Work Experience The Rural Agricultural Work Experience (RAWE) helps the students primarily to understand the rural situations, status of Agricultural technologies adopted by farmers, prioritize the farmers problems and to develop skills & attitude of working with farm families for overall development in rural area
  12. In Plant Training/ Industrial attachment (10 weeks) • Provide an industrial exposure to the students as well as to develop their career in the high tech industrial requirements. • To expose the students to Industrial environment, which cannot be simulated in the university. Hands-on training ( HOT) / Skill development training – 24 Weeks • To make conditions as realistic as possible. Opportunity for repeated practice. • The students become skilled in the identified practices/methods and gain confidence. • The ultimate aim is to make student ready to pursue the learned skills as their career. Students Projects- 10 weeks To impart analytical skills and capability to work independently To conceptualize, design and implement the proposed work plan Work as a team- sharing work amongst a group learn leadership qualities Learn to solve a problem through all its stages by understanding and applying project management skills.
  13. Success Story : Mr.Elango the entrepreneur of “AAVAI” Amla RTS, squash, candies, mouth refreshner, etc. (Year of Start :2012) Reasons for selecting this project :value addition unit in amla I) Simple manufacturing process. ii)Easy availability of raw material. iii) Low production cost Technical guidance was given by Dr.G.G.Kavitha shri, AP (Food science) working at KVK, Needamangalam Strength of the business No shortage for labour. No middleman hence entire profit goes to the family. No out sale marketing hence no extra cost on paying rent. Presently he is not having any competitor in this business. Weakness of the business Fluctuation in the cost of raw materials Lack of paid labour limits the expansion of production and marketing Lack of storage facility
  14. LICENSING AND OTHER LEGAL ASPECT OF THE FIRM Member of any organization: Farmer producer organization Fees paid: Rs.1000 Procedures for obtaining trade mark Flow chart of processing PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT Output/unit of raw material From 1kg amla = 800ml of juice = 4500ml of RTS produced Therefore, from1kg amla = 15 bottles of RTS (each 300ml) can be obtained Unit cost of production: Rs. 15 per bottle MATERIALS MANAGEMENT Minimum amount of raw material per day : 25 kg
  15. Conclusions: • How to create jobs instead of going behind jobs i.e. self employment becoming an entrepreneur, • How to choose an enterprise, at what scale the production should be started , how the product should be marketed at what cost. • Patience and it should continue until the product catches the market and rules it. • Lesson “of not to be a slave, but to be the ruler”. MARKETING MANAGEMENT: Problems of consumers with regard to demand for the product Lack of awareness Taste and preference Habits FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Production cost per unit of output = Rs.15 Marketing cost per unit of output = Rs.30 Profit percentage = 50%
  16. NGO initiatives.. Farmer's Producer Organization Agriculture Enterprise Facilitation Centre KNH Community Farm Adaptation to Climate Change in Rural Areas of India National Rural Livelihoods Mission Poverty Reduction Through Sustainable Agriculture Revitalization of Rain-fed Agriculture Small Grant Facility
  17. Multidisciplinary enterprise actions by KVK Kannur (Estd. In 2004 at the Pepper Research Station, Panniyur.) SHG to Micro processing unit by continuous motivation Refining Technologies (in Lab scale or Large scale) Incubation center for Branding product Linking entrepreneur to sources of support Hassle free credit through SBI-KVK loan Window KVK-mall to convey the message: “You Can” to entrepreneur Farmer’s Mall for linking entrepreneurs to market  FRESH (Farming & Rural Employment for Social Harmony) Mini-Bioparks Dar.M.J. Joseph Farmers' Science Museum
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  19. Latest ICT initiatives National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) launched a mobile application (Pashu Poshan) that will recommend a balanced diet for cows and buffaloes to help boost dairy farmers' income by raising milk yield and cutting feed cost. • Farmer needs to provide complete animal profile, including breed, age, milk production, fat content in milk. • This resulted in reducing the feed cost by Rs 5-15 per day per animal and an average increase in milk production by an average 300 ml per animal per day . WhatsApp group for farming solutions Punjab WhatsApp group ‘Young Innovative Farmers’, was set up by young farmers and agricultural experts. • To create interest in the field of farming with young farmers sharing good agricultural practices on crop health, seed procurement, soil health, use of fertilizers and pesticides etc.
  20. Complex and interwoven challenges : • Ensuring youth access to the right information is crucial; integrated training approaches to respond to the needs of a more modern agricultural sector; modern ICTs bring youth together to improve their capacities for collective action • Youth specific projects and programmes with the extra push needed to youth enter the agricultural sector • Coherent and integrated response is needed from policymakers • Coordinated response to increase youth’s involvement in the agricultural sector as a rising food demand with increased population and decreasing agricultural productivity Conclusion and Remarks..
  21. Suggestions……... •Make agriculture highly profitable, medium risk taking, and low labour intensive. •Create agriculture a choice to start venture rather than by chance •Set up technical and vocational agri institutes in villages or cluster villages •Training and updating of stakeholders with modern technologies to mobilize rural youth •Make Young Farmers Association.. funding initially ..Let them develop their need based programs •Agriculture inclusion in course curricula in secondary and Higher secondary education •Make sure of formation of FOs and FPOs ..for strengthening backward and forward linkage in agriculture. •Make them accessible to ICT and market to bridge the gap between farmers price and consumers share. •At last not least, each and every initiative needs follow up

Notes de l'éditeur

  1. Respected Juries, scientific fraternity, Students and dear Youth friends. Good afternoon to here we are gathered the energy of Youth to find out the most important thing which I have to highlight ……
  2. Fresh perspectives and new approaches and skills Provide morale through enthusiasm More open and frank in the way they assess projects or ideas More at ease with change and complexity Often have the ability to adapt quicker to working in different circumstances, cultures and languages Tend to reject traditional hierarchical and inter-institutional relationships which results in their ability to build new partnerships. More computer literate Faster learners of new technologies More aware of new products and modern tools and more likely to adapt these for their own work Often transfer their ICT skills to older colleagues
  3. Young professionals may lack the life and work experience to implement projects which may result in errors or delays May lack skills to negotiate or resolve conflicts Time of senior staff for supervision is often lacking Often on short-term contracts which hinders full involvement in projects and the knowledge generated by YPs is not embedded in the organisation May not be taken seriously by senior staff, especially in hierarchical organisations and societies Strategic debate takes place at meetings and travel is often a ‘privilege’ for senior-staff so therefore YPs have limited access to policy debate Lack of access to decision-making levels
  4. Poor and inadequate education limits productivity and the acquisition of skills, while insufficient access to knowledge and information can hinder the development of entrepreneurial ventures. young rural women’s access to education. Inheritance laws and customs in developing countries often make the transfer of land to young women problematic, and so are in need of amendment. Loans to assist youth in acquiring land are also needed, while leasing arrangements through which youth gain access – though not ownership – to land may also prove effective. Most financial service providers are reluctant to provide their services – including credit, savings and insurance – to rural youth due to their lack of collateral and financial literacy, among other reasons. Promoting financial products catered to youth, mentoring programmes and start-up funding opportunities can all help remedy this issue. Encouraging youth to group themselves into informal savings clubs can also prove useful in this respect. Green jobs can provide more sustainable livelihoods in the long run, and can be more labour intensive and ultimately involve more value added. However, rural youth may not have the skills (or access to the necessary skills-upgrading opportunities) to partake in the green economy. Improving youth’s access to education and training – including x formal and informal on-the-job training – is needed to redress this skills mismatch. young people’s limited access to markets [Chapter 5], as without such access youth will not be able to engage in viable and sustainable agricultural ventures. Access to markets for youth is becoming even more difficult due to the growing international influence of supermarkets and the rigorous standards of their supply chains. Young rural women in developing countries face additional constraints in accessing markets, due in part to the fact that their freedom of movement is sometimes limited by cultural norms. Improving access to education, training and market information can all facilitate youth’s access to markets, with niche markets offering particularly significant opportunities for young farmers. Facilitating their involvement in (youth) producers’ groups can be similarly beneficial in this respect. young people’s voices are not heard during the policy process, and so their complex and multifaceted needs are not met. Policies often fail to account for the heterogeneity of youth, and so do not provide them with effective support. To remedy this, youth need the requisite skills and capacities for collective action to ensure that their voices are heard. Policymakers themselves must also actively engage youth in the policymaking process.
  5. As the model is quite effective in its noble intervention in its grooming phase, impacted in socio-economic development of farmers ..which is quite concerned by present Govt. of India named as Krishi Dak. So its imperative to assess the model in details… It’s my fortune to do research on the model in my masters work. So. I tried to highlight the findings from my master’s research work taking 2 of the initial districts.
  6. to promote entrepreneurship at grass root level for economic empowerment and job creation.
  7. The proposal envisages the introduction of the programme in all the Agricultural Universities as an essential prerequisite for the award of degree to ensure hands on experience and practical training by adopting the following components depending on the requirements of respective discipline and local demands
  8. This resulted in reducing the feed cost by Rs 5-15 per day per animal and an average increase in milk production by an average 300 ml per animal per day .