Why Agriculture is not Attractive
to the Youth ?
• No money from farming / low income /
unstable work / high risk / no prospects
• No pride and dignity in farming , low self
• Rural life is boring, no “entertainment”
• Exclusion in agricultural policy formation and
decision- making processes
• Lack of rural youth organizations focusing on
• Youth will farm if :
–Agri will provide decent livelihoods
–Agri can be a “wealth multiplier”
–Support for capital investments in family
farm is available
Value added of
At ease with
of new tools
of Youth in
of Youth in
Youth in Agriculture: An Analysis on
Alok Kumar Sahoo
Ph.D. research scholar
Division of Agricultural Extension, ICAR-
IARI, New Delhi
Agri-enterprise development and management CAMBODIA
Rebranding agriculture in schools UGANDA AND SAINT LUCIA
Young Women Open Schools Pakistan
On-the-job training Madagascar
PhD training in agriculture Africa
Distance learning for young farmers Brazil
ICTs for extension services Ghana and Kenya
ICT solutions for agriculture Rwanda
Youth resource centres on agriculture Zambia
Land tenure, farm productivity and enterprise development Philippines
Land ownership for Shea butter producers Burkina Faso
Distributing hillside land to landless youth Ethiopia
Young rural entrepreneur and land fund program me Mexico
Reclaiming desert land for young graduates Egypt
Small landlords and large tenants program me Taiwan Province of China
Short -term land leases for youth Uganda
Several Success stories regarding Youth in Agriculture ….(FAO)
According to Census 2011, India has 55 million potential workers
between the ages of 15 and 35 years in rural areas. At the same time,
the world is expected to face a shortage of 57 million workers by 2020.
This presents a historic opportunity for India to transform its
demographic surplus into a demographic dividend.
Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana
Enable Poor and Marginalized to Access Benefits
Inclusive Program Design
Mandatory coverage of socially disadvantaged groups (SC/ST 50%;
Minority 15%; Women 33%)
Shifting Emphasis from Training to Career Progression
Greater Support for Placed Candidates
Post-placement support, migration support and alumni network
Proactive Approach to Build Placement Partnerships
Guaranteed Placement for at least 75% trained candidates
Enhancing the Capacity of Implementation Partners
Govt. of India Initiatives….
• "Start-Up India" intended to build a strong eco-system for nurturing innovation
and Start-ups in the country
• Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) with Self-Employment and Talent Utilization
• “Stand-Up India” to facilitate bank loans between 10 lakh to 100 lakh to at
least one (SC) or (ST) borrower and at least one Woman borrower for setting up
a greenfield enterprise
• National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) was setup as a PPP mode for
catalysing the skills landscape in India.
• Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY) to enable outcome based skill
training and become employable and earn their livelihood with certificates and
monetary reward with successfully trained, assessed and certified in skill
courses run by affiliated training providers. The average monetary reward
would be around Rs.8000 per trainee
• AC ABC , DAESI and NABARD supported projects to facilitate youth
entrepreneurs with initial financial credit and subsidy support.
Govt. of India Initiatives….
ICAR initiatives Farmer FIRST, ARYA, Student READY and Mera
Gaon Mera Gaurav.
(i) To attract and empower the Youth in Rural Areas for sustainable
income and gainful employment in agri..enterprises
(ii) To enable network groups to take up resource and capital intensive
activities like processing, value addition and marketing
(iii)To demonstrate functional linkage with different stakeholders for
sustainable development of youth.
Implementation: 25 States through KVKs, one district from each State
• 200-300 rural youths identified for their skill development in
entrepreneurial activities & micro-enterprise units …..
• SAUs and ICAR Institutes as Technology Partners.
• Enterprise units of KVK serve as entrepreneurial training units for
The purpose is to establish economic models for youth in the villages so
that youths get attracted in agriculture and overall rural situation is
READY refers to “Rural and Entrepreneurship Awareness Development
Yojana” and the programme was conceptualized to reorient graduates of
Agriculture and allied subjects for ensuring and assuring employability and
develop entrepreneurs for emerging knowledge intensive agriculture.
Component of the programme
Experiential Learning: step forward for “Earn while Learn” concept for high
quality professional competence and practical work experience in real life
situation to Graduates which facilitates Job Providers rather than Job
• To promote professional skills and knowledge through meaningful hands
• To build confidence and to work in project mode.
• To acquire enterprise management capabilities
Rural Agriculture Work Experience
The Rural Agricultural Work Experience (RAWE) helps the students
primarily to understand the rural situations, status of Agricultural
technologies adopted by farmers, prioritize the farmers problems and to
develop skills & attitude of working with farm families for overall
development in rural area
In Plant Training/ Industrial attachment (10 weeks)
• Provide an industrial exposure to the students as well as to develop their
career in the high tech industrial requirements.
• To expose the students to Industrial environment, which cannot be
simulated in the university.
Hands-on training ( HOT) / Skill development training – 24 Weeks
• To make conditions as realistic as possible. Opportunity for repeated
• The students become skilled in the identified practices/methods and gain
• The ultimate aim is to make student ready to pursue the learned skills as
Students Projects- 10 weeks
To impart analytical skills and capability to work independently
To conceptualize, design and implement the proposed work plan
Work as a team- sharing work amongst a group learn leadership qualities
Learn to solve a problem through all its stages by understanding and applying
project management skills.
Success Story : Mr.Elango the entrepreneur of “AAVAI” Amla RTS, squash,
candies, mouth refreshner, etc. (Year of Start :2012)
Reasons for selecting this project :value addition unit in amla
I) Simple manufacturing process.
ii)Easy availability of raw material.
iii) Low production cost
Technical guidance was given by Dr.G.G.Kavitha shri, AP (Food science)
working at KVK, Needamangalam
Strength of the business
No shortage for labour.
No middleman hence entire profit goes to the family.
No out sale marketing hence no extra cost on paying rent.
Presently he is not having any competitor in this business.
Weakness of the business
Fluctuation in the cost of raw materials
Lack of paid labour limits the expansion of production and
Lack of storage facility
LICENSING AND OTHER LEGAL ASPECT OF THE FIRM
Member of any organization: Farmer producer organization
Fees paid: Rs.1000
Procedures for obtaining trade mark
Flow chart of processing
Output/unit of raw material
From 1kg amla = 800ml of juice
= 4500ml of RTS produced
Therefore, from1kg amla = 15
bottles of RTS (each 300ml) can
Unit cost of production: Rs. 15
Minimum amount of raw material
: 25 kg
• How to create jobs instead of going behind jobs i.e. self
employment becoming an entrepreneur,
• How to choose an enterprise, at what scale the production
should be started , how the product should be marketed at what
• Patience and it should continue until the product catches the
market and rules it.
• Lesson “of not to be a slave, but to be the ruler”.
Problems of consumers with regard to demand for the product
Lack of awareness
Taste and preference
Production cost per unit of output = Rs.15
Marketing cost per unit of output = Rs.30
Profit percentage = 50%
Farmer's Producer Organization
Agriculture Enterprise Facilitation Centre
KNH Community Farm
Adaptation to Climate Change in Rural Areas of India
National Rural Livelihoods Mission
Poverty Reduction Through Sustainable Agriculture
Revitalization of Rain-fed Agriculture
Small Grant Facility
Multidisciplinary enterprise actions by KVK Kannur
(Estd. In 2004 at the Pepper Research Station, Panniyur.)
SHG to Micro processing unit by continuous motivation
Refining Technologies (in Lab scale or Large scale)
Incubation center for Branding product
Linking entrepreneur to sources of support
Hassle free credit through SBI-KVK loan Window
KVK-mall to convey the message: “You Can” to
Farmer’s Mall for linking entrepreneurs to market
FRESH (Farming & Rural Employment for Social
Dar.M.J. Joseph Farmers' Science Museum
Latest ICT initiatives
National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) launched a mobile application
(Pashu Poshan) that will recommend a balanced diet for cows and buffaloes
to help boost dairy farmers' income by raising milk yield and cutting feed cost.
• Farmer needs to provide complete animal profile, including breed, age,
milk production, fat content in milk.
• This resulted in reducing the feed cost by Rs 5-15 per day per animal and
an average increase in milk production by an average 300 ml per animal
per day .
WhatsApp group for farming solutions
Punjab WhatsApp group ‘Young Innovative Farmers’, was set up by young
farmers and agricultural experts.
• To create interest in the field of farming with young farmers sharing good
agricultural practices on crop health, seed procurement, soil health, use
of fertilizers and pesticides etc.
Complex and interwoven challenges :
• Ensuring youth access to the right information is crucial; integrated
training approaches to respond to the needs of a more modern
agricultural sector; modern ICTs bring youth together to improve their
capacities for collective action
• Youth specific projects and programmes with the extra push needed
to youth enter the agricultural sector
• Coherent and integrated response is needed from policymakers
• Coordinated response to increase youth’s involvement in the
agricultural sector as a rising food demand with increased population
and decreasing agricultural productivity
Conclusion and Remarks..
•Make agriculture highly profitable, medium risk taking, and low
•Create agriculture a choice to start venture rather than by chance
•Set up technical and vocational agri institutes in villages or cluster
•Training and updating of stakeholders with modern technologies
to mobilize rural youth
•Make Young Farmers Association.. funding initially ..Let them
develop their need based programs
•Agriculture inclusion in course curricula in secondary and Higher
•Make sure of formation of FOs and FPOs ..for strengthening
backward and forward linkage in agriculture.
•Make them accessible to ICT and market to bridge the gap
between farmers price and consumers share.
•At last not least, each and every initiative needs follow up
Notes de l'éditeur
Respected Juries, scientific fraternity, Students and dear Youth friends. Good afternoon to everyone..now here we are gathered the energy of Youth to find out the most important thing which I have to highlight ……
Fresh perspectives and new approaches and skills
Provide morale through enthusiasm
More open and frank in the way they assess projects or ideas
More at ease with change and complexity
Often have the ability to adapt quicker to working in different circumstances, cultures and languages
Tend to reject traditional hierarchical and inter-institutional relationships which results in their ability to build new partnerships.
More computer literate
Faster learners of new technologies
More aware of new products and modern tools and more likely to adapt these for their own work
Often transfer their ICT skills to older colleagues
Young professionals may lack the life and work experience to implement projects which may result in errors or delays
May lack skills to negotiate or resolve conflicts
Time of senior staff for supervision is often lacking
Often on short-term contracts which hinders full involvement in projects and the knowledge generated by YPs is not embedded in the organisation
May not be taken seriously by senior staff, especially in hierarchical organisations and societies
Strategic debate takes place at meetings and travel is often a ‘privilege’ for senior-staff so therefore YPs have limited access to policy debate
Lack of access to decision-making levels
Poor and inadequate education limits productivity and the acquisition
of skills, while insufficient access to knowledge and information can hinder the development of
entrepreneurial ventures. young rural women’s access to education. Inheritance laws and customs in developing countries often make the transfer of land to
young women problematic, and so are in need of amendment. Loans to assist youth in acquiring
land are also needed, while leasing arrangements through which youth gain access – though not
ownership – to land may also prove effective. Most financial service providers are reluctant to provide their services – including credit, savings
and insurance – to rural youth due to their lack of collateral and financial literacy, among other
reasons. Promoting financial products catered to youth, mentoring programmes and start-up
funding opportunities can all help remedy this issue. Encouraging youth to group themselves
into informal savings clubs can also prove useful in this respect. Green jobs can provide more sustainable livelihoods in the
long run, and can be more labour intensive and ultimately involve more value added. However,
rural youth may not have the skills (or access to the necessary skills-upgrading opportunities) to
partake in the green economy. Improving youth’s access to education and training – including
formal and informal on-the-job training – is needed to redress this skills mismatch. young people’s limited access to markets [Chapter 5], as
without such access youth will not be able to engage in viable and sustainable agricultural ventures.
Access to markets for youth is becoming even more difficult due to the growing international influence
of supermarkets and the rigorous standards of their supply chains. Young rural women in developing
countries face additional constraints in accessing markets, due in part to the fact that their freedom
of movement is sometimes limited by cultural norms. Improving access to education, training and
market information can all facilitate youth’s access to markets, with niche markets offering particularly
significant opportunities for young farmers. Facilitating their involvement in (youth) producers’
groups can be similarly beneficial in this respect. young people’s voices are not heard during the policy process, and so their complex and
multifaceted needs are not met. Policies often fail to account for the heterogeneity of youth, and so do
not provide them with effective support. To remedy this, youth need the requisite skills and capacities
for collective action to ensure that their voices are heard. Policymakers themselves must also actively
engage youth in the policymaking process.
As the model is quite effective in its noble intervention in its grooming phase, impacted in socio-economic development of farmers ..which is quite concerned by present Govt. of India named as Krishi Dak. So its imperative to assess the model in details… It’s my fortune to do research on the model in my masters work. So. I tried to highlight the findings from my master’s research work taking 2 of the initial districts.
to promote entrepreneurship at grass root level for economic empowerment and job creation.
The proposal envisages the introduction of the programme in all the Agricultural Universities as an essential prerequisite for the award of degree to ensure hands on experience and practical training by adopting the following components depending on the requirements of respective discipline and local demands
This resulted in reducing the feed cost by Rs 5-15 per day per animal and an average increase in milk production by an average 300 ml per animal per day .