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Chapter0-Introduction.pdf

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Chapter0-Introduction.pdf

  1. 1. Chapter 0 Introduction
  2. 2. • Electric Machinery – DC Machines, Induction Motors • Single Chip Microcontroller – C8051 • Programable Logical Controller – S7-200-SMART-PLC Table of Contents
  3. 3. • Chapter 0 Introduction to Machinery Principles • Chapter 1 DC Machines • Chapter 3 AC Machinery Fundamentals • Chapter 4 Induction Motors • Chapter 5 Synchronous Machines Electric Machinery
  4. 4. Chapter 0 Introduction • 0.1 Electric machines, Transformers, and Daily Life • 0.2 Materials used in Electric Machines • 0.3 The Magnetic Field and Magnetic Circuit (Terms & Quantities;Production of a Magnetic Field;Magnetic Circuit;Magnetic Behaviour of Ferromagnetic Materials) • 0.4 Related Laws (Faraday’s Law (Induced Voltage from a Time- Changing Magnetic Field;Induced Voltage on a Conductor Moving in a Magnetic Field;Production of Induced Force on a Wire) • 0.5 Rotational motion, Newton’s Law and Power Relationships • 0.6 Real, Reactive and Apparent Power in AC Circuits
  5. 5. An electric machine is a device that can convert either mechanical energy to electrical energy or electrical energy to mechanical energy. A generator is used to convert mechanical energy to electrical energy, A motor can convert electrical energy to mechanical energy. Since any given electric machine can convert power in either direction, any machine can be used as either a generator or a motor. 0.1 Electric Machines, Transformers and Daily life
  6. 6. Almost all electrical machines convert energy from one form to another through the action of a magnetic field, and only machines using magnetic fields to perform such conversions are considered in this course. 0.1 Electric Machines, Transformers and Daily life
  7. 7. Fraday’s Disk 1831,Michael Faraday ,(1791-1867) 0.1 Electric Machines, Transformers and Daily life
  8. 8. • Transformers (stationary) (Single-phase; Three-phase) • DC Machine (rotation) (DC Motor; DC Generator) • AC Machine (rotation) Induction Machine (Asynchronous Machine)——(Motor; Generator ) Synchronous Machine (Motor; Generator ) Types of Electric Machines
  9. 9. These three types of electric devices play important roles in our modern daily life. The transformer is an electrical device that is closely to electrical machines. It converts ac electrical energy at one voltage to ac electrical energy at another voltage level. Electric motors in the home run refrigerators, freezers, vacuum cleaners, blenders, air conditioners, and many similar appliances. In the workplace, motors provide the motive power for almost all tools. Generators are necessary to supply the power used by all these motors. Applications of Electric Machines
  10. 10. LARGE INDUSTRY SMALL INDUSTRY RESIDENTIAL POWER STATION Reference : http://www.nationalgrid.com/uk/img/im_generation.gif POWER GENERATION AND TRANSMISSION 11 KV/240 V 132/33 KV 400/132 KV 132/11 KV
  11. 11. General Industry rolling machine numerically- controlled machine tool metallurgical industry electrolytic aluminium
  12. 12. Transportation
  13. 13. Electrical Power System
  14. 14. Thermal Power
  15. 15. Water Power
  16. 16. Photo Credit: Brian Smith & NREL (Wind Power) Wind Power
  17. 17. Electric Machines
  18. 18. Transformer
  19. 19. 1) Electrically conductive materials 2) Magnetically permeable (ferromagnetic) materials 3) Insulating materials 4) Structural materials 0.2 Materials used in Electric Machines
  20. 20. Magnetic fields are the fundamental mechanism by which energy is converted from one form to another in motors, generators and transformers. 0.3 The Magnetic Field and Magnetic Circuit
  21. 21. 0.3.1 Terms & Quantities in Magnetic Field • Magnetic flux density • Magnetic field intensity • Magnetic flux • Magnetomotive force(mmf) • Reluctance • Permeance • Flux linkage B  H  m R m   m F 
  22. 22. 1) Flux density B [Tesla, T] A current-carrying wire can produce a magnetic field in the area around it, and the flux density is used to describe the strength and the direction of the magnetic fields. H B   2) Magnetic field intensity H [Ampere per meter, A/m] H is another quantity used to describe the strength and the direction of the magnetic fields. The relationship between B and H is expressed as 0.3.1 Terms & Quantities in Magnetic Field
  23. 23. The constant  may be further expanded to include relative permeability which can be defined as below: r o     NOTE: •  is the magnetic permeability of the material. The permeability of vacuum is the magnetic constant • 0=4π×10-7H/m or approximately 1/800000. 0.3.1 Terms & Quantities in Magnetic Field
  24. 24. The value of relative permeability is dependent upon the type of material used. The higher the amount permeability, the higher the amount of flux induced in the core. Relative permeability is a convenient way to compare the magnetizability of materials. 0.3.1 Terms & Quantities in Magnetic Field
  25. 25. Because the permeability of iron is so much higher than that of air, the majority of the flux in an iron core remains inside the core instead of travelling through the surrounding air, which has lower permeability. The small leakage flux that does leave the iron core is important in determining the flux linkages between coils. 0.3.1 Terms & Quantities in Magnetic Field
  26. 26. 3) Flux Φ [Weber, Wb] The total flux Φ flowing in a cross section A is expressed as A BdA    Assuming that the flux density B in the cross section of ferromagnetic coreis constant and the cross section A is constant, then: BA   0.3.1 Terms & Quantities in Magnetic Field
  27. 27. 4) Magnetomotive force (MMF) F [Ampere turn, A] A current-carrying coil can produce a magnetic field, if the turns of the coil is N, the current is I, the total Magnetomotive force (MMF) F in the coil can be expressed as: NI F  0.3.1 Terms & Quantities in Magnetic Field
  28. 28. 5) Magnetic reluctance Rm [Ampere-turns per Weber, A/Wb, H-1] Reluctance is similar to resistance in the circuit. If the magnetic permeability of the material in the magnetic circuit is μ, the cross-section of the magnetic circuit is A, the length of the magnetic circuit is l, then the magnetic circuit reluctance Rm can be calculated by A l Rm   • 0.3.1 Terms & Quantities in Magnetic Field
  29. 29. 6) Magnetic conductance (permeance) m [Henry, H] The reciprocal of reluctance Rm called magnetic permeability m l A Rm m     1 7) Magnetic flux linkage  [Weber-turn] The magnetic flux linkage  is defined as the number of coil turns N multiplied by the flux    N  0.3.1 Terms & Quantities in Magnetic Field
  30. 30. Ampere’s Law – the basic law governing the production of a magnetic field by a current: where H is the magnetic field intensity produced by the current Inet and dl is a differential element of length along the path of integration. H is measured in Ampere-turns per meter. net I dl H   A current-carrying wire produces a magnetic field in the area around it. 0.3.2 Production of a Magnetic Field
  31. 31. mean path length, lc I  N turns CSA Consider a current currying wire is wrapped around a ferromagnetic core; 0.3.2 Production of a Magnetic Field
  32. 32. 1)Applying Ampere’s law, the total amount of magnetic field induced will be proportional to the amount of current flowing through the conductor wound with N turns around the ferromagnetic material. 2)Since the core is made of ferromagnetic material, the majority of the magnetic field will be confined to the core. c c Hl Ni Ni H l    B = H = c l Ni  0.3.2 Production of a Magnetic Field
  33. 33. 0.3.3 Magnetic Circuit The path which the magnetic flux passing is called magnetic circuit. The flow of magnetic flux induced in the ferromagnetic core can be made analogous to an electrical circuit hence the name magnetic circuit.
  34. 34. Flux distribution of a transformer 0.3.3 Magnetic Circuit
  35. 35. 0.3.3 Magnetic Circuit
  36. 36. 0.3.3 Magnetic Circuit
  37. 37. 0.3.3 Magnetic Circuit
  38. 38. 1)Referring to the magnetic circuit analogy, F is denoted as magnetomotive force (mmf) which is similar to Electromotive force in an electrical circuit (emf). F=R 0.3.3 Magnetic Circuit
  39. 39. 2) The polarity of the mmf will determine the direction of flux. To easily determine the direction of flux, the ‘right hand curl’ rule is listed: a) The direction of the curled fingers determines the current flow. b) The resulting thumb direction will show the magnetic flux flow. 0.3.3 Magnetic Circuit
  40. 40. right hand curl 0.3.3 Magnetic Circuit
  41. 41. 3)The element of R in the magnetic circuit analogy is similar in concept to the electrical resistance. It is basically the measure of material resistance to the flow of magnetic flux. Reluctancein this analogy obeys the rule of electrical resistance (Series and Parallel Rules). Reluctance is measured in Ampere-turns per weber. Series Reluctance, Req = R1 + R2 + R3 + …. Parallel Reluctance, 1/Req = 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 + …. 0.3.3 Magnetic Circuit
  42. 42. 5 ) By using the magnetic circuit approach, it simplifies calculations related to the magnetic field in a ferromagnetic material, however, this approach has inaccuracy embedded into it due to assumptions made in creating this approach (within 5% of the real answer). Possible reason of inaccuracy is due to: a) The magnetic circuit assumes that all flux are confined within the core, but in reality a small fraction of the flux escapes from the core into the surrounding low-permeability air, and this flux is called leakage flux. 0.3.3 Magnetic Circuit
  43. 43. b) In ferromagnetic materials, the permeability varies with the amount of flux already in the material. The material permeability is not constant hence there is an existence of non-linearity of permeability. c) For ferromagnetic core which has air gaps, there are fringing effectsthat should be taken into account as shown: N S 0.3.3 Magnetic Circuit
  44. 44. 0.3.4 Magnetic Behaviour of Ferromagnetic Materials Materials which are classified as non-magnetic material and magnetic material . 1) non-magnetic materials ( is constant; a linear relationship between the B and I ) 2) magnetic materials( is not constant and not linear, and  is much higher than µ o. the permeability  is the property of a medium that determines its magnetic characteristics.
  45. 45. The magnetization curve and B-H curve. Note: The curve corresponds to an increase of DC current flow through a coil wrapped around the ferromagnetic core. unsaturated region saturation region knee knee unsaturated region saturation region 0.3.4 Magnetic Behaviour of Ferromagnetic Materials
  46. 46. 1) the plot of flux versus the mmf is called a saturation curve or a magnetization curve. 2) The region where the flux changes rapidly is called the unsaturated region. 3)The region in which the curve flattens out is called saturation region, and the core is said to be saturated. 4)The transition region is called the ‘knee’ (膝 点)of the curve. 0.3.4 Magnetic Behaviour of Ferromagnetic Materials
  47. 47. Advantage of using a ferromagnetic material for cores in electric machines and transformers is that one gets more flux for a given mmf than with air (free space). Generators and motors depend on magnetic flux to produce voltage and torque, so they need as much flux as possible. So, they operate near the knee of the magnetization curve (flux not linearly related to the mmf). As magnetizing intensity H increased, the relative permeability first increases and then starts to drop off. 0.3.4 Magnetic Behaviour of Ferromagnetic Materials
  48. 48. Energy Losses in a Ferromagnetic Core I. Hysteresis Loss 1. Let’s discuss the application of AC current source at the coil. Using our understanding previously, we can predict that the curve would be as shown, 2. A typical flux behaviour (or known as hysteresis loop in a ferromagnetic core is as shown in the next page. 0.3.4 Magnetic Behaviour of Ferromagnetic Materials
  49. 49. 0.3.4 Magnetic Behaviour of Ferromagnetic Materials
  50. 50. NOTE:  The amount of flux present in the core depends not only on the amount of current applied to the windings of the core, but also on the previous history of the flux in the core. HYSTERESISis the dependence on the preceding flux history and the resulting failure to retrace flux paths. When a large mmf is first applied to the core and then removed, the flux path in the core will be abc. When mmf is removed, the flux does not go to zero – residual flux. This is how permanent magnets are produced. To force the flux to zero, an amount of mmf known as coercive mmfmust be applied in the opposite direction. 0.3.4 Magnetic Behaviour of Ferromagnetic Materials
  51. 51. Hyteresis loss  m h fB p  Eddy loss  r d B f p m h 2 2 2  0.3.4 Magnetic Behaviour of Ferromagnetic Materials
  52. 52. Soft magnetic material Hard magnetic material 0.3.4 Magnetic Behaviour of Ferromagnetic Materials
  53. 53. B  eddy current 0.3.4 Magnetic Behaviour of Ferromagnetic Materials
  54. 54. eddy current 0.3.4 Magnetic Behaviour of Ferromagnetic Materials
  55. 55. 1.A time-changing magnetic field induces a voltage in a coil of wire if it passes through that coil. 2. A moving wire in the presence of a magnetic field has a voltage induced in it. 3. A current-carrying wire in the presence of a magnetic field has a force induced on it. 0.4 Related Laws
  56. 56. 0.4.1 FARADAY’S LAW – Induced Voltage from a Time- Changing Magnetic Field Before, we looked at the production of a magnetic field and on its properties. Now, we will look at the various ways in which an existing magnetic field can affect its surroundings. Faraday’s Law: If a flux passes through a turn of a coil of wire, voltage will be induced in the turn of the wire that is directly proportional to the rate of change in the flux with respect of time dt d eind   
  57. 57. If there is N number of turns in the coil with the same amount of flux flowing through it, hence: dt d N eind    where: N – number of turns of wire in coil. Note: the negative sign at the equation above which is in accordance to Lenz’ Law(楞次定律) which states: ‘The direction of the build-up voltage in the coil is as such that if the coils were short circuited, it would produce current that would cause a flux opposing the original flux change.’ 0.4.1 FARADAY’S LAW – Induced Voltage from a Time- Changing Magnetic Field
  58. 58. ind d e dt   1 N i i      The equation above may be rewritten into, where  (flux linkage) is defined as: (weber-turns) Faraday’s law is the fundamental property of magnetic fields involved in transformer operation. Lenz’s Law in transformers is used to predict the polarity of the voltages induced in transformer windings. 0.4.1 FARADAY’S LAW – Induced Voltage from a Time- Changing Magnetic Field
  59. 59. Examine the figure below: i i 0.4.1 FARADAY’S LAW – Induced Voltage from a Time- Changing Magnetic Field
  60. 60. If a conductor moves or ‘cuts’ through a magnetic field, voltage will be induced between the terminals of the conductor at which the magnitude of the induced voltage is dependent upon the velocity of the wire assuming that the magnetic field is constant. This can be summarised in terms of formulation as shown: eind = (v × B) l 0.4.2 Induced Voltage on a Conductor Moving in a Magnetic Field
  61. 61. Note: 1.The value of l (length) is dependent upon the angle at which the wire cuts through the magnetic field. Hence a more complete formula will be as follows: eind = (v × B)l cosθ where: - angle between the conductor and the direction of (v × B) 2. The induction of voltages in a wire moving in a magnetic field is fundamental to the operation of all types of generators. 0.4.2 Induced Voltage on a Conductor Moving in a Magnetic Field
  62. 62. 1. A current carrying conductor present in a uniform magnetic field of flux density B, would produce a force to the conductor/wire. Dependent upon the direction of the surrounding magnetic field, the force induced is given by: 2. The direction of the force is given by the left-hand rule. Direction of the force depends on the direction of current flow and the direction of the surrounding magnetic field. A rule of thumb to determine the direction can be found using the left-hand rule as shown below:   F i l B   0.4.3 Production of Induced Force on a Wire
  63. 63. the left-hand rule 0.4.3 Production of Induced Force on a Wire
  64. 64. 3. The induced force formula shown earlier is true if the current carrying conductor is perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field. If the current carrying conductor is position at an angle to the magnetic field, the formula is modified to be as follows: sin F ilB   Where:  - angle between the conductor and the direction of the magnetic field. 0.4.3 Production of Induced Force on a Wire

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