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1
Estimating Radiation dose-rate by
Biodosimetry
2
By A.Haghbin
Why is biodosimetry needed?
A variety of exposure types and combinations of exposures could result from an
improvised nucl...
4
Biodosimetry and assessment of radiation dose
 There have been many studies addressing the development of a gene
expressi...
Irradiation and culture of blood
 We collected blood from healthy volunteers (5 females and 3 males)
between the ages of ...
The tools used in this method
Bioreactor 50 tubes
X-Rad 320 Biological Irradiator
 incubator
7
X-ray Radiation
Acute
• 0.56 Gy
• 2.23 Gy
• 4.45 Gy
Low Dose-Rate(LDR)
• 0.56 Gy :1.03 Gy/min at 3h
• 2.23Gy:1.03 Gy/min...
Microarray analyses
 RNA was isolated 24 h after the start of exposure following the
recommended protocol for the Prefect...
Quantitative RT-PCR
 The High-Capacity cDNAArchive Kit
 used to prepare cDNA from total RNA from three of the female
don...
Quantitative RT-PCR
Data were normalized to RPLPO gene expression levels.
used Genorm to assess the stability of the hous...
Microarray results12
Summary of genes differentially changed (p <0.001) in various class comparisons
Microarray results13
Biological process enrichment analysis using PANTHER
Comparison of low-dose rate and acute exposure
compared the gene expression response to 24-hour
continuous LDR exposure w...
Validation of gene expression by quantitative PCR15
Validation of microarray results by qRT-PCR. Shown here are log2 (fold...
Gene expression patterns
 gene expression patterns that were in common between LDR and
acute dose-rates and also those th...
Gene expression patterns
17
Patterns of gene expression response, shown as microarray results of representative genes, in ...
Studies
study on a prostate cancer cell line measured gene
expression changes after a 24-hour chronic exposure to
dose-ra...
Studies
GO analyses of the LDR gene expression response against
PANTHER pathways revealed that the p53 pathway was
found ...
The heat map in depicts genes that are regulated by p53 across all
three doses in the LDR treatment group20
Missing values...
Conclusions
 This study investigated the effects of dose-rate on human blood cell gene
expression, over a 24-hour period....
22
23
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biodosimetry

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biodosimetry

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. Estimating Radiation dose-rate by Biodosimetry 2 By A.Haghbin
  3. 3. Why is biodosimetry needed? A variety of exposure types and combinations of exposures could result from an improvised nuclear device (IND) or radioactive dispersal device (RDD). In order to develop appropriate radiological triage approaches, biodosimetry assays must be tested and optimized for their ability to detect the contribution of various factors such as dose and dose-rate Since most victims of large mass casualty radiation emergencies would not be wearing personal dosimeters, other methods must be used to estimate the dose they received Biodosimetry helps to Predict the time course and severity of the phases of the Acute Radiation Syndrome Facilitate short term triage, including where the patient should be treated Suggest countermeasure that will be needed to treat ARS, especially acutely Assess the risk of long term consequences from radiation exposure. 3
  4. 4. 4
  5. 5. Biodosimetry and assessment of radiation dose  There have been many studies addressing the development of a gene expression-based signature for estimation of dose, in peripheral blood irradiated ex vivo  There are in vivo studies on transcriptomic changes in radiation workers; and also changes induced by internal emitters in mice, that have determined dose and dose-rate effects in organs and blood  In the study presented in this paper, exposure of human blood ex vivo to LDR and acute irradiation gave a robust gene expression response as measured by microarrays and validated by qRT-PCR 5
  6. 6. Irradiation and culture of blood  We collected blood from healthy volunteers (5 females and 3 males) between the ages of 26 and 59 years  27 mL of blood from each donor was collected into Sodium Citrate tubes and mixed well. Blood was diluted in equal volumes of RPMI solution prior to irradiations in 50 mL Tube Spin Bioreactor 50, which are optimized for culture incubation and gas exchange. 6
  7. 7. The tools used in this method Bioreactor 50 tubes X-Rad 320 Biological Irradiator  incubator 7
  8. 8. X-ray Radiation Acute • 0.56 Gy • 2.23 Gy • 4.45 Gy Low Dose-Rate(LDR) • 0.56 Gy :1.03 Gy/min at 3h • 2.23Gy:1.03 Gy/min at 12 h • 4.45 Gy:1.03 Gy/min at 24 h 8
  9. 9. Microarray analyses  RNA was isolated 24 h after the start of exposure following the recommended protocol for the Prefecture RNA kit from 5Prime (Gaithersburg, MD).  RNA used for microarray hybridization had an RNA Integrity Number of >8.5. 9
  10. 10. Quantitative RT-PCR  The High-Capacity cDNAArchive Kit  used to prepare cDNA from total RNA from three of the female donors not used in the microarray hybridization experiments.  Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed for selected genes using Taqman assays on a Low Density array (384- well microfluidic card), to confirm microarray experiment findings for selected genes  validation of gene expression changes from microarrays using real time qRT-PCR in independent biological replicates 10
  11. 11. Quantitative RT-PCR Data were normalized to RPLPO gene expression levels. used Genorm to assess the stability of the housekeeping genes included on the Low Density array panels, and RPLPO gene expression was found to be most stable in our data. RPLPO was therefore used to normalize the qRT-PCR data. 11
  12. 12. Microarray results12 Summary of genes differentially changed (p <0.001) in various class comparisons
  13. 13. Microarray results13 Biological process enrichment analysis using PANTHER
  14. 14. Comparison of low-dose rate and acute exposure compared the gene expression response to 24-hour continuous LDR exposure with that of the acute exposure at 4.45 Gy There were 243 genes differentially expressed when comparing the two different exposure rates, with a moderate range of fold change between 0.3 and 3.9  all of which were expressed at lower levels in cells exposed to the protracted dose 14
  15. 15. Validation of gene expression by quantitative PCR15 Validation of microarray results by qRT-PCR. Shown here are log2 (fold changes) of genes that were determined to be differentially regulated by the 4.45 Gy dose by both dose-rates. The graph on the left shows the mean log2 (fold change) after LDR 4.45 Gy; and the graph on the right is the mean of log2 (fold change) after Acute 4.45 Gy exposure. All microarray (blue bars, five biological replicates) and qRT-PCR (red-bars, three biological replicates) results are average fold-change from paired analyses
  16. 16. Gene expression patterns  gene expression patterns that were in common between LDR and acute dose-rates and also those that showed differences that could distinguish samples that received The other pattern of interest was genes that only appeared to respond to LDR and not to acute dose.  There were two types of genes in this group, one in which the genes were up regulated by LDR only, not acute doses and the other in which genes were down regulated by LDR only, not acute doses a dose by a lower dose-rate 16
  17. 17. Gene expression patterns 17 Patterns of gene expression response, shown as microarray results of representative genes, in all panels (a- d), open symbols with solid lines represent Low dose-rate (ldr) responses and closed symbols with dotted lines represent acute dose rate (acute) gene expression responses
  18. 18. Studies study on a prostate cancer cell line measured gene expression changes after a 24-hour chronic exposure to dose-rates as low as 7-17 μGy/min, and unexpectedly, found that the gene expression response was more similar to that of a 2 Gy acute dose than a 10 cGy acute dose study in mice, which were given a 5-week continuous dose of radiation at 2 μGy/min (cumulative dose 10.5 cGy, which was previously shown to be effective on gene expression as a single acute dose 18
  19. 19. Studies GO analyses of the LDR gene expression response against PANTHER pathways revealed that the p53 pathway was found to be significantly affected at all doses (LDR 0.56Gy, p-value 5.0 × 10-4; LDR 2.23 Gy, p-value 4.8 × 10-5; and LDR 4.45 Gy, 1.5 × 10-5) 19
  20. 20. The heat map in depicts genes that are regulated by p53 across all three doses in the LDR treatment group20 Missing values that were not significant at a particular dose are shown in grey; the scale shows shades of yellow to red (upregulated genes) and shades of green (down- regulated genes)
  21. 21. Conclusions  This study investigated the effects of dose-rate on human blood cell gene expression, over a 24-hour period. Although there were many similarities in immune function and stress response genes, we found that low dose-rate exposure can result in distinctive gene expression patterns compared with acute exposures.  We were able to successfully distinguish low dose-rate exposed samples from acute dose exposures, using classification algorithms on our gene expression data. These genes are candidates for further validation studies to develop a gene- based signature that can detect low dose-rate exposures for large-scale biodosimetry. 21
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