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Human Resource Management: Unit No. 2

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Human Resource Management: Unit No. 2

As per PTU's HRM Syllabus, MBA Unit No. 2: Recruitment & Selection: Meaning & Concept, Process & Methods Recruitment & Selections. Induction & Placement Process.
Training & Development: Meaning & Concept of Training & Development, Methods of Training & Development, Difference Between Training & Development, Aligning Training to Business Needs, Future of Training & development. Career Planning & Coaching & Mentoring.

As per PTU's HRM Syllabus, MBA Unit No. 2: Recruitment & Selection: Meaning & Concept, Process & Methods Recruitment & Selections. Induction & Placement Process.
Training & Development: Meaning & Concept of Training & Development, Methods of Training & Development, Difference Between Training & Development, Aligning Training to Business Needs, Future of Training & development. Career Planning & Coaching & Mentoring.

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Human Resource Management: Unit No. 2

  1. 1. HR Quotes • You need to have a collaborative hiring process Steve Jobs – Co-founder, CEO and Chairman of Apple • “I am convinced that nothing we do is more important than hiring and developing people. At the end of the day you bet on people, not on strategies.” Lawrence Bossidy – former COO of General Electronics
  2. 2. • “You can have the best strategy and the best building in the world, but if you don’t have the hearts and minds of the people who work with you, none of it comes to life.” Renee West, president and COO at Luxor and Excalibur Hotel and Casino • “I AM convinced that although training and development are important, Recruitment and Selection are much more important.” Stephen R. Covey – author of the Seven Habits of Highly Effective People
  3. 3. • You can buy a man’s time, you can buy a man’s physical presence at a given place; you can even buy a measured number of skilled muscular motions per hour or day; but you cannot buy enthusiasm, you cannot buy initiative; you cannot buy loyalty; you cannot buy devotion of hearts, minds and souls. You have to earn these things. Mr. Clarence Francis (Chairman- General foods)
  4. 4. Recruitment • The process of attracting individuals in sufficient numbers with the right skills and at appropriate times to apply for open positions within the organization. • The process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applications are submitted. The result is a pool of applicants from which new employees are selected. • Recruitment is a process of inviting applications from prospective employees.
  5. 5. Features of Recruitment • It is a positive act. • It involves a series of planned activities. • It helps in developing applicant pool. • It represents the first contact between the organization and the potential employees. • It intends to locate and reach out to potential applicants.
  6. 6. Why is recruitment and selection so important? Costs of mistakes: engaging incompetent, underqualified, unmotivated employees; employing another person requires repeating the process and generates costs
  7. 7. Factors Governing Recruitment
  8. 8. Steps in Recruitment and Selection Process The recruitment and selection process is a series of hurdles aimed at selecting the best candidate for the job.
  9. 9. Sources of Recruitment • Internal Sources -: Advertising jobs inside the business and appointing internally from its existing employees Transfer , Promotions. • External Sources-:Firms fill vacancies by recruiting new employees Press Advertisements , Educational Institutions, Placement Agencies, Employment Exchange, Labour Contractors, Recruitment at factory Gate.
  10. 10. Recruitment sources: - •Competitors “Make a list of people you want to hire and when the right moment comes hire them.” David Oglivy "If each of us hires people who are smaller than we are, we shall become a company of dwarfs, but if each of us hires people who are bigger than we are, we shall become a company of giants." David Oglivy
  11. 11. Recruitment sources: - •Garbage can (Direct Applications)
  12. 12. Recruitment sources: - •Outdoor (Roadside Billboards) & Transit (posters on buses & subway
  13. 13. Recruitment sources: - •Professional & Trade Associations
  14. 14. Recruitment sources: - •Newspapers & Magazines
  15. 15. Recruitment sources: - •Campus Recruitment
  16. 16. Recruitment sources: - •Radio
  17. 17. Recruitment sources: - •Consultants
  18. 18. Recruitment sources: - •Promotions
  19. 19. Recruitment sources: - •Employee Referrals
  20. 20. Recruitment sources: - •Recruitment by Internet (Applicants Provider Websites)
  21. 21. Recruitment sources: - •Direct Mail campaign
  22. 22. Recruitment sources: - •Gate Hiring
  23. 23. Recruitment sources: - •Job Fairs
  24. 24. Recruitment sources: - •Transfers
  25. 25. Recruitment sources: - •Employment Exchange
  26. 26. Recruitment sources: - •Blogs
  27. 27. Electronic Recruiting • Advantages: • Cost effective • Time saver • Reaches a large number of applicants 7–30
  28. 28. 5–31 An Indian Online Employment Portal
  29. 29. Advantages and Disadvantages of Internal and External Recruiting
  30. 30. Alternatives to Recruitment • Overtime • Employee Leasing • Temporary Employment
  31. 31. HR Quote • "The competition to hire the best will increase in the years ahead. Companies that give extra flexibility to their employees will have the edge in this area." Bill Gates
  32. 32. • "If you can hire people whose passion intersects with the job, they won't require any supervision at all. They will manage themselves better than anyone could ever manage them. Their fire comes from within, not from without. Their motivation is internal, not external." Stephen Covey
  33. 33. Selection • Selection is the process of picking individuals (out of the pool of job applicants) with requisite qualifications and competence to fill jobs in the organization. • Selection is a negative process.
  34. 34. Basic Selection Criteria: Education, Experience ,Skills and abilities • “Somebody once said that in looking for people to hire, you look for three qualities: integrity, intelligence, and energy. And if you don’t have the first, the other two will kill you. You think about it; it’s true. If you hire somebody without [integrity], you really want them to be dumb and lazy.” • Warren Buffett
  35. 35. Differences between recruitment and selection
  36. 36. Selection Procedure • Preliminary Interview • Application blank • Selection Test • Employment Interview • Reference Check and Background Analysis • Medical Examination • Final Approval • Evaluation
  37. 37. Selection Tests • Psychological tests : Aptitude test (IQ) b Test on subject b Test on general knowledge b Test on English usage b Numerical ability b Aptitude test (Like clerical, Stenography etc.) b Mechanical comprehension test (Aptitude) • Personality Tests • Performance test
  38. 38. Selection Process for Kent RO
  39. 39. Job Description • BASIC DETAILS • Position : Management Trainee • Qualification: Any Graduation + PGDM/ MBA • Experience : Nil • Reporting to: Manager/ Sr. ASM/ ASM • Job Location: Pan India location preferably of his choice
  40. 40. OBJECTIVE • Ready to work in an ever learning environment and face challenges while being innovative, creative and flexible. Shall fully commit to vision & mission of the organization and put forward conscious efforts, investing time and energy to meet challenges in promoting company’s products & securing sales in Corporate & Consumer Houses & as per assigned targets.
  41. 41. JOB RESPONSIBILITIES • Some important job responsibilities of MTs will include to: • Will be responsible for Sales & Marketing to promote company’s product among Corporate & Consumer Houses; • Undertaking planning & preparing own monthly, quarterly & yearly targets to achieved his own Key Result Areas; • Discussing these KRAs with his Reporting Officer and get these signed up before preparing implementation strategy. • Preparing strategy to convert these targets into sales strategies & implementing these for his own assigned geographical territory. • Push and extraction of sales orders as per targets assigned in KRA.
  42. 42. • Visit to minimum 2 Corporate & 5 Consumer Houses every day and explore sale leads from them. • Converting these leads into potential sales orders. • Developing relationship with key corporate officials & owners of consumer houses to maintain contact to secure sales orders or leads. • Promoting company’s products through RWA by organizing sales promotion activities in housing societies & multi residential towers. • Reporting daily through Tablet, SMS, whatsapp or mail on sale & revenue generated. • Reporting weekly and monthly sales of achieved against assigned targets; • Preparing detailed reports with Executive Summary & Data Analysis annexed with main report to work out sales strategy for Corporate Sales & Consumer Houses.
  43. 43. INTERVIEW Types and Common Errors What you need to know before you start talking
  44. 44. 50
  45. 45. 51 INTERVIEW MEANING : A mutual view or sight : Formal meeting INTERVIEWEE : One who is interviewed interviewer : One who interviews
  46. 46. INTERVIEW AIMS OF THE INTERVIEW b To Elicit Information b To assess the suitability of a person to the job/position b To assess the job / position / Company by the interviewee
  47. 47. Types of Interviews Selection Interview Appraisal Interview Exit Interview Types of Interviews
  48. 48. 54 INTERVIEW JOB INTERVIEW: b Family background b Communication Skill b General aptitude b Knowledge on subject b Personality b Potential to handle the job/to grow b Remuneration package
  49. 49. 55 INTERVIEW PATTERNED INTERVIEW (For freshers): b Formal application b Set of questions are asked b To clear doubts and clarifications
  50. 50. Interview Content Situational Interview Stress Interview Behavioral Interview Job-Related Interview Types of Questions
  51. 51. Situational Questions • Would you lie for the company ? • “The Opinion Question” – What do you think about …Abortion…The President…The Death Penalty…(or any other controversial subject)? • If you won $10 million lottery, would you still work?
  52. 52. Behavioral Interviewing The premise: The most accurate predictor of future performance is past performance in a similar situation. The interviewer will be probing to determine if you have the key competencies identified for the position.
  53. 53. • Tell me about a situation when your work was criticized ? • Tell me about something you did – or failed to do – that you now feel a little ashamed of ?
  54. 54. 60 INTERVIEW STRESS INTERVIEW (For Experienced): b Direct Stress questions are asked b To find out the suitability of the candidate to the existing position b To clear doubts and clarifications
  55. 55. 61 INTERVIEW INTERVIEW IS NOT A ONE WAY PROCESS: b The interviewer is assessing the Interviewee for the suitability of the job or position b The interviewee is assessing whether the job is suitable to him with all related perks Therefore, it is a two way process of communication.
  56. 56. 62 INTERVIEW TIPS FOR INTERVIEWEE: b Collect the information well in advance about the Industry/Products/Culture etc. before appearing for interview b Be punctual for the interview b Present yourself neatly/Good mannered
  57. 57. INTERVIEW TIPS  Your hair should be clean and combed.  Nails should be clean and trimmed.  Arrive at least 10 minutes before your interview. The extra minutes will also give time to fill out any forms or applications that might be required.  Turn off your cell phone or pager.  Read the newspaper of the previous 7 days (at least) 63
  58. 58. 64 INTERVIEW TIPS b Sit relaxed and in up right position without crossing your legs b Beware of your forced habits - Breaking knuckles/Shaking your legs/Squeezing your palms/Wiping your face etc.,
  59. 59. 65 INTERVIEW TIPS b Be bold and confident b Anticipate the type of questions
  60. 60. 66 INTERVIEW TIPS b Be polite and ask for queries in case of doubt while answering the questions b High light your strengths whenever a chance is given to you or create a chance to high light your strengths
  61. 61. INTERVIEW TIPS b Try to draw attention of the interviewer on specific subject you know well and try to take an opportunity to express them well b Mind your body language b Do not get frustrated or loose temper for some irritant questions posed
  62. 62. 68 INTERVIEW TIPS b Do not have the negative feeling if you do not answer some questions b Do not try to bluff or cover your wrong answers b If you do not know the answer say I am sorry/ I am afraid I cannot answer the question etc.,
  63. 63. 69 INTERVIEW TIPS b If you cannot understand the question ask politely to repeat the question b Do not try to argue with the interviewer b As far as your credentials are concerned take a chance to show/exhibit them - by doing so you will be drawing their attention towards the subject you know well
  64. 64. INTERVIEW TIPS b Face the interviewer while answering. Answer to the person who posed you the questions
  65. 65. 71 INTERVIEW TIPS  Have a good eye contact with the panel members of the interview Wait for a question to be completed . Do not be hasty in answering even when you know the answer well
  66. 66. 72 INTERVIEW TIPS b Do not take shelter under or blame the college or organization or lecturers for not answering some questions b Be clear in what you say - Do not mumble
  67. 67. 73 INTERVIEW TIPS b Do not try to take sympathy by expressing your family problems / financial problems to the interviewer b At the end of interview, if you have still doubts on anything, ask for clarification from the interviewer
  68. 68. 74 INTERVIEW TIPS b Do not accept or ask for whatever job the Company will offer (Say like, not related to your aptitude) bDo not plead or beg for the job
  69. 69. 75 INTERVIEW TIPS b Do not walk out of the interview in a huff. Wait until the interview is completed b After completing the interview, do not forget to wish or say thanks before you
  70. 70. Most Common Job Interview Mistakes • Incorrect attire: • Unprepared answers: • Unprepared questions: • Forgetting to do your research: • Slips of the tongue: • Ringing of cell phones: • Checking the time: 76
  71. 71. • Asking about salary too early: • Giving your demands: • Dropping too many names: • Lying:
  72. 72. Induction Or Orientation • Planned introduction of employees to their jobs, their co – workers and the organization. • Orientation also called Induction, is designed to provide a new employee with the information he or she needs to function comfortably and effectively in the organization.
  73. 73. Purpose of Orientation Feel Welcome and At Ease Begin the Socialization Process Understand the Organization Know What Is Expected in Work and Behavior Orientation Helps New Employees
  74. 74. Types of Induction Programme • Formal Vs Informal • Individual Vs collective
  75. 75. Contents of Induction Programme
  76. 76. Placement • Placement refers to the allocation of people to jobs. • It includes initial assignment of new employees and promotion, transfer, or demotion of present employees.
  77. 77. Placement Problems • Difficulty with the placement is that we tend to look at the individual but not at the job.
  78. 78. TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT • Training plays an important role in manpower development. Employees need training to perform their duties effectively, eliminate wastage and reduce accident. • While training is directed towards maintaining and improving current job, managerial development seeks to develop skills for future jobs.
  79. 79. Training, Development, Education Training • “Training is a short-term process utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which non-managerial personnel learn technical knowledge and skill” (Steinmez) • Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job (Edwin Flippo)
  80. 80. Training, Development, Education EDUCATION • “Education is the understanding and interpretation of knowledge “(Mamoria) DEVELOPMENT • “Development is an inclusive process with which both managers and individual employees are involved. It offers opportunities to learn skills, but also provide an environment designed to discovering and cultivating basic attitudes and capabilities and facilitating continuing personal growth” (Dale Yoder).
  81. 81. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT TRAINING DEVELOPMENT Short-term process Long-term process Knowledge & skills for specific For overall development Purpose. Primarily related to technical Related to managerial, skills learning behavioural & attitudinal development
  82. 82. OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING • To impart the basic knowledge and skill to the new entrants and enable them to perform their job well; • To equip the employee to meet the changing requirements of the job and the organization; • To teach the employee the new techniques and ways of performing the job. • To prepare employees for higher level tasks and build up a second line of competent managers.
  83. 83. Training Program Need Assessment Deriving Instructional Objectives Designing Training & Development Program Implementation of Training Program Evaluation
  84. 84. TRAINING NEEDS-THE KAS GAP K A S required KAS GAP K A S Available Training Need K =Knowledge A =Attitude S =Skill
  85. 85. Analyzing Training Needs • Need Assessment -: Diagnoses the present problems & future challenges to be met through training and development. Task Analysis: Assessing New Employees’ Training Needs Performance Analysis: Assessing Current Employees’ Training Needs Training Needs Analysis
  86. 86. Identification of Training Needs/Training Need Analysis The need for training should be considered when: • New methods or work procedures are introduced. • Production targets are not met. • Employees lack a sense of purpose and commitment to the company. • Cost of operations are increasing without apparent reasons. • Quality of the product or service is declining. • Accidents are increasing.
  87. 87. Identification of Training Needs/Training Need Analysis • Pride in the job and company is missing. • Complaints and grievances are excessive. • Workers are asking numerous questions about the job. • High turnover and absenteeism are prevalent. • Frequent stoppage of work and rampant indiscipline among employees. • Late coming and poor time keeping by employees.
  88. 88. Identification of Training Needs/Training Need Analysis To determine the type of training required by employees, the following efforts on the part of management, help to determine the same: • A detailed discussion between the supervisor and manager will help to determine his training needs. • The counseling session at the time of performance review and feedback. • The exit interview at the time of leaving the job by the employee and detail discussion by superiors. • Promotion/selection interview for higher position.
  89. 89. Training Process • Deriving an instructional objectives -: It help to know the inputs for the training program and as well as for the measures of success that would help assess effectiveness of the training program. • Designing training & development program -: 1. Who are the trainees? 2. Who are the trainers? 3. Methods & techniques? 4. Level of training? 5. Learning principles? 6. Where to conduct the program?
  90. 90. Training process • Implementation of training program • Evaluation
  91. 91. 8–102 On-the-Job Training 1 Follow Up Present the Operation Steps to Help Ensure OJT Success Prepare the Learner Do a Tryout 2 3 4
  92. 92. TRAINING METHODS ON THE JOB TRAINING METHODS • Job rotation • Apprenticeship and coaching • Job instruction Training.
  93. 93. TRAINING METHODS OFF THE JOB TRAINING • Class room lectures • Conferences/seminars • Group discussions/case study analysis • Vestibule training • Role playing • Simulation • Management Games
  94. 94. • Job rotation  A process whereby employees rotate in and out of different jobs.  Systematically moving workers from one job to another.
  95. 95. TRAINING METHODS APPRENTICESHIP TRAINING: • Work-study training method with both on- the-job and classroom training. • Theoretical knowledge and practical learning are given to trainees in training institutes. It is normally given to artisans, electricians, plumbers, fitters etc. for a duration of 2-5 years. • It is carried out under the guidance of an experienced worker or supervisor. The apprentice is paid a stipend by the organization they undergo training.
  96. 96. • JOB INSTRUCTION TRAINING (JIT): JIT proved very successful, effective and popular. It consists of the following steps: • Prepare trainees • Present the training programme • Try-out knowledge and skill learned • Follow-up by assigning work to the trainee under close supervision.
  97. 97. OFF THE JOB TRAINING • Class room training: It is to convey rules, policies, procedures. It is simple and efficient, have only minimum cost and time. The disadvantages are: One way communication, passive participation.
  98. 98. Conferences, seminars , workshops: • Discuss points of common interest for enriching knowledge and skill. This is a group activity.
  99. 99. Group discussions /case study analysis • “ Case study is based on the belief that managerial competence can be best attained through the study, contemplation and discussion of concrete cases” (Bass). • Experience is the best teacher is the principle used in this method.
  100. 100. Vestibule Training • Employees are trained on the equipment they are employed, but the training is considered away from the work place. For training a machine shop operator necessary equipment required in an actual machine are duplicated.
  101. 101. Simulation • Any training activity in which actual working environment is artificially created as near and realistic as possible.
  102. 102. Balanced Scorecard
  103. 103. Role playing • A real life situation is simulated by a group of trainees in which each take up the role of different persons-customers, vendors, accountants, supervisors as the case may be.
  104. 104. In Basket Exercise: • This is for developing decision making skills among the trainees. The trainee is provided with a basket or tray of papers/files related to his functional area. The trainee is expected to study and make recommendations on the problem situation.
  105. 105. TRAINING METHODS-Off the job training. • Management games: It is a classroom exercise, in which teams of students compete each other to achieve certain common objectives. In this method the trainee learn by analyzing problems by using some intuition and by taking trial and error type of decisions.
  106. 106. 8–118 Computer-Based Training (CBT) • Advantages • Reduced learning time • Cost-effectiveness • Instructional consistency • Types of CBT • Interactive multimedia training • Virtual reality training
  107. 107. Distance and Internet-Based Training Teletraining Videoconferencing Internet-Based Training E-Learning and Learning Portals Distance Learning Methods
  108. 108. Future Trends That Will Affect Training 1. The use of new technologies for training delivery will increase 2. Demand for training for virtual work arrangements will rise 3. Emphasis on capture and storage and use of intellectual capital will increase 4. Companies will rely on learning management systems, integration with business processes, and real-time learning
  109. 109. Future Trends That Will Affect Training 5. Training will focus on business needs and performance 6. Training departments will develop partnerships and will outsource 7. Training and development will be viewed more from a change model perspective
  110. 110. New Technologies for Training Delivery • Cost of these new technologies will decrease and Training costs will be substantially reduced through use of new technologies • Companies can use technology to better prepare employees to service customers and generate new business
  111. 111. New Technologies for Training Delivery • Technologies allow trainers to build into training many of the desirable features of a learning environment • Technology will allow training to be delivered to contingent, decentralized employees in a timely, effective manner
  112. 112. Companies must consider • Use of mobile technology, • Alignment with corporate objectives, • The ability to measure effectiveness. • Access to the world’s best talent
  113. 113. New Trends in T & D • Mobile Learning: With people working flexible hours across a number of locations, working from home or spending a lot of time on the move, the availability of learning programmes on mobile devices means they can do their training at a time and place that suits them. • Alignment with Corporate Objectives: Team members and leaders have to ask, “What do we need to be able to do so we achieve our business goals?” and “How will we measure and show the impact of training on performance?”
  114. 114. • Improved Analytics: Focus will shift to measuring changes in behaviors and KPIs such as revenue per employee and analyzing how those results correlate to training initiatives.
  115. 115. Career • Career is a sequence of upward movements in the career ladder achieved by an employee.
  116. 116. Career Planning • Career Planning is process by which one selects career goals and path to achieve the goals. • The deliberate process through which someone becomes aware of personal skills, interests, knowledge, motivations, and other characteristics; and establishes action plans to attain specific goals.
  117. 117. • Career planning refers to the process of identifying and accomplishing the employees’ career objectives through a systematic way of skill identification, assessment and development.
  118. 118. What Is Career Planning? • Career planning is the process through which employees: • Become aware of their own interests, values, strengths, and weaknesses. • Obtain information about job opportunities within the company. • Identify career goals. • Establish action plans to achieve career goals.
  119. 119. Features of career planning • Career planning normally follows a bottom-up approach. • It is an ongoing process. • It aims at matching the individual’s career goals with the opportunities available.
  120. 120. Features of career planning (contd.) • It is a means of achieving employee progression and organizational efficiency. • It is the collective responsibility of the individual employee and the firm. • It is normally made in a dynamic environment.
  121. 121. Why Is Career Planning Important? • From the company’s perspective, the failure to motivate employees to plan their careers can result in: • A shortage of employees to fill open positions • Lower employee commitment • Inappropriate use of monies allocated for training and development programs
  122. 122. 11 - 144 Why Is Career Planning Important? (continued) • From the employees’ perspective, lack of career management can result in: • Frustration • Feelings of not being valued by the company • Being unable to find suitable employment should a job change be necessary due to mergers, acquisitions, restructuring, or downsizing.
  123. 123. Process of career planning (contd.)
  124. 124. Career Planning Workshops • A planned learning event in which participants complete career planning exercises and inventories and participate in career planning exercises. • Helps in increasing their job satisfaction, navigate through the company, and helping them think about and plan their careers.
  125. 125. A good coach will make the players see what they can be rather than what they are. –Ara Parseghian
  126. 126. Coaching • Providing guidance, feedback, and direction to ensure successful performance • New employees or those who are undertaking new roles need someone to show them what they must do
  127. 127. • ‘People will exceed targets they set themselves’. • (Gordon Dryden)
  128. 128. Coaching Principle 150 • You cannot motivate another person, but you can create situations which will enthuse them and encourage them to motivate themselves.
  129. 129. Demonstrating what to do
  130. 130. 153 Coaching Competencies Communication Communicating Instructions Providing Feedback Listening for Understanding Performance Improvement Setting Performance Goals Rewarding Improvement Dealing With Failure Assessing Strengths and Weaknesses Relationships Building Rapport and Trust Motivating Others Working With Personal Issues Confronting Difficult Situations Execution Responding to Requests Following Through
  131. 131. Differences Between Coaching & Mentoring Coaching Mentoring Goals To correct To support and guide Initiative The coach The mentee Focus Immediate situation Long-term Roles Heavy on telling Heavy on listening

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