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Social mobility oo5

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Social mobility oo5

  1. 1. PRESENTED BY AMMARA VIRK (BBA)
  2. 2. CONTENTS • Social Mobility • Open and Closed stratification system • Types of Social Mobility • Causes of Social Mobility • Effects of Social Mobility
  3. 3. Social Mobility Movements of individuals or groups from one position in a society’s stratification system to an other is called Social Mobility.
  4. 4. Types of Social Mobility • • • • Vertical Mobility Horizontal Mobility Intergenerational Mobility Intra-generational Mobility
  5. 5. Horizontal Mobility The movement of an individual from one social position to another of the same rank.
  6. 6. Vertical Mobility • The movement of an individual from one social position to another of a different rank. • e.g pilot become a lawyer. • Vertical mobility involves: 1-upword mobility 2-downward mobility
  7. 7. Intergenerational Mobility • Changes in the social position of children relative to their parents.
  8. 8. Intragenerational Mobility • Changes in social position within a person’s adult life.
  9. 9. Open stratification system • A social system in which the position of each individual is influenced by his or her achieved status. --Open systems encourage competition among members of society.
  10. 10. Negative effects Ethnic and culture problems • Unequal division of population • Unemployment • Increase in crime
  11. 11. Positive Effects • • • • • Betterment in living standard National unity is increased Projection of different ideas Tendency of personal freedom End of obsolete customs
  12. 12. Causes of Social Mobility • • • • • Geographical causes Political and Economic causes Desire of better living standard Desire of higher education Development of communication and media
  13. 13. Social Policy and Stratification • The Issue --Governments in all parts of the world are searching for the right solution to welfare. --How much subsidy should they provide? --How much responsibility should fall on the shoulders of the poor?
  14. 14. • The Setting – --In 1996, a historic “workfare” act was passed in the United States that ended the long-standing federal guarantee of assistance to every poor family that meets eligibility requirements. It required that all able-bodied adults work after two years of benefits. – --Other countries vary widely in their commitment to social service programs.
  15. 15. • Sociological Insights – --Many sociologists view the debate over welfare from a conflict perspective. – --From a conflict perspective, the backlash against welfare recipients reflects deep fears and hostility toward the nation’s urban and predominantly African American and Hispanic underclass. – --Tax breaks and other “corporate welfare” granted by the government for corporations should also be examined closely.
  16. 16. • Policy Initiatives – --There are some success stories in the new “workfare” program of the United States. – --However, it is too early to see how a dipping economy and prospects for the hard-core jobless will affect the program in the long run. – --Medical coverage and child care remain issues for the the working poor. – --In North America and Europe, solutions are often left to the private sector while government policy initiatives at the national level all but disappear.
  17. 17. Thank You Office Make Presentation much more fun

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