• Module 1: Theories, Principles and Models in Education and Training
• In this chapter we will examine some of the key contributors and influencers in the field of Educational research. We will
examine how scientific research and studies evolved in the 20th Century to formulate the methods and key ideas on which
we base our 21st Century teaching and learning.
• As a practitioner, you may be familiar with some of the key theories and approaches to learning and education, and you
may also be although may already be familiar with the application of models. One of the main aims of this module is to
help you to build on these experiences and learn to ‘walk in the shoes’ of teachers or educators, sand to reflect on some
of the main theories and approaches to education and training. In this module, you will explore
• As you work through this module, you will have access to a range of teaching materials, including PowerPoint slides,
articles and handouts which will provide an overview of the key content and approaches you will need in preparation
towards your formative assessments. There are also videos, activities, multiple-choice questions and discussion board
activities that will enable you to test your own knowledge and understanding as well as sharing your thoughts with your
peers. It is important that you work through all the material, and fully engage in the activities, because this will prepare
you for all assessments contained within Module 1.
3. Learning Outcomes for the Module
• Chapter 1: Learning:
• 1.1 Analyse theories, principles and models of learning.
• 1.2 Explain ways in which theories, principles and models
of learning can be applied to teaching, learning and
• 1.3 Analyse models of learning preferences
• 1.4 Explain how identifying and taking account of
learners’ individual learning preferences enables inclusive
teaching, learning and assessment.
• Chapter 2: Communication
• 2.1 Analyse theories, principles and models of
• 2.2 Explain ways in which theories, principles and models
of communication can be applied to teaching, learning
• Chapter 3: Assessment
• 3.1 Analyse theories, principles and models of
• 3.2 Analyse ways in which theories, principles and models
of assessment can be applied to assessing learning
• Chapter 4: Curriculum Development
• 4.1 Analyse theories and models of curriculum
• 4.2 Explain ways in which theories and models of
curriculum development can be applied in developing
curricula in own area of specialism
• Chapter 5: Reflection and Evaluation
• 5.1 Analyse theories and models of reflection and
• 5.2 Explain ways in which theories and models of
reflection and evaluation can be applied to reviewing
4. Learning Outcomes: In this chapter you will cover the
following learning outcomes
1.1 Analyse theories, principles and models of learning.
1.2 Explain ways in which theories, principles and models of
learning can be applied to teaching, learning and
1.3 Analyse models of learning preferences
1.4 Explain how identifying and taking account of learners’
individual learning preferences enables inclusive teaching,
learning and assessment.
5. Behaviourism-Key ideas
• Activity 1
• Click on the image below to watch a video summary and
answer the following questions:
• One of the reward and punishment examples provided in the
video involve punishment for late arrival, what are the ethical
considerations of this approach?
• How can behaviourism be used in classroom and behaviour
• What are the implications for learning with behaviourism?
The research and focus of Behaviourism stems from the
• Learner as passive recipient of the ‘stimulus’ or information
• Stimulus can be positive (application of stimulus) or negative
• Learning is measured by a change in behaviour
• Can be measured easily
• Does not take into account prior learning, experiences,
Famous claim which summarises the key ideas behind
"Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own
specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any
one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I
might select -- doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes,
even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants,
tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors."--John
Watson, Behaviourism, 1930
6. The Research and Origins of Behaviourism
• Pavlov (1903) Conducted experiments on dogs involving
specific stimulus (bell) and reward (food) which produced a
specific response (salivation). He found that the bell
produced the response even in the absence of the reward
(anticipation). This was coined as ‘classical conditioning’.
• Thorndike (1905) formalised behaviourism through
experiments in which required behaviours were rewarded
• Watson (1920) Conditioned phobia into an infant, further
research into classical conditioning. This time a human
subject was used. This experiment raises some serious
ethical concerns, raising questions on the validity and
reliability of the research. See http://psychyogi.org/watson-
• Skinner (1936) Introduced the concept of Operant
Conditioning and Shaping by building on the work of
Thorndike and the stimulus, response, reward and
• Bandura (1963) Social learning theory, Bobo doll studies
revealed that children learned emotional responses from
• Click on the image below for a summary of theories of
• Answer the following questions in relation to the video:
• Explain the difference between traditional views of learning
and psychology's definition of learning.
• Reflect on how classical conditioning may impact on
learning. Think about prior learning experiences and barriers
• The video provides several examples of operant
conditioning. How can these ideas be used in the classroom
behaviour management, and in encouraging learners to
examine and critically reflect on their key learning?
“The method and practice of teaching, especially as an
academic subject or theoretical concept”
• Instruction-based teaching
• Depends on teachers’ behaviour, knowledge and
understanding and beliefs
• Builds on students’ prior learning and experience, known
• Click on the image to read about some key best practice
pedagogical approaches and answer the following
questions. We will cover each of the sections in more
detail later in the programme.
• Make a note of at least 3 of these approaches to add to/
improve in your teaching practice. Explain how you will
• Are there any areas you already do well? Explain how this
works well for you in terms of teaching and learning.
9. Why Pedagogy is still relevant today and in the future
• With the high emphasis on learner-centred approaches,
critics have argued that pedagogy does not develop 21st skills
such as creativity, critical thinking and problem solving.
• However, the policy advice paper (click opposite) in line with
UNESCO 2030 education targets explains that Pedagogy is
vital in meeting the key Education and Sustainability targets
“Pedagogy interacts with and draws together beliefs about
learners and learning, teacher and teaching, and curriculum.”
• Furthermore, research indicates that with correct training
and development for teachers, a consistent pedagogical
approach which is globally recognised can emerge.
• This Pedagogy would allow teachers to be aware of their own
cognitive and experiential factors influencing their
instruction. And also provide appropriate best fit learning
instruction and curricula which aligns with sociocultural
norms and wider environmental factors impacting upon the
10. 21stCentury Pedagogy
• Click on the image opposite and watch this
brief 2 minute video for an overview of
pedagogy and 21st Century skills.
• Make some brief notes on key ideas which
you can implement into your own teaching
• Developed, as a response to behaviourism, in the 1960s
Cognitivism overcame the popularity of behaviourism.
Cognitivism considers the human mind and individual
behaviours to be complex. Thus rejecting the notion of
human beings being ‘programmable’ to respond to stimuli
• It focusses on the learners’ inner mental activities and
aspects such as thinking, memory, knowing, and problem-
solving are explored. Cognitivism seeks to explore how the
human mind processes information. The metaphor
commonly used is of the brain as a ‘computer’ where
information is processed and leads to certain outcomes.
12. Key contributors to the work of cognitivism include:
Marriner David Merill (1937 – ) developed First
Principles of Instruction and Instructional Transactional
• The key ideas which can be derived from Merrill’s
• Learning is most effective when applied/ related to
real-world scenarios/ applications
• Previous learning needs to be re-enforced and new
learning is most effective when learning is clearly
structured, allowing the learner to organise their
• When learning can be demonstrated in real-world
tasks and integrated into everyday life.
• Instructional transactional theory forms the basis of
computer-based instructional design and is concerned
with algorithms and patterns of learning.
Charles Reigeluth (1946 – )
• Elaboration theory;
• Learning should be organised from ‘simple leading to
• Information/ topics which link together should be
grouped and taught together.
• This information should be arranged into “learning
episodes”/ units/ modules which are not too large/
• Learners can choose and control which units/
modules they will study first (help to sequence the
13. Key contributors to the work of cognitivism continued:
Robert Mills Gagné (1916 – 2002)
• Similar to Reigeluth’s Elaboration Theory, Gagné also believed in
organising learning content in simple-complex formats. His
research led to three areas of instruction which need to be
carefully planned in order for successful learning outcomes. He
considered ‘Planning, Instruction and Evaluation
• The key principles of his research we can interpret:
• The instruction should be tailor-made to the outcome desired
• The conditions or learning and the learning environment is just as
important as the learning itself.
• Different learning outcomes will require specific conditions,
leaning methods, resources, teaching strategies and assessments
• The amount of prior knowledge and the level at which the
learning takes place determines the outcome
Jerome Bruner (1915-2016)
• Building on the work of Jean Piaget and Seymour Papert. Bruner’s
work comprised of the key ideas as below:
• We learn best through discovery
• Discovery happens through: Problem solving and inquiry-based
learning where we draw on our past experiences to raise
questions and experiment
• We are more likely to remember/ retain concepts and knowledge
which we have discovered on our own.
• Examples could be: Case studies, guided discovery, problem
based learning, simulation based learning (role plays, interviews,
scenarios) amongst others.
• As with most theories of learning there are advantages and
potential disadvantages. One positive factors in line with 21st
Century learning initiative is that it “develops creativity and
problem solving skills” But critics have argued that the learner-
centric nature of the process makes it “difficult for teachers to
detect problems and misconceptions” . More detail can be found
• Humanism gained popularity in the 1960s with the
rejection of behaviourist and cognitive models.
Humanism focusses on freedom, dignity, potential and
looks at the person as a whole as they grow and develop
over time. Learner motivation and actualisation is the
key goal of Humanism.
• Key ideas consist of a supportive and co-operative
learning environment where the teacher is a facilitator
and learners are encouraged and motivated to develop
themselves within the framework of the learning.
• Key assumptions include that:
• Human Beings have free will
• People are innately good
• All people have an innate need/ desire to better
themselves and improve the world around them.
• People are motivate to reach Self-Actualisation, which
constitutes personal growth fulfilment and satisfaction in
• Activity 6
• Do you agree with all of the above?
• How do you think Self Actualisation can be reached
15. The main contributors of Humanism include:
Abraham Maslow (1943)
• In response to conditioning theories, behaviourism and
cognitivism, Maslow developed a 5 level hierarchy of
motivational needs (Maslow’s hierarchy of needs).
• He believed that the complex nature of human behaviour
is linked to attainment of physical, social, psychological
goals/needs. In the hierarchy the lower level needs must
be satisfied first in order to progress to the higher ‘order’
needs. However multiple needs can be satisfied together
when participating in an activity.
• An example of this may be studying a learning
programme where praise is given for a group project
which was completed with teamwork and collaboration.
This may satisfy several needs such as ‘Belongingness,
Esteem and Self-Actualisation’
16. Malcolm Knowles (1913 – 1997)
• Known for popularising the term ‘Andragogy, Malcolm Knowles
focussed on Adult learning theory and outlined the key features of the
Adult learner: Self-Concept: The gradual shift from being a dependant
personality to being self-directed in one’s own life, learning and
Adult Learner Experience
The body of information through life experience into adulthood
provides the necessary foundations on which to make sense of and
build new knowledge.
• Readiness to Learn
As in Maslow and Rogers’ research and conclusions, adults actively
participate in new learning to develop themselves in order to cater for
the tasks they need to perform in their social roles/ to reach self-
• Orientation to Learning
Into adulthood the knowledge gained from new learning becomes
applicable immediately, or we only seek knowledge that we need to
solve a problem which already exists for us. Therefore orientation in
less subject-centred and more problem-centred.
• Motivation to Learn
Adult learners become internally motivated to learn. In relation to the
above Adults are expected to develop themselves holistically to satisfy
their self-concept and social roles, and also to solve problems which
may require additional knowledge in order to find creative solutions.
17. From Knowles’ work we can apply the following into our teaching
• Plan curriculum and schemes of work which facilitate
application or simulation to a real-life scenario
• Ensure initial diagnostic assessments/ discussions/
feedback are recorded and used to allow learners to
participate in the design of their lessons and activities
• Plan lessons which are learner-centred and focus on
using/ relating to prior knowledge, learning and
experiences as a foundation to make sense of new
• Start new learning with a problem-centred approach.
You may start with the assignment/ assessment questions
and requirements and then build you lessons and
resources around what learners need to know in order to
• Activity 7
• How does a teacher's self-concept affect their ability to
reflect constructively on their experiences?
• Reflect on your own self-concept and what you will need
to be aware of?
• Consistent with Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Rogers’s
work focussed on the notion and personality theory of
‘self-concept’. The self-concept theory reveals that the
‘self’ is our ‘inner personality’ which is constructed by our
childhood experiences and evaluation by others. How we
interpret our sense of self determines how we behave
with the goal of reaching our ‘ideal self’. This is tied to
our feeling of ‘self-worth’, or how we feel about
ourselves. This is further broken down into ‘Self-worth,
Self-image and Ideal Self’. All of these features contribute
to the way in which we perceive our experiences, behave
in response and what we synthesise and learn as a result.
Key areas to consider in our teaching practice:
• From Rogers’ work we can see the importance of praise,
recognition, learner centred approaches, belonging,
relationships, rapport, teambuilding and tailor made
approaches which allow the learner to relate to and
interpret the learning.
• Activity 8
• Reflect and make notes on how you can build in more
praise and recognition into your teaching practice.
• What activities have you carried out or currently using to
increase a sense of belonging and team-building.
• How can you encourage the learner to relate to the
leaning in a personal/ individual way in order to make
sense/ interpret key concepts.
19. The Learner Centred Classroom
• Gives learners control over their learning rather than
providing instruction. The teacher provides the
framework, support and guidance whilst the learner
discovers their learning through problem-based
• The teacher provides clear ‘learning skills’ instruction
to help learners ‘learn how to learn’. Skills such as:
how to think, solve problems, evaluate evidence,
analyse arguments, generate hypotheses. These skills
are taught most effectively when taught alongside the
• Learners are encouraged to reflect upon content.
They are taught ‘how to reflect’ in order to reflect
upon what they are learning and how they are
learning it. This allows them to reflect, and critically
analyse what they are learning. This level of
ownership aims to empower learners to feel in-
control and promote ownership of their own learning
• The teacher shares control of the learning process
with the learners. This could be in the form of
transparency over learning outcomes and assessment
criteria, in which learners may be able to negotiate
how they are assessed, or when they are ready to be
assessed (within a given timeframe).
• Collaboration is key in a learner centres classroom,
peer to peer learning is encourages. Learners and
teachers are viewed as a community with a shared
purpose. Teachers have the expertise but will be open
to learning from their students.
20. Video summary, a learner-centred approach
• Watch the following video for a brief
illustration for a summary and recap the some
of the key ideas in the learner-centred
21. Tuckman’s Group Development as a useful tool for cohesive
‘learning communities/ groups’
• Bruce Tuckman's (1965/77) research into the
development stages a group of people go through is a
popular tool to manage the behaviours and processes
when forming and developing teams. Applied to the
classroom it is useful to use in conjunction with
Belbin's team roles (below) to facilitate the
development and allow individuals to assume certain
(useful) functional roles within the group/ team.
• It is important to remember that the teacher/
instructor should avoid trying to prevent
uncomfortable/ confrontational stages in Tuckman's
process, but should act as a facilitator to help the
group to move through that phase quickly. If the
group do not go through the processes fully, roles will
not be fully established and the group may 'regress'
back into earlier stages of development instead of
reaching the 'Performing' stage where the group is
ideally working to their full potential.
• It is also important to note that new people joining or
people leaving (the group) can also disrupt the
dynamic and force the group back into the 'forming'
or 'storming' stage.
• Activity 9
1. Watch the video (below) and make some notes on
the role of the teacher/ instructor/ leader at each
stage of the process.
2. Reflect upon instances where groups you have
worked with in the past may have displayed some
of the features as outlined in Tuckman’s group
3. Examine Belbin's team roles. In a group of
individuals what skills would need to be developed
if there are 2 individuals who fit the 'Plant'
behaviours and 2 individuals who meet the 'Shaper'
profile, but no Resource investigators?
4. What stage of Tuckman's group development may
happen intensively for the above group?
5. What could the teacher do?
22. Tuckman’s Group Development with Belbin’s Team Roles
• Study the table opposite for a summary of Belbin’s team roles,
which can be considered in conjunction with Tuckman’s group
development theory. The Belbin website provides a detailed
outline of each team role: https://www.belbin.com/about/belbin-
team-roles/ (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
• Belbin's team roles are not meant to be used as a personality
profiling test, but more as a 'behavioural tool'. It is worth noting
that these are behaviours can change over time and with
experience. For example, a 'Plant' may gain develop excellent
communication and presentation skills to communicate their
ideas. At the same time; a specialist may learn new skills from
others in the group and gain an interest in a wide range of topics,
learning about them to work more effectively with others as their
team relationships develop.
• Belbin lists 'allowable weaknesses' as these may be a 'side effect'
of the individual being very good at their specialist role. However
in reality we need to work to minimise these weaknesses and
develop the individual.
• The team roles can be used effectively to plan how to resolve to
conflict situations and issue with progress in the group.
• Added to the differentiation document, the teacher could use this
as part of their initial diagnostic assessment.
• However when using any profiling tool, caution is recommended
to avoid bias and inaccurate profiling of individuals.
23. Individual Learning Preferences
• Building on the work of cognitivists and andragogic
school of thought, learner-centred perspectives have
proven that each individual learner has their own set of
beliefs, experiences, and behaviours which influence their
unique perceptions and the way in which they learn. In
turn each learner will have a preferred way of learning.
This chapter explores the body of research and the
classifications of learning preferences.
• The overall aim is that we can utilise the information
about each learners’ individual preferred learning style in
order to create tailor–made resources, lessons and even
• In this section we will explore the research conducted
into learning styles and the tools we can use in our own
planning and teaching.
24. Models of Learning Preference
• Neil Fleming and Christopher Mills identified that with
the different learning modes: Visual, Auditory, Reading
and Writing and Kinaesthetic. Individual learners prefer
to learn in different ways.
• The application of this means we identify these preferred
learning styles with a questionnaire such as this free one
online http://vark-learn.com/the-vark-questionnaire/ ,
click the image opposite or download as a Pdf here:
• Fleming and Mills’ research appreciates that learning
preferences are not rigid and learners often have a
variety of learning preferences (multi-modal preference).
In addition to this as we grow and learn, over time, our
learning preferences may change.
• In practice:
• The VARK learning styles questionnaire can be used to
identify learning preferences. The results of the
questionnaires can be collated and recorded on the
teacher's confidential 'differentiation' documentation.
• Used alongside initial diagnostic assessments, this can
help the teacher to design materials and resources which
cater to individual and group learning styles. Ideally a
lesson plan should contain a variety of these activities so
that the overall approach incorporates a variety of
learning preferences. See the table below to explore
different learning and assessment methods which appeal
to different learning preferences
25. Teaching and Assessment methods
Preferences Learning Assessment
Visual Like to be shown not told Diagrams
Questions should include images, charts
Assessment set out in an attractive, easy
to access way
Prefer visual cues of achievement such as
a progress chart/ diagram. Maybe a bar
graph to display results
Aural Prefer to listen and speak Verbal explanations
Podcast and Webinars
Incorporate audio into questions (listen
Opportunity to record verbal answers
Read / Write Like to read and then replicate it. They
do best with traditional teaching
Read and respond questions
Kineasthetic Learn by doing Demonstration and then completion of a
Construction (hands on)
Performing a task
physical feedback cues
26. Using Learning Preferences
1. Complete the learning styles questionnaire
opposite and identify your learning
preference. Is there anything that surprised
2. How can a teacher's own learning
preference affect their choice of learning/
assessment methods for students?
3. How can you avoid such issues in your own
4. This podcasts rejects the whole concept of
teaching to individual learning styles and
instead recommends a varied
approach. Listen to the podcast here
27. Kolb (1974 and 1984)
• Experiential Learning Cycle
• David Kolb’s work on Learning Styles and experiential
learning cycle builds on the work of cognitivism, taking
into account that learning preferences and the way in
which we learn are shaped by individuals’ childhood,
social and educational experiences, and the individual’s
• Kolb developed The Experiential Learning Cycle in which
the learner goes through the process of acquiring new/
different knowledge through experiencing, reflecting,
making sense of what it means (Abstract
Conceptualisation) and then trying out to see what
happens as a result.
• In the ‘Reflective Observation’ part of the process,
particular attention is given to areas where the new
experience does not correlate with what the learner
28. Preferred Learning Styles
• In the ‘Reflective Observation’ part of the process,
particular attention is given to areas where the new
experience does not correlate with what the learner
• In 1984 Kolb advanced his work into preferred
learning styles, explaining how individuals prefer to
• Knowing your own and your learners’ preferences will
enable you to minimise bias when you are planning
and preparing and delivering learning programmes.
• It is also worth noating that Kolb highlighted that
there are two conflicting ‘continuums’ of ‘Thinking’
(how we process something) and ‘Feeling’ (how we
feel about something)
• Ideally teachers will draw upon preferred learning
styles to engage the learner. They will also guide
learners through activities and materials which
successfully go through each stage of the learning
cycle in sequence.
29. What we can learn from Kolb
• Learning materials and activities therefore need to
engage the ‘whole’ person. They have to be interesting,
engaging and memorable, appealing to opinions and
• Problem-based learning, where learners use their own
experience, critical thinking and opinions to form a
response incorporate elements of both continuums as
above. The key is to ensure this process is logical and
consecutive (based on the learning cycle) for the learner.
• For more details of Kolb’s learning styles see
1. Reflect back on a learning experience you have had or a
lesson you have taught where you can identify that you
followed the sequence in Kolb's experiential learning
2. Click on the image and watch this short video for a
summary of what we have covered in this section. Make
notes on additional ideas from the video.
30. Honey and Mumford 1986.
Peter Honey and Alan Mumford, based upon the work of
Kolb, and they identified four distinct learning styles or
preferences: Activist, Theorist; Pragmatist and Reflector.
• They administered a questionnaire which probed
people’s general tendencies and preferences.
• Knowing your learning preferences can help you to
minimise bias and ensure your learning activities and
resources are inclusive of a variety of preferred learning
Activists: Activists are those individuals
who learn by doing. Activists need to get
their hands filthy. They have a receptive
way to deal with learning, including
themselves completely and without
inclination in new encounters.
The learning activities can be
brainstorming, problem solving, group
discussion, puzzles, competitions, role-
Theorists: These learners get a kick out of
the chance to comprehend the hypothesis
behind the activities. They require
models, ideas and truths with a specific
end goal to participate in the learning
procedure. Like to break down and
integrate, drawing new data into a
methodical and consistent ‘hypothesis’.
Their choice of learning activities includes
models, statistics, stories, quotes,
background information, applying
concepts theoretically etc.
Pragmatists: These individuals have the
capacity to perceive how to put the
learning into practice in their present
reality. Conceptual ideas and recreations
are of constrained utility unless they can
see an approach to put the concepts
practically in their lives. Experimenting
with new ideas, speculations and methods
to check whether they work is their mode
They learn better through taking time to
think about how to apply learning in
reality, case studies, problem solving and
Reflectors: These individuals learn by
watching and contemplating what
happened. They may abstain from jumping
in and prefer to watch from the side-lines.
They want to remain back and see
encounters from various alternate points
of view, gathering information and using
the opportunity to work towards a suitable
They like paired discussions, self-analysis
questionnaires, personality questionnaires,
time out, observing activities, feedback
from others. coaching, interviews etc.
31. The Honey and Mumford Questionnaire
• Activity 12
1. You can find an example questionnaire
2. Complete the questionnaire and record your results in
your reflective log/ diary. Discuss your findings in your
reflections. Explain how knowing your learning style will
help you to avoid bias and promote inclusion
maximising the chances for each individual to learn
32. Roger Sperry
Roger W Sperry was the first psychologist to be awarded a Nobel Prize for
his lifetime achievements in Physiology and Medicine.
• Unfortunately much of work from which he derived his right-left brain
theory, where different sides of the brain are responsible for different
types of activities (see image below), is no longer relied upon due to
the inconsistent and unreliable nature of the way in which the
experiments were conducted (see http://rogersperry.org/wp-
• However it is worthwhile looking at this popular psychological theory
and noting that in fact the brain does perform different functions in
the right and left side but not in isolation
• Both sides of the brain react simultaneously to stimuli and the brain
cannot be divided in such a lateral way to isolate functions in this way.
• In addition to this, it is incorrect to assume that because a learner
excels in sequencing and maths, it does not mean that they will
struggle with creativity and feelings. This over-generalisation of
Sperry’s research has generated the notion of right/ left brain learning
• As teachers we have the opportunity to create engaging learning
materials using some ideas from Sperry’s research.
• The ‘whole brain’ learning approach attempts to balance processing in
the two hemispheres by including analytical and creative aspects to
• Watch this video for a short overview of what we covered in this