is the biological system that introduces respiratory
gases to the interior and performs gas exchange.
to facilitate the diffusion of Oxygen into the blood stream.
The respiratory system does this through
to transport air into the lungs
to also receives waste Carbon Dioxide from the blood
and exhales it. o2
Mouth, nose & nasal cavity: The function of
this part of the system is to warm, filter and
moisten the incoming air
Pharynx: is the part of the throat situated
immediately inferior to (below) the mouth and nasal
cavity, and superior to the esophagus and larynx.
Uppermost region of the pharynx and provides
a passageway for air during breathing..
is a muscular tube that connects the back of the
mouth and the nose to the esophagus. It is lined
with mucous membrane
is where both food and air pass. It can be
found between the hyoid bone and the
larynx and esophagus
Larynx (voice box)
is part of the respiratory system that holds the
It is responsible for producing voice, helping us swallow
It is composed primarily of muscles and cartilages that are
bound together by elastic tissues.
It consists of areas of tough, flexible tissue called cartilage,
which sticks out at the front of the throat to form the Adam's
The larynx also has the important function of preventing
It ranges from 20-25mm in diameter and 10-16cm in length.
The inner membrane of the trachea is covered in tiny hairs called
cilia, which catch particles of dust which we can then remove
The trachea is surrounded by 15-20 C-shaped rings of cartilage
at the front and side which help protect the trachea and keep it
Also known as the windpipe this is the tube which carries air
from the throat into the lungs
The lining includes cells that secrete mucus along with other
cells that bear very small hair like fringes.
a pair of large, spongy organs optimized for gas exchange
between our blood and the air.
The lungs provide us with that vital oxygen while also
removing carbon dioxide before it can reach hazardous levels.
Anatomy of the Lungs
are double-layered serous membranes that surround each lung.
The left lung is slightly smaller than the right lung because
2/3 of the heart is located on the left side of the body.
Each lung consists of several distinct lobes. The right lung
(the larger of the two) has 3 lobes – the superior, middle, and
The division of the trachea from left and
large, hollow tubes made of hyaline cartilage and lined
with ciliated pseudostratified epithelium.
The pseudostratified epithelium that lines the bronchi
contains many cilia and goblet cells.
Goblet cells are specialized epithelial cells that secrete mucus to
coat the lining of the bronchi. Cilia move together to push mucus
secreted by the goblet cells away from the lungs. Particles of
dust and even pathogens like viruses, bacteria and fungi in the air
entering the lungs stick to the mucus and are carried out of the
respiratory tract. In this way mucus helps to keep the lungs clean
and free of disease.
very narrow tubes, less than 1 millimeter in
There is no cartilage within the bronchioles and they lead to
made of elastin fibers and smooth muscle tissue.
The tissue of the bronchiole walls allows the diameter of
bronchioles to change to a significant degree. When the body
requires greater volumes of air entering the lungs, such as
during exercise, the bronchioles dilate to permit greater airflow.
In response to dust or other environmental pollutants, the
bronchioles can constrict to prevent the pollution of the lungs.
Diaphragm: is the dome-shaped
sheet of muscle that separates the
chest from the abdomen
Alveoli are the functional units of the lungs that permit gas
exchange between the air in the lungs and the blood in the
capillaries of the lungs.
found in small clusters called alveolar sacs at the end of the
terminal bronchiole. Each alveolus is a hollow, cup-shaped
cavity surrounded by many tiny capillaries.
is a chronic (long-term) lung disease that inflames and narrows the
airways. Asthma causes recurring periods of wheezing (a whistling
sound when you breathe), chest tightness, shortness of breath,
Causes: Air pollution, tobacco smoke, emission from factories,
pollens from flowers, cold air, exercises, chemicals and even
It is the inflammation of bronchial tubes which
are the primary air ways to the lungs.
Symptoms: Mucus or sputum is yellow or green in color,
shortness of breathe, chest pain, fatigue, cough, etc. are all
symptoms of acute bronchitis.
This is an infection of the lungs and it is usually caused by
virus or bacteria.
Symptoms: Cough, shortness of
breath, yellow or green bloody
mucus productions, chest pains,
fevers and fatigues are mainly the
symptoms of pneumonia.
is a disease characterized by uncontrolled growth in tissues of
the lung, that continues after the initiating stimulus, such as
tobacco smoke, has been withdrawn