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GamificationWorkshop

     Designing The Player Journey




Amy Jo Kim, Ph.D.                     © 2011 All Rights Reserved
Gamification is…
A Loyalty Program on Steroids
using game techniches to turbo-charge
         products & services
Using Levels, Rewards & Unlocks to drive behavior
Turning real-world activities into games
… currently experiencing a Hype cycle 
Let’s Cut Through the Hype
Gamification Glossary
Gamification   using game techniques to make activities more engaging & fun
Game Techniques ≠ Core Experience
Intrinsic value > extrinsic rewards

                                           Threats             Quests
                 Mastery
  Autonomy
                            Satisfaction
 Power
                                 Sex                        Leaderboards

Meaning                      Love                            Rewards

  Belonging                Fun
                                                            Badges
              Learning
                                           Punishments     Levels
                                           Loss of Power
                                                           Points
Extrinsic Motivators completing tasks
Intrinsic Motivators  long-term engagement
Gamification Glossary
Gamification   using game techniques to make activities more engaging & fun

Player         the person playing your game (AKA user, consumer, customer)
Good Games balance Skill &Challenge to
       keep players engaged
Gamification Glossary
Gamification   using game techniques to make activities more engaging & fun

Player         the person playing your game (AKA user, consumer)

Journey         a player’s experience/progression over time (AKA lifecycle)
Journey = Lifecycle + Progression
Journey = Lifecycle + Progression

                                    Master


                  Expert


  Novice




Good games give the player something to master
Think Like a Game Designer

              Dynamics                Mechanics

                          Player
                         Journey




                         Aesthetics




Use game techniques to guide and motivate the players journey
Gamification Glossary
Gamification   using game techniques to make activities more engaging & fun

Player         the person playing your game (AKA user, consumer)

Journey         a player’s experience/progression over time (AKA lifecycle)

Dynamics        the time-based patterns & systems in your game
Game Dynamics = patterns over time

         Dynamics
                Pacing
        Appointments
     Progressive
     Unlocks     Reward
              Schedules
           Dynamic
           Systems
Patterns are programmed into game systems




Reward Schedules  Habits, Surprise, Addiction
Gamification Glossary
Gamification   using game techniques to make activities more engaging & fun

Player         the person playing your game (AKA user, consumer)

Journey         a player’s experience/progression over time (AKA lifecycle)

Dynamics        the time-based patterns & systems in your game

Mechanics       the systems & features that make progress visible
Game Mechanics make progress visible


                    Mechanics
               Points     Levels
                       Leaderboards
                Player        Badges
               Journey      Missions
                        Virtual
                        Goods
Mechanics “light the way” in a player’s journey
Gamification Glossary
Gamification   using game techniques to make activities more engaging & fun

Player         the person playing your game (AKA user, consumer)

Journey         a player’s experience/progression over time (AKA lifecycle)

Dynamics        the time-based patterns & systems in your game

Mechanics       the systems & features that make progress visible

Aesthetics      the overall experience that yields emotional engagement
Game Aesthetics evoke emotion




            Aesthetics
        Curiosity Satisfaction
         Surprise
                         Trust
               Delight
         Fun     Envy   Pride

               Connection
Emotion drives action & engagement




 A good game takes the player on an emotional journey over time
Gamification Glossary
Gamification     using game techniques to make activities more engaging & fun

Player           the person playing your game (AKA user, consumer)

Journey           a player’s experience/progression over time (AKA lifecycle)

Dynamics          the time-based patterns & systems in your game

Mechanics         the systems & features that make progress visible

Aesthetics        the overall experience that yields emotional engagement

Social Actions    how players engage with each other in your game
Social Actions  Building Blocks of Social Engagement




             Player
            Journey




 WHO am I playing with? HOW are we engaging? WHAT are we engaging around?
Know Your Players




   Design for the right PlayStyle
Who’s playing? What’s their style?




 Why are they playing? What problem are they solving?
What Game Are They Already Playing?




        What are they optimizing?
What are your business/revenue goals?




   Who’s funding this project? Why? What’s the payoff?
Find the overlap


Player     Smart        Business
Needs    Gamification   Goals
Elevator Pitch
Goal:         create a short, compelling elevator pitch
Purpose:      clarify and articulate your project vision
#Players:     1-8
Duration:     20-30 min
Rules:        Fill in the boxes below, with these caveats:
               1) this pitch is directed at people who can greenlight & join your project
              2) your secret sauce CANNOT reference game mechanics



        My company (company name)is
        developing (a defined offering) to help
        (target player)(solve a problem)using
        (secret sauce / unique differentiator)
Design Over Time




As they progress, Players have different needs
Novice needs onboarding
(welcome + goals + progress + achieveable rewards)
Expert needs fresh content/activities/people
       (also status/customization/powertools)
Masters need exclusive access, activities, unlocks
Your Community has a Lifecycle, too




Build social systems that identify & leverage high-value players
Case Study: GetGlue
“the easiest way to find your next favorite thing”
Onboarding: Rate content to build taste profile
Explore content & other people
Lightweight quests suggest what to do next
Like/comment/review content to earn points
Earn Stickers for exploring, rating, socializing
Discover ―neighbors‖ who share your tastes
Become a Guru by interacting with content
(Some folks have lots of time on their hands…)
Leaderboards showcase active, engaged players
Player Journey
Goal:                  describe key stages of your player’s lifecycle / journey
Purpose:               design a game that will attract and support Newbies, Regulars AND Enthusiasts

Step 1: create a Persona (AKA Player Story) for a canonical early-adopter Player
Description can include gender, age, socio-economic status, gaming experience, aspirations, fears, daily
technology or shopping habits – whatever is most relevant for your product


Step 2: fill in the boxes with “day in the life” scenarios for each key stage
                                                                        Master




                                          Expert




           Novice
Design for Social
    Friends   Families




    Groups
               Crowds
Who are players engaging with?
What’s their preferred social style?
Competition
Bragging, Taunting, Challenging
Cooperation
Sharing, Helping, Gifting, Greeting
Self-Expression
customizing, selecting, designing, creating
Bartles Player Types (1996)


        Killers     Achievers




      Socializers
                    Explorers
Social Actions (2010)
                Win
          Challenge Create
              Achievers

             Showoff
          Compare
Social Actions (2010)
                              Win
                        Challenge Create
                             Achievers

                       Showoff
                    Compare
                Express
            Like
Help
                 Share
       Socializers

Comment
          Give       Greet
Social Actions (2010)
                           Win
                     Challenge Create
                          Achievers

                         Showoff
                      Compare
                  Express
            Like         View
 Help                              Explore
                  Share
      Socializers         Explorers
                                    Rate
Comment                  Vote
        Give Greet Curate Review
Social Actions (2010)

              Hack          Win
  Harass
                      Challenge Create
              Cheat
        Killers           Achievers
 Heckle           Taunt
                         Showoff
                      Compare
       Tease
                  Express
            Like         View
 Help                              Explore
                  Share
      Socializers         Explorers
                                    Rate
Comment                  Vote
        Give Greet Curate Review
Which Social Actions do YOU enable?

              Hack          Win
  Harass
                      Challenge Create
              Cheat
        Killers           Achievers
  Heckle          Taunt
                         Showoff
                      Compare
       Tease
                  Express
            Like         View
 Help                              Explore
                  Share
      Socializers         Explorers
                                    Rate
Comment                  Vote
        Give Greet Curate Review
Which social
Now add these SOCIAL ACTIONS to your player journey


                                                      Master
                                                      Enthusiast




                              Expert
                               Regular




 Novice
   Newbie
Design for Progress




Progress Mechanics ―light the way‖ along a player’s journey
Keeping Score
Points & Progression in the Player’s Journey




 Anytime you make numbers visible, you’ve enabled a game
Points track & define progress
Experience Points (XP)
  earned directly via players’ actions - used to track & reward certain activities
  uni-directional metric – only goes UP (reflects persistence + skill)


Redeemable Points (credits, coins)
  earned directly via player actions – used to track & reward certain activities
  bi-directional metric - can ―cash in‖ points to purchase goods or services


Currency (bucks, $$)
  bi-directional metric - purchased with real money to acquire (often exclusive) goods & services


Skill Points (Score, Rank)
  earned via interacting with the game or system – reflects mastery of the activity or game


Social Points (Social XP, Reputation, Ratings)
  earned via the actions of OTHER players – can be a proxy for quality/reputation/influence
  lets you track & reward socially valuable contributions & actions
Experience Points (XP)
Experience Points (WOW)
Redeemable Points
Redeemable Points (Stardoll)
SkillRedeemable Points
      Points (Brain Buddies)
Social Points (Amazon reviews)
Social Points (Amazon reviews)
Social Points (Flickr “interestingness”)
Social Points (Flickr interestingness)
Social Points (Flickr “interestingness”)
Social Points (Stack Overflow Reputation)
Game Pacing  Flow
                                                                      Expected Actions per
                                                                             Level
                                                                      14
                                                                      12
                                                                      10




                                                             levels
                                                                       8
                                                                       6
                                                                       4
                                                                       2
                                                                       0
                                                                           0        20           40   60
                                                                                   expected actions



                                                                               Leveling Rate
                                                                  0.4
                                                                 0.35




                                         levels per action
                                                                  0.3
                                                                 0.25
                                                                  0.2
                                                                 0.15
                                                                   0.1
                                                                 0.05
                                                                    0
                                                                           0       20            40   60
                                                                                         level



The better you get, the harder you need to work to earn rewards
Levels give you Pacing, Status, Unlocks
Global Leaderboards showcase your
 most skilled and devoted players




 Hint: let players earn the right to view this list
Social Leaderboards enable Social Actions
How to Play
Rules, Hints, Missions, Tutorial
Missions Guide & Motivate the Player
Tutorial provides Newbie Onboarding




Guide players through actions that will advance their progress
Badges = goals + progress + collecting
Collections = goals + completion + surprise
Case Study: CityVille
Onboarding starts with greeting & goal
Goal-driven tutorial introduces
key actions, systems & rewards
Gameplay designed around
Collaborative/Expressive PlayStyle
New goals unlocked as player progresses
Rewards & reminders encourage
     you to checkin daily
Levels punctuate the action and
  unlock buying opportunities
Collections add semi-random element
Collections add semi-random element
Franchises add social/economic interaction
Progress Mechanics
Goal:                choose and rank-order your top-5 Progress Mechanics
Purpose:             identify the core system and features to guide and support your player journey
#Players:            1-8
Duration:            20-30 min

Step 1: Choose Top 5 Progress Mechanics                        Step 2: Rank-order & Customize
            Levels
            Global Leaderboards
            Social Leaderboards
            Badges
            Collections
            Progress Bar
            Missions
            Hints
            Tutorial
            Personal Stats
            Population Stats
            Virtual Goods
            Reputation
            Ratings
Annotate the Journey
Step 2: Add PROGRESS MECHANICS
                                     Master
                                     Enthusiast




                          Expert
                           Regular




 Novice
   Newbie
Design for Customization




Virtual Goods let players customize their experience & payments
Virtual Goods = Digital Items w/Contextual Meaning
Virtual Goods evoke real emotions
Virtual Economies drive ongoing use..
… and require ongoing production & service




                   To date, players have purchased
                   over 187 million pairs of shoes
                   and 1.7 billion apples in-game
What will your players Customize?
Customize Your Page/Dashboard
Customize Your Avatar
Customize Your Location
Case Study: Pogo
Play games, earn tokens, win prizes
Purchase gems to buy games & virtual goods
Customize your avatar’s outfit, background, etc.
Enter a weekly contest for best avatar
Premium items add status, visual interest
Locked items upsell players to premium service
Subscription service offers badges & more
Badge album shows off your collection
Rich profile includes stats, badges, guestbook
In-game chat facilitates meeting new people
Prize winners made visible (to motivate entries)
What to Customize?
Goal:                 define the core Social Object that your players will customize
Purpose:              focus your Customization/Virtual Goods strategy
Duration:             5-10 min

Step 1: Choose 1-3 Social Object(s) to Customize (fewer is better)
            Profile
            Dashboard
            Home Page
            Blog
            Avatar
            Location (specify)
            Other

Step 2: Briefly describe how Customization will work at key stages of the Journey

                                              Master


                           Expert


            Novice
Design for Engagement
Player Journey + Social Actions = Social Engagement Loops
Social Actions drive Social Engagement




              Player
             Journey




WHO am I playing with? HOW are we playing together? WHAT are we playing with?
Social Actions drive Social Engagement

                 Hack          Win
     Harass
                         Challenge Create
                 Cheat
           Killers           Achievers
    Heckle           Taunt
                            Showoff
                         Compare
          Tease
                     Express
               Like         View
    Help                              Explore
                     Share
         Socializers         Explorers
                                       Rate
   Comment                  Vote
           Give Greet Curate Review
Case Study: Foursquare
Core activity: the checkin
Checkin to venues to earn Points & Stats
Badges mark progress and suggest goals
Badges have personality, attitude, humour
Mayorship rewards loyalty, recency –
        drives competition
Sharing checkins and badges
promotes social engagement
Why does Foursquare work?

1. Core activity has intrinsic motivation
   checking into venues delivers lightweight fun, has both personal & social value
Why does Foursquare work?

1. Core activity has intrinsic motivation
   checking into venues delivers lightweight fun, has both personal & social value


2. Progress mechanics light the way
   badges guide players towards action & completion + have element of surprise
   mayorships mirror real-world dynamics, stimulate loyalty &competition
Why does Foursquare work?

1. Core activity has intrinsic motivation
   checking into venues delivers lightweight fun, has both personal & social value


2. Progress mechanics light the way
   badges guide players towards action & completion + have element of surprise
   mayorships mirror real-world dynamics, stimulate loyalty & competition


3. Social Actions aligned with Social Needs
   explore, showoff, share, compare, compete
Social Engagement Loop



Visible Progress / Reward               Motivating Emotion
 Pts / Stats / Awards / Messages   Fun / Delight / Trust / Pride / Curious




 Player Re-engagement                  (social) Call to Action
  Task / Mission / Game / Quiz     Customize / Share / Help / Compete
Newbie: Learn about CheckIns




Earn Pts, Compare w/friends   Curiousity / Competition




         Checkin                 Checkin Again to
                                explore & discover
Expert: Collect Badges




Earn Badge    Pride / Surprise / Delight




 Checkin     Share with friends/followers
Master: Earn/Defend Mayorship




 Earn/Defend Mayorship      Pride / Competition




       Checkin              Get Special Privileges
                         (discounts, access, prizes)
Engagement Loop 1
Goal:                   fill in the boxesup your core engagement loop
Purpose:                identify key systems & actions that drive repeat play
#Players:               1-8
Duration:               20-30 min

Step 1: Fill in the boxes with actions specific to your game




        Visible Progress / Reward                              Motivating Emotion
            Pts / Stats / Awards / Messages               Fun / Delight / Trust / Pride / Curious




            Player Re-engagement                              (social) Call to Action
             Task / Mission / Game / Quiz                  Customize / Share / Help / Compete




                                                                                 Newbie
                                                                                Onboarding
Engagement Loop 2
Step 2: create a Social Engagement Loop
        for each Stage of the Player’s Journey
                                                 Master
                                                 Enthusiast




                                 Expert
                                  Regular




   Novice
    Newbie
Gamification Idol
Goal:              Define and communicate your project’s value prop and player journey
Purpose: Design a game that will attract/support newbies AND Enthusiasts
#Players:          1-8
Duration:          20-30 min


Step 1: Prepare your Game Pitch




                           +                                  +

Step 2: Pitch Your Game to the Judges & Audience – get feedback
Gamification Idol: Questions
1) VISION
   What’s our vision for this project? What’s the key benefit? Where’s the fun?
Gamification Idol: Questions
1) VISION
   What’s our vision for this project? What’s the key benefit? Where’s the fun?

2) PLAYSTYLE
   Who’s playing? Who are they playing WITH? What’s their primary playstyle?
   What social actions do they find engaging – and why?
Gamification Idol: Questions
1) VISION
   What’s our vision for this project? What’s the key benefit? Where’s the fun?

2) PLAYSTYLE
   Who’s playing? Who are they playing WITH? What’s their primary playstyle?
   What social actions do they find engaging – and why?

1) MASTERY
   What’s the core activity and feedback system? What are players optimizing? What
   skills are they learning and mastering? What journey are they on? What’s driving
   them to keep playing? What does it mean to ―play well?‖
Gamification Idol: Questions
1) VISION
   What’s our vision for this project? What’s the key benefit? Where’s the fun?

2) PLAYSTYLE
   Who’s playing? Who are they playing WITH? What’s their primary playstyle?
   What social actions do they find engaging – and why?

1) MASTERY
   What’s the core activity and feedback system? What are players optimizing? What
   skills are they learning and mastering? What journey are they on? What’s driving
   them to keep playing? What does it mean to ―play well‖?

2) PROGRESS
   How will you ―light the way‖ towards mastery? How will players know how to get
   started, and what to do? How will they know if they’re playing well, or poorly?
Gamification Idol: Questions
1) VISION
   What’s our vision for this project? What’s the key benefit? Where’s the fun?

2) PLAYSTYLE
   Who’s playing? Who are they playing WITH? What’s their primary playstyle?
   What social actions do they find engaging – and why?

1) MASTERY
   What’s the core activity and feedback system? What are players optimizing? What
   skills are they learning and mastering? What journey are they on? What’s driving
   them to keep playing? What does it mean to ―play well‖?

2) PROGRESS
   How will you ―light the way‖ towards mastery? How will players know how to get
   started, and what to do? How will they know if they’re playing well, or poorly?

3) ENGAGEMENT
   What activities and events will re-engage players throughout their lifecycle? How
   do these activities leverage core social actions?
Thank You!

     amyjokim@gmail.com

Follow me on Twitter @amyjokim
Further
Resources
Daniel Pink


              TWITTER SUMMARY
              Carrots & sticks are so last century. For 21st century
              work, we need to upgrade to autonomy, mastery & purpose.


              COCKTAIL PARTY SUMMARY
              When it comes to motivation, there’s a gap between what
              science knows and what business does. Our current
              business operating system–which is built around
              external, carrot-and-stick motivators–doesn’t work and often
              does harm. We need an upgrade. And the science shows
              the way. This new approach has three essential elements:
              1. Autonomy – the desire to direct our own lives.
              2. Mastery — the urge to get better and better at something
              that matters.
              3. Purpose — the yearning to do what we do in the service
              of something larger than ourselves.
Tom Chatfield


                7 Lessons Learned From Games
                1) Progress: Bars, Levels, Points, Badges, Customization – we
                   like to see our progress
                2) Missions: Provide multiple long-and-short-term aims for
                   players to tackle
                3) Credit: track & reward effort, not just achievement
                4) Feedback: tangibly link actions to consequences
                5) Surprise: add the Element of Uncertainty to drive and
                   sustain interest
                6) People: we're most engaged by people – esp
                   collaborating in groups
                7) Engagement: games are perfectly tuned to dole out rewards
                   that engage the brain and keep us questing for more
Jesse Schell
Brian Reynolds Keynote - GDCOnine 2010




TSI, TSO*   http://www.gdcvault.com/play/1013798/Bears-and-Snakes-The-Wild



                    In practice, good game design (like all design)
                    = vision + iteration. Start with a good
                    idea, then iterate, experiment, learn & evolve.




                                          * Throw Sh*t in, Take Sh*t Out
Hearts, Clubs, Diamonds, Spades: Players Who Suit MUDs
Richard Bartle, 1996
http://www.mud.co.uk/richard/hcds.htm


MDA Framework + 8 Kinds of Fun
Marc LeBlanc, Robin Hunicke, Robert Zubeck
http://algorithmancy.8kindsoffun.com/



Punished by Rewards
Alfie Kohn




Web Reputation Systems
Randy Farmer

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Gamification 101: Design the Player Journey

  • 1. GamificationWorkshop Designing The Player Journey Amy Jo Kim, Ph.D. © 2011 All Rights Reserved
  • 3. A Loyalty Program on Steroids
  • 4. using game techniches to turbo-charge products & services
  • 5. Using Levels, Rewards & Unlocks to drive behavior
  • 7. … currently experiencing a Hype cycle 
  • 9. Gamification Glossary Gamification using game techniques to make activities more engaging & fun
  • 10. Game Techniques ≠ Core Experience
  • 11. Intrinsic value > extrinsic rewards Threats Quests Mastery Autonomy Satisfaction Power Sex Leaderboards Meaning Love Rewards Belonging Fun Badges Learning Punishments Levels Loss of Power Points
  • 13. Intrinsic Motivators  long-term engagement
  • 14. Gamification Glossary Gamification using game techniques to make activities more engaging & fun Player the person playing your game (AKA user, consumer, customer)
  • 15. Good Games balance Skill &Challenge to keep players engaged
  • 16. Gamification Glossary Gamification using game techniques to make activities more engaging & fun Player the person playing your game (AKA user, consumer) Journey a player’s experience/progression over time (AKA lifecycle)
  • 17. Journey = Lifecycle + Progression
  • 18. Journey = Lifecycle + Progression Master Expert Novice Good games give the player something to master
  • 19. Think Like a Game Designer Dynamics Mechanics Player Journey Aesthetics Use game techniques to guide and motivate the players journey
  • 20. Gamification Glossary Gamification using game techniques to make activities more engaging & fun Player the person playing your game (AKA user, consumer) Journey a player’s experience/progression over time (AKA lifecycle) Dynamics the time-based patterns & systems in your game
  • 21. Game Dynamics = patterns over time Dynamics Pacing Appointments Progressive Unlocks Reward Schedules Dynamic Systems
  • 22. Patterns are programmed into game systems Reward Schedules  Habits, Surprise, Addiction
  • 23. Gamification Glossary Gamification using game techniques to make activities more engaging & fun Player the person playing your game (AKA user, consumer) Journey a player’s experience/progression over time (AKA lifecycle) Dynamics the time-based patterns & systems in your game Mechanics the systems & features that make progress visible
  • 24. Game Mechanics make progress visible Mechanics Points Levels Leaderboards Player Badges Journey Missions Virtual Goods
  • 25. Mechanics “light the way” in a player’s journey
  • 26. Gamification Glossary Gamification using game techniques to make activities more engaging & fun Player the person playing your game (AKA user, consumer) Journey a player’s experience/progression over time (AKA lifecycle) Dynamics the time-based patterns & systems in your game Mechanics the systems & features that make progress visible Aesthetics the overall experience that yields emotional engagement
  • 27. Game Aesthetics evoke emotion Aesthetics Curiosity Satisfaction Surprise Trust Delight Fun Envy Pride Connection
  • 28. Emotion drives action & engagement A good game takes the player on an emotional journey over time
  • 29. Gamification Glossary Gamification using game techniques to make activities more engaging & fun Player the person playing your game (AKA user, consumer) Journey a player’s experience/progression over time (AKA lifecycle) Dynamics the time-based patterns & systems in your game Mechanics the systems & features that make progress visible Aesthetics the overall experience that yields emotional engagement Social Actions how players engage with each other in your game
  • 30. Social Actions  Building Blocks of Social Engagement Player Journey WHO am I playing with? HOW are we engaging? WHAT are we engaging around?
  • 31. Know Your Players Design for the right PlayStyle
  • 32. Who’s playing? What’s their style? Why are they playing? What problem are they solving?
  • 33. What Game Are They Already Playing? What are they optimizing?
  • 34. What are your business/revenue goals? Who’s funding this project? Why? What’s the payoff?
  • 35. Find the overlap Player Smart Business Needs Gamification Goals
  • 36. Elevator Pitch Goal: create a short, compelling elevator pitch Purpose: clarify and articulate your project vision #Players: 1-8 Duration: 20-30 min Rules: Fill in the boxes below, with these caveats: 1) this pitch is directed at people who can greenlight & join your project 2) your secret sauce CANNOT reference game mechanics My company (company name)is developing (a defined offering) to help (target player)(solve a problem)using (secret sauce / unique differentiator)
  • 37. Design Over Time As they progress, Players have different needs
  • 38. Novice needs onboarding (welcome + goals + progress + achieveable rewards)
  • 39. Expert needs fresh content/activities/people (also status/customization/powertools)
  • 40. Masters need exclusive access, activities, unlocks
  • 41. Your Community has a Lifecycle, too Build social systems that identify & leverage high-value players
  • 42. Case Study: GetGlue “the easiest way to find your next favorite thing”
  • 43. Onboarding: Rate content to build taste profile
  • 44. Explore content & other people
  • 45. Lightweight quests suggest what to do next
  • 47. Earn Stickers for exploring, rating, socializing
  • 48. Discover ―neighbors‖ who share your tastes
  • 49. Become a Guru by interacting with content
  • 50. (Some folks have lots of time on their hands…)
  • 51. Leaderboards showcase active, engaged players
  • 52. Player Journey Goal: describe key stages of your player’s lifecycle / journey Purpose: design a game that will attract and support Newbies, Regulars AND Enthusiasts Step 1: create a Persona (AKA Player Story) for a canonical early-adopter Player Description can include gender, age, socio-economic status, gaming experience, aspirations, fears, daily technology or shopping habits – whatever is most relevant for your product Step 2: fill in the boxes with “day in the life” scenarios for each key stage Master Expert Novice
  • 53. Design for Social Friends Families Groups Crowds
  • 54. Who are players engaging with? What’s their preferred social style?
  • 58. Bartles Player Types (1996) Killers Achievers Socializers Explorers
  • 59. Social Actions (2010) Win Challenge Create Achievers Showoff Compare
  • 60. Social Actions (2010) Win Challenge Create Achievers Showoff Compare Express Like Help Share Socializers Comment Give Greet
  • 61. Social Actions (2010) Win Challenge Create Achievers Showoff Compare Express Like View Help Explore Share Socializers Explorers Rate Comment Vote Give Greet Curate Review
  • 62. Social Actions (2010) Hack Win Harass Challenge Create Cheat Killers Achievers Heckle Taunt Showoff Compare Tease Express Like View Help Explore Share Socializers Explorers Rate Comment Vote Give Greet Curate Review
  • 63. Which Social Actions do YOU enable? Hack Win Harass Challenge Create Cheat Killers Achievers Heckle Taunt Showoff Compare Tease Express Like View Help Explore Share Socializers Explorers Rate Comment Vote Give Greet Curate Review
  • 64. Which social Now add these SOCIAL ACTIONS to your player journey Master Enthusiast Expert Regular Novice Newbie
  • 65. Design for Progress Progress Mechanics ―light the way‖ along a player’s journey
  • 66. Keeping Score Points & Progression in the Player’s Journey Anytime you make numbers visible, you’ve enabled a game
  • 67. Points track & define progress Experience Points (XP) earned directly via players’ actions - used to track & reward certain activities uni-directional metric – only goes UP (reflects persistence + skill) Redeemable Points (credits, coins) earned directly via player actions – used to track & reward certain activities bi-directional metric - can ―cash in‖ points to purchase goods or services Currency (bucks, $$) bi-directional metric - purchased with real money to acquire (often exclusive) goods & services Skill Points (Score, Rank) earned via interacting with the game or system – reflects mastery of the activity or game Social Points (Social XP, Reputation, Ratings) earned via the actions of OTHER players – can be a proxy for quality/reputation/influence lets you track & reward socially valuable contributions & actions
  • 70. SkillRedeemable Points Points (Brain Buddies)
  • 71. Social Points (Amazon reviews) Social Points (Amazon reviews)
  • 72. Social Points (Flickr “interestingness”) Social Points (Flickr interestingness)
  • 73. Social Points (Flickr “interestingness”) Social Points (Stack Overflow Reputation)
  • 74. Game Pacing  Flow Expected Actions per Level 14 12 10 levels 8 6 4 2 0 0 20 40 60 expected actions Leveling Rate 0.4 0.35 levels per action 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 0 20 40 60 level The better you get, the harder you need to work to earn rewards
  • 75. Levels give you Pacing, Status, Unlocks
  • 76. Global Leaderboards showcase your most skilled and devoted players Hint: let players earn the right to view this list
  • 77. Social Leaderboards enable Social Actions
  • 78. How to Play Rules, Hints, Missions, Tutorial
  • 79. Missions Guide & Motivate the Player
  • 80. Tutorial provides Newbie Onboarding Guide players through actions that will advance their progress
  • 81. Badges = goals + progress + collecting
  • 82. Collections = goals + completion + surprise
  • 84. Onboarding starts with greeting & goal
  • 85. Goal-driven tutorial introduces key actions, systems & rewards
  • 87. New goals unlocked as player progresses
  • 88. Rewards & reminders encourage you to checkin daily
  • 89. Levels punctuate the action and unlock buying opportunities
  • 93. Progress Mechanics Goal: choose and rank-order your top-5 Progress Mechanics Purpose: identify the core system and features to guide and support your player journey #Players: 1-8 Duration: 20-30 min Step 1: Choose Top 5 Progress Mechanics Step 2: Rank-order & Customize Levels Global Leaderboards Social Leaderboards Badges Collections Progress Bar Missions Hints Tutorial Personal Stats Population Stats Virtual Goods Reputation Ratings
  • 94. Annotate the Journey Step 2: Add PROGRESS MECHANICS Master Enthusiast Expert Regular Novice Newbie
  • 95. Design for Customization Virtual Goods let players customize their experience & payments
  • 96. Virtual Goods = Digital Items w/Contextual Meaning
  • 97. Virtual Goods evoke real emotions
  • 98. Virtual Economies drive ongoing use..
  • 99. … and require ongoing production & service To date, players have purchased over 187 million pairs of shoes and 1.7 billion apples in-game
  • 100. What will your players Customize?
  • 105. Play games, earn tokens, win prizes
  • 106. Purchase gems to buy games & virtual goods
  • 107. Customize your avatar’s outfit, background, etc.
  • 108. Enter a weekly contest for best avatar
  • 109. Premium items add status, visual interest
  • 110. Locked items upsell players to premium service
  • 111. Subscription service offers badges & more
  • 112. Badge album shows off your collection
  • 113. Rich profile includes stats, badges, guestbook
  • 114. In-game chat facilitates meeting new people
  • 115. Prize winners made visible (to motivate entries)
  • 116. What to Customize? Goal: define the core Social Object that your players will customize Purpose: focus your Customization/Virtual Goods strategy Duration: 5-10 min Step 1: Choose 1-3 Social Object(s) to Customize (fewer is better) Profile Dashboard Home Page Blog Avatar Location (specify) Other Step 2: Briefly describe how Customization will work at key stages of the Journey Master Expert Novice
  • 117. Design for Engagement Player Journey + Social Actions = Social Engagement Loops
  • 118. Social Actions drive Social Engagement Player Journey WHO am I playing with? HOW are we playing together? WHAT are we playing with?
  • 119. Social Actions drive Social Engagement Hack Win Harass Challenge Create Cheat Killers Achievers Heckle Taunt Showoff Compare Tease Express Like View Help Explore Share Socializers Explorers Rate Comment Vote Give Greet Curate Review
  • 121. Core activity: the checkin
  • 122. Checkin to venues to earn Points & Stats
  • 123. Badges mark progress and suggest goals
  • 124. Badges have personality, attitude, humour
  • 125. Mayorship rewards loyalty, recency – drives competition
  • 126. Sharing checkins and badges promotes social engagement
  • 127. Why does Foursquare work? 1. Core activity has intrinsic motivation checking into venues delivers lightweight fun, has both personal & social value
  • 128. Why does Foursquare work? 1. Core activity has intrinsic motivation checking into venues delivers lightweight fun, has both personal & social value 2. Progress mechanics light the way badges guide players towards action & completion + have element of surprise mayorships mirror real-world dynamics, stimulate loyalty &competition
  • 129. Why does Foursquare work? 1. Core activity has intrinsic motivation checking into venues delivers lightweight fun, has both personal & social value 2. Progress mechanics light the way badges guide players towards action & completion + have element of surprise mayorships mirror real-world dynamics, stimulate loyalty & competition 3. Social Actions aligned with Social Needs explore, showoff, share, compare, compete
  • 130. Social Engagement Loop Visible Progress / Reward Motivating Emotion Pts / Stats / Awards / Messages Fun / Delight / Trust / Pride / Curious Player Re-engagement (social) Call to Action Task / Mission / Game / Quiz Customize / Share / Help / Compete
  • 131. Newbie: Learn about CheckIns Earn Pts, Compare w/friends Curiousity / Competition Checkin Checkin Again to explore & discover
  • 132. Expert: Collect Badges Earn Badge Pride / Surprise / Delight Checkin Share with friends/followers
  • 133. Master: Earn/Defend Mayorship Earn/Defend Mayorship Pride / Competition Checkin Get Special Privileges (discounts, access, prizes)
  • 134. Engagement Loop 1 Goal: fill in the boxesup your core engagement loop Purpose: identify key systems & actions that drive repeat play #Players: 1-8 Duration: 20-30 min Step 1: Fill in the boxes with actions specific to your game Visible Progress / Reward Motivating Emotion Pts / Stats / Awards / Messages Fun / Delight / Trust / Pride / Curious Player Re-engagement (social) Call to Action Task / Mission / Game / Quiz Customize / Share / Help / Compete Newbie Onboarding
  • 135. Engagement Loop 2 Step 2: create a Social Engagement Loop for each Stage of the Player’s Journey Master Enthusiast Expert Regular Novice Newbie
  • 136. Gamification Idol Goal: Define and communicate your project’s value prop and player journey Purpose: Design a game that will attract/support newbies AND Enthusiasts #Players: 1-8 Duration: 20-30 min Step 1: Prepare your Game Pitch + + Step 2: Pitch Your Game to the Judges & Audience – get feedback
  • 137. Gamification Idol: Questions 1) VISION What’s our vision for this project? What’s the key benefit? Where’s the fun?
  • 138. Gamification Idol: Questions 1) VISION What’s our vision for this project? What’s the key benefit? Where’s the fun? 2) PLAYSTYLE Who’s playing? Who are they playing WITH? What’s their primary playstyle? What social actions do they find engaging – and why?
  • 139. Gamification Idol: Questions 1) VISION What’s our vision for this project? What’s the key benefit? Where’s the fun? 2) PLAYSTYLE Who’s playing? Who are they playing WITH? What’s their primary playstyle? What social actions do they find engaging – and why? 1) MASTERY What’s the core activity and feedback system? What are players optimizing? What skills are they learning and mastering? What journey are they on? What’s driving them to keep playing? What does it mean to ―play well?‖
  • 140. Gamification Idol: Questions 1) VISION What’s our vision for this project? What’s the key benefit? Where’s the fun? 2) PLAYSTYLE Who’s playing? Who are they playing WITH? What’s their primary playstyle? What social actions do they find engaging – and why? 1) MASTERY What’s the core activity and feedback system? What are players optimizing? What skills are they learning and mastering? What journey are they on? What’s driving them to keep playing? What does it mean to ―play well‖? 2) PROGRESS How will you ―light the way‖ towards mastery? How will players know how to get started, and what to do? How will they know if they’re playing well, or poorly?
  • 141. Gamification Idol: Questions 1) VISION What’s our vision for this project? What’s the key benefit? Where’s the fun? 2) PLAYSTYLE Who’s playing? Who are they playing WITH? What’s their primary playstyle? What social actions do they find engaging – and why? 1) MASTERY What’s the core activity and feedback system? What are players optimizing? What skills are they learning and mastering? What journey are they on? What’s driving them to keep playing? What does it mean to ―play well‖? 2) PROGRESS How will you ―light the way‖ towards mastery? How will players know how to get started, and what to do? How will they know if they’re playing well, or poorly? 3) ENGAGEMENT What activities and events will re-engage players throughout their lifecycle? How do these activities leverage core social actions?
  • 142. Thank You! amyjokim@gmail.com Follow me on Twitter @amyjokim
  • 144. Daniel Pink TWITTER SUMMARY Carrots & sticks are so last century. For 21st century work, we need to upgrade to autonomy, mastery & purpose. COCKTAIL PARTY SUMMARY When it comes to motivation, there’s a gap between what science knows and what business does. Our current business operating system–which is built around external, carrot-and-stick motivators–doesn’t work and often does harm. We need an upgrade. And the science shows the way. This new approach has three essential elements: 1. Autonomy – the desire to direct our own lives. 2. Mastery — the urge to get better and better at something that matters. 3. Purpose — the yearning to do what we do in the service of something larger than ourselves.
  • 145. Tom Chatfield 7 Lessons Learned From Games 1) Progress: Bars, Levels, Points, Badges, Customization – we like to see our progress 2) Missions: Provide multiple long-and-short-term aims for players to tackle 3) Credit: track & reward effort, not just achievement 4) Feedback: tangibly link actions to consequences 5) Surprise: add the Element of Uncertainty to drive and sustain interest 6) People: we're most engaged by people – esp collaborating in groups 7) Engagement: games are perfectly tuned to dole out rewards that engage the brain and keep us questing for more
  • 147. Brian Reynolds Keynote - GDCOnine 2010 TSI, TSO* http://www.gdcvault.com/play/1013798/Bears-and-Snakes-The-Wild In practice, good game design (like all design) = vision + iteration. Start with a good idea, then iterate, experiment, learn & evolve. * Throw Sh*t in, Take Sh*t Out
  • 148. Hearts, Clubs, Diamonds, Spades: Players Who Suit MUDs Richard Bartle, 1996 http://www.mud.co.uk/richard/hcds.htm MDA Framework + 8 Kinds of Fun Marc LeBlanc, Robin Hunicke, Robert Zubeck http://algorithmancy.8kindsoffun.com/ Punished by Rewards Alfie Kohn Web Reputation Systems Randy Farmer