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NOA - Framing China's Olympic Games

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Delivered at the National Olympic Academy meeting in London, UK in March 2008.

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NOA - Framing China's Olympic Games

  1. 1. Framing China’s Olympic Games Public Relations, International Media and the Online Public by Ana Adi
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><li>Channel 4 - Unreported World </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional vs. New Media </li></ul><ul><li>“ China’s Olympic Lie” </li></ul><ul><li>Framing theory </li></ul><ul><li>Framing China’s Olympic Games </li></ul>
  3. 3. Context <ul><li>Olympic media research gaps </li></ul><ul><li>Beijing 2008 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accredited vs. Non-accredited media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local vs. International media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Online or Offline? </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Channel 4 - Unreported World <ul><li>Channel of the Year (2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Profit doubled in 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Demographics: YAYA, early adopter, posh, active </li></ul><ul><li>Dispatches - “China’s Stolen Children” </li></ul><ul><li>“ China Rising” (2007) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Mao’s Children” (1989) </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Tank Man” (1989) </li></ul><ul><li>Unreported World - foreign affairs series </li></ul>
  5. 5. China’s Olympic Lie <ul><li>Uploads: 3 (2 on YouTube and 1 on Veoh.com) </li></ul><ul><li>Total views: 114.082 </li></ul><ul><li>Total comments: 199 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Traditional vs. New Media <ul><ul><li>Technology has created major behavior and lifestyle changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ When news happens it’s common for the first photographs not to be sent via news wire, but posted to a Flickr site.” (Newsweek, April 3, 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beijing 2008: High-Tech Olympics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How should we study the Olympic media? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>answer: increasingly, through new media coverage, but for now, through its convergence </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. China’s Olympic Lie <ul><li>Key Words : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Olympics; Beijing; authorities; petitioners; human rights; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metaphors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxymoron: illegal jail ran by the state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Translator as traitor for helping the UK film crew </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beijing as end point </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exemplars: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>China’s successful bid (2001) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China’s preparations for the upcoming Olympic Games (2008) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Catch phrases: </li></ul><ul><li>the crime is to complain about abuses </li></ul><ul><li>Unhappy petitioners are bad for business </li></ul><ul><li>mosaic of extraordinary and tragic stories </li></ul><ul><li>Depictions: </li></ul><ul><li>Olympic Games as an indirect reason for injustice </li></ul><ul><li>Olympic Games as a show off </li></ul>
  8. 8. China’s Olympic Lie <ul><li>Two groups: Chinese authorities vs. Chinese petitioners </li></ul><ul><li>One reporter: fighter for freedom and justice </li></ul><ul><li>Ideology frames: completely aligned with the dominant ideology </li></ul><ul><li>Function frames: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>defining problems: Olympic Games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>identifying causes: injustice frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>making moral judgments: anti-communist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>suggesting remedies: implied not stated </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Framing theory - a definition “ To frame is to select some aspects of a perceived reality and make them more salient in a communicating text, in such a way as to promote a particular problem definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation and/or treatment recommendation for the item described” (Entman, 1993)
  10. 10. Framing research ideal <ul><li>“ Framing research examines how frames are sponsored by political actors, how journalists employ frames in the construction of news stories, how these stories articulate frames, and how audience members interpret these frames.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Carragee & Roefs, 2004) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Framing theory - advantages <ul><li>Analyze frames as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>macro- and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>micro-concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Study framing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>strategy of constructing and processing news </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>characteristic of the discourse itself </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Framing China’s Olympic Games <ul><li>RQ1. How do international human rights advocacy groups frame China’s human rights? </li></ul><ul><li>RQ.2. How do Chinese authorities frame China’s human rights? </li></ul><ul><li>RQ.3. How do international online news outlets employ the frames sponsored by human rights advocacy groups? </li></ul><ul><li>RQ. 4. How do international online news outlets employ the frames sponsored by human rights advocacy groups? </li></ul><ul><li>RQ.5. How do the stories published on the websites of international mainstream media articulate these frames? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Framing China’s Olympic Games <ul><li>RQ.6. On the same issue, how much weight do major news outlets put on information from Chinese authorities and international organizations when framing the news? </li></ul><ul><li>RQ. 7. As an issue evolves, do this balance of news sources change? </li></ul><ul><li>RQ.8. Does the Olympic event change the way major news outlets frame/report on human rights issues? </li></ul><ul><li>RQ.9. Are viewers able to depict these frames? </li></ul><ul><li>RQ.10. If so, how do they interpret them? </li></ul><ul><li>RQ11. Do viewers concentrate on a frame? If yes, which? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Methodology & Sampling <ul><li>Qualitative assessment of frames </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative content analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variables: ideology & function frames </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advocacy groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amnesty International </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Rights Watch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chinese authorities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BOCOG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BIMC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>UK media: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guardian Unlimited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily Telegraph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BBC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>US media: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The New York Times </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chicago Tribune </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CNN </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The online public </li></ul>
  15. 15. &quot;Western powers started talking about human rights after they had profited enough from colonialism. If China doesn't get the resources to meet the demands of domestic development, which western power will take responsibility of our lives? I therefore support our government to fight for what we need in Africa. Western countries cast blame on us because they failed to get the oil and most western people are misled by the media and think bad things about China. How many of them indeed know that Beijing is in China and are interested to learn about China as Chinese people learn about the West?&quot;
 Rebuild China Source: Channel4.com
  16. 16. Q & A Thank you! Acknowledgments : Dr Andy Miah John Robertson