Research design means the basic outline or blue
print of a research work, which helps to collect the
proper data, to analyze those data to find out a
research out come. Research design can be
considered as the advance planning of a study,
which should be very efficient in nature and should
help the researcher to avoid misleading path to get
the correct conclusion of the study.
3. The research design should include a
What is the study all about?
What is the significance of the study?
Who will be benefited?
When and where the research will be conducted?
4. The research may have four parts….
Sampling design –It deals with the method of
selecting sample to be observed in the research.
Observational design – It relates to the conditions
under which the observation are being made.
5. Statistical design- It concerns with questions of how
many items are to be observed and how the gathered
data is to be analyzed.
Operational design- It deals with the technique by which
the procedure specified in the sampling, statistical and
observational design can be carried out.
6. Elements Of Research Design
Clear statement of research problem
The population to be studied
The sample to be studied
Procedures and techniques to be used for gathering
Methods to be used in processing and analyzing the
7. Features Of A Good Design
Carry an advanced clear picture of the study
Flexible in nature
Efficient in functioning
Economical and affordable to conduct
Well organized for better result
Completion within the time frame
Maximizing reliability of the data
8. Explanation of Key Terms in Research Design
Dependent and Independent variables- Variable means factor. A
variable free from any influence is called dependent variable.
Independent variable always has to depend on the dependent
variable. As height increases due the increase of age. So here the
dependent variable is height and the independent variable is age.
Height depends upon age.
Extraneous variables- All the extra un connected variables other
than dependent and independent variables are called extraneous
9. Control – Control in research always tries to minimize the
influence or effect of extraneous variable for smooth running of
Confounded relationship- When the dependent variable is not
free from the influence of extraneous variable, the relationship
between the dependent and independent variable is said to be
confounded by an extraneous variable. In a nutshell it can be
said the confused relationship may hamper the authentic out
come of the research work
10. Research hypothesis- It is prediction or assumption
on the research out come before doing a study.
Experimental and non experimental hypothesis –
In experimental research hypothesis testing, the
independent variable is manipulated. On the other
hand if independent variable is not manipulated, that
is called non experimental research hypothesis testing
11. Treatments- Here experimental and control
groups are examined.
Experiment- Examining the truth is known as
Experimental units- The predetermined plots,
where different treatments are used.
Principle of replication- The experiments should
be repeated more than once.
Principle of randomization – It is called “chance.
12. Research Design in
Exploratory Research and Descriptive Research
On the basis of statistical design, exploratory is not pre-
planned design for analysis and descriptive is pre-
planned design for analysis.
On the basis of observational design, the exploratory
research uses unstructured instruments for collection of
data and descriptive research uses structured
instruments for collection of data
13. On the basis of sampling design, exploratory research
supports non probability sampling design and descriptive
study supports probability sampling design
On the basis of operational design , no fixed decisions
about the operational procedures is usually taken in
exploratory research and in descriptive study an advance
decision about operational procedures is taken.
14. Types Of Experimental Designs
Informal Experimental Designs
Before- and-after without control design
After-only with control design
Before-and- after with control design
Formal Experimental Designs
Complete randomized design
Randomized block design
Latin square design