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• FRUITS – are fleshy, juicy products of plants that are seed containing. When ripe they are edible without cooking• VEGETABLES - are plants or parts of plants such as roots, tubers, bulbs, stems, leaves, fruits and flowers used raw or cooked, serve generlly with entrée or in salads but as desserts
FRUITS CLASSIFICATION• Berries – small, juicy fruits with thin skins (strawberries, blueberries, cranberries, black berries, grapes)• Drupes – have outer skin covering, a soft flesh fruit ( cherries, peaches, apricots, plums)• Pomes – have a central seed containing core surrounded by a thick layer of flesh (apples, pears and pomes)
• Citrus Fruits – have thick outer rind. A thin membrane separates the flesh into tiny segments (orange, tangerines, grapefruit, lemons)• Melons – large, juicy fruits with thick skins and many seeds. They are in the gourd family (cantaloupe, honeydew, watermelons)• Tropical Fruits – are grown in warm countries and are somewhat exotic (avocados, mangoes, bananas, figs, dates, papaya, pineapples)
• Test fruits for ripeness by pressing it gently.• Under-ripe fruits are in full size but have not yet reached peak eating quality. They are small, have poor color, flavor and texture.• Color & fragrance are guides for ripeness.• Avoid bruised, damaged and immature fruits• Buy the fruits in season fro they are cheaper.
Storing Fresh Fruits• Handle all fruits gently to prevent bruising• Carefully wash and dry them• Under ripe fruits ripen at room temperature• Refrigerate ripe fruits• Use pits with berries, melons, grapes• Apples, pears and citrus cans store longer
Canned, Frozen & Dried FruitsA. Canned Fruits• Can be whole, halved, sliced or in pieces• They come packed in juices or in light syrup, heavy or extra heavy syrup• Choose cans that are free from dents, bulges and leaks• After opening, transfer the fruits to different comntainer with tithly cover.
B. Frozen Fruits• Available sweetened, unsweetened, whole and in pieces. Common frozen fruits are blueberries, raspberries, strawberries , cherries.C. Dried Fruits• Raisins, prunes, dates, apricots are most common dried fruits• They come in boxes or in plastic bags• Choose dried fruits that are fairly soft and pliable.• Store open package in a cool dark, place in tightly covered containers
Preparing Fruits1. Wash fruits carefully under running water2. Never soak fruits in water3. Serve whole or sliced.4. Some fruits tend to darken when exposed to air due to enzymatic browning. Dip the raw fruits in lemon or calamansi juice to prevent browning5. Water or sugar syrup to cook fruits. Baking and broiling may be done. Cook in a small amt of water.
5. Over cooking may result in a mushy texture, an off flavor. Great loss of vitamins & minerals6. Avoid too much sugar7. Serve canned fruits straight from can, drain or serve with syrup or juice8. Dried fruits are usually soak in hot water fro an hour prior to cooking. This process to restore moisture.
Classification Accdg. To Color• Green – contain green pigment called “chlorophyll”, like ampalaya, malunggay• Yellow – contain “carotene” that gives yellow color (carrot, pumpkins)• White – contain pigment called “flavones” (radish, onions, turnips)• Red – contain pigment called “ anthocyanin” ( red beets, red bell peppers, tomatoes)
Guidelines in Selecting Vegetables1. Buy vegetables in season2. Look for good colors, firmness, absence of bruises and decayCooking Frozen, Canned and Dried Vegetables• Frozen – read the cooking instructions in the label• Canned – heated only• Dried – soak before cooking
Cooking Vegetables1. Wash all vegetable thoroughly in running water before cooking.2. Peel vegetables as thinly as possible3. Cut in uniform pieces for even cooking4. Should be cooked in a short time except starcy vegetables like camote, gabi or potatoes5. Never add baking soda to retain color. Avoid over cooking
6. Vegetables cooked in their skins retain more nutrients7. Save the excess liquid, it may be used for sauces, soups and gravies8. Strong flavored vegetables (onion family, cabbage family), leave uncovered to allow the flavors to lessen