2. HUMAN EVOLUTION- is the evolutionary process leading to the appearance of
modern day humans.
HOMO- is used to determine the species of human beings.
HOMONIDS- is the direct ancestors of homo species.
AUSTRALOPITHECUS- is the first definite homonids. They were fully bipedal which
means that they could walk using their two legs.
2 groups of Australopithecus:
1. Gracile Australopithecus- A. Anamensis, A. Afarensis, A. Africanus.
- Australopithecus anamensis was the earliest australopithecine species.
- Autralopithecus afarensis is the most represented australopithecine species.
- Australopithecus africanus was the gracile australopithecine that was discovered.
2. Robust Australopithecus- A. aethiopicus, A. robustus, A. boisei.
- Australopithecus aethiopicus were the earliest and somewhat the least known of
the robust austhralopithecus.
- Australopithecus robustus was a new australopithecine species discovered by
- Australopithecus boisei was discovered by a paleonanthropologist named Louis
Leakey in western Tanzania.
3. HOMO SPECIES
a. Homo habilis- appeared around 2.3 million years ago. It has a larger brain and
reduced the size of molars and premolars to the Australopithecus.
b. Homo rudolfensis- is somehow the same as thee features of homo habilis.
HOMO ERECTUS- was the first hominid species that was distributed in the old
HOMO SAPIENS SAPIENS- appeared 50,000 years ago. It was characterized ass the
4. CULTURAL AND SOCIOPOLITICAL EVOLUTION
NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION/ AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION
- In about 10,000 BCE, humans began to cultivate crops and domesticate certain
animals like sheep, cows, and goats. This was a change from system of hunting
and gathering that have sustained humans and allowed them to survive from the
EARLY CIVILIZATIONS AND THE RISE OF THE STATE
Indus valley in south asia- were the early civilization started.
2 cities of indus valley:
2. Mohenjo- daro
INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION/ HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION
Is the transition to a more democratic political regime.
Is a system of government in which all the people of a state or polity are involved
in making decisions about its affairs, typically by voting to elect representatives
to a parliament or similar assembly.
IT BECAME VERY POPULAR AND MANY COUNTRIES NOW HAVE TRANSITIONED INTO A
DEMOCRATIC POLITICAL SYSTEM BECAUSE OF THE FOUR CAUSES:
a. Wealth or money
b. Social equality
d. Foreign interventions